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ParadigmsMulti-paradigm: procedural, imperative, structured
Designed byRon Morrison, Pete Bailey, Fred Brown, Paul Cockshott, Ken Chisholm, Al Dearle
DeveloperUniversity of St Andrews
University of Edinburgh
First appeared1983; 38 years ago (1983)
Implementation languageS-algol
PlatformICL mainframe computers
Influenced by
ALGOL 60, S-algol

PS-algol is an orthogonally persistent programming language.[1][2]

PS-algol was an extension of the language S-algol implemented by the University of St Andrews and the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. S-algol was designed by Ron Morrison, and extended and by Pete Bailey, Fred Brown, Paul Cockshott, Ken Chisholm, and Al Dearle.

PS-algol was the world's first fully implemented persistent programming language, and had many users both in academia and, notably, in International Computers Limited (ICL) research labs.


PS-algol was conceived by chance, when Ron Morrison was on sabbatical at the University of Edinburgh and met Malcolm Atkinson. Atkinson had been experimenting with persistent programming languages and was struggling to find a coherent model for a persistent Pascal variant. Morrison, whose interest in general-purpose programming had led to the development of S-algol, a general purpose teaching language, realised that S-algol's type system would more easily allow adding orthogonal persistence.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Atkinson, M.P.; Bailey, P.J.; Chisholm, K.J.; Cockshott, W.P.; Morrison, R. (1983). "PS-algol: A Language for Persistent Programming" (pdf). Proceedings 10th Australian National Computer Conference. 10th Australian National Computer Conference. Melbourne, Australia. p. 70–79.
  2. ^ Cockshott, W. Paul (16 January 2006). "Persistent S-algol". School of Computing Science. University of Glasgow. Retrieved 19 November 2019.