Serine/threonine-protein kinase D3 (PKD3) or PKC-nu is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKD3gene.
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase can be activated rapidly by the agonists of G protein-coupled receptors. It resides in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and its nuclear accumulation is found to be dramatically enhanced in response to its activation. This kinase can also be activated after B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) engagement, which requires intact phospholipase C gamma and the involvement of other PKC family members.
^Hayashi A, Seki N, Hattori A, Kozuma S, Saito T (Jun 1999). "PKCnu, a new member of the protein kinase C family, composes a fourth subfamily with PKCmu". Biochim Biophys Acta. 1450 (1): 99–106. doi:10.1016/S0167-4889(99)00040-3. PMID10231560.
Schultz SJ, Nigg EA (1994). "Identification of 21 novel human protein kinases, including 3 members of a family related to the cell cycle regulator nimA of Aspergillus nidulans". Cell Growth Differ. 4 (10): 821–30. PMID8274451.
Holmes AM (1996). "In vitro phosphorylation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein by protein kinase C: evidence for the phosphorylation of amino acid residue serine-46". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 335 (1): 8–12. doi:10.1006/abbi.1996.0476. PMID8914829.
Borgatti P, Zauli G, Cantley LC, Capitani S (1998). "Extracellular HIV-1 Tat protein induces a rapid and selective activation of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, and -epsilon and -zeta isoforms in PC12 cells". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 242 (2): 332–7. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.7877. PMID9446795.
Zidovetzki R, Wang JL, Chen P, et al. (1998). "Human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein induces interleukin 6 mRNA expression in human brain endothelial cells via protein kinase C- and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 14 (10): 825–33. doi:10.1089/aid.1998.14.825. PMID9671211.
Mayne M, Holden CP, Nath A, Geiger JD (2000). "Release of calcium from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-regulated stores by HIV-1 Tat regulates TNF-alpha production in human macrophages". J. Immunol. 164 (12): 6538–42. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.164.12.6538. PMID10843712.
Park IW, Wang JF, Groopman JE (2001). "HIV-1 Tat promotes monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 secretion followed by transmigration of monocytes". Blood. 97 (2): 352–8. doi:10.1182/blood.V97.2.352. PMID11154208.
Bennasser Y, Yamina B, Contreras X, et al. (2002). "[HIV-1 Tat protein induces IL-10 production by human monocytes: implications of the PKC and calcium pathway]". J. Soc. Biol. 195 (3): 319–26. PMID11833470.
Bennasser Y, Bahraoui E (2002). "HIV-1 Tat protein induces interleukin-10 in human peripheral blood monocytes: involvement of protein kinase C-betaII and -delta". FASEB J. 16 (6): 546–54. doi:10.1096/fj.01-0775com. PMID11919157.
Dai F, Yu L, He H, et al. (2002). "Human serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase-like kinase (SGKL) phosphorylates glycogen syntheses kinase 3 beta (GSK-3beta) at serine-9 through direct interaction". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 293 (4): 1191–6. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00349-2. PMID12054501.
Efimova T, Deucher A, Kuroki T, et al. (2002). "Novel protein kinase C isoforms regulate human keratinocyte differentiation by activating a p38 delta mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade that targets CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (35): 31753–60. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205098200. PMID12080077.
Bennasser Y, Badou A, Tkaczuk J, Bahraoui E (2003). "Signaling pathways triggered by HIV-1 Tat in human monocytes to induce TNF-alpha". Virology. 303 (1): 174–80. doi:10.1006/viro.2002.1676. PMID12482669.