The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a protein that inhibits the activation of the proteasome by the 11S and 19S regulators. Alternative transcript variants have been identified for this gene.
Minghetti L, Visentin S, Patrizio M, Franchini L, Ajmone-Cat MA, Levi G (May 2004). "Multiple actions of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 Tat protein on microglial cell functions". Neurochemical Research. 29 (5): 965–78. doi:10.1023/B:NERE.0000021241.90133.89. PMID15139295.
Liou LY, Herrmann CH, Rice AP (Sep 2004). "HIV-1 infection and regulation of Tat function in macrophages". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 36 (9): 1767–75. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2004.02.018. PMID15183343.
Bannwarth S, Gatignol A (Jan 2005). "HIV-1 TAR RNA: the target of molecular interactions between the virus and its host". Current HIV Research. 3 (1): 61–71. doi:10.2174/1570162052772924. PMID15638724.
Gibellini D, Vitone F, Schiavone P, Re MC (Apr 2005). "HIV-1 tat protein and cell proliferation and survival: a brief review". The New Microbiologica. 28 (2): 95–109. PMID16035254.
Hetzer C, Dormeyer W, Schnölzer M, Ott M (Oct 2005). "Decoding Tat: the biology of HIV Tat posttranslational modifications". Microbes and Infection / Institut Pasteur. 7 (13): 1364–9. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2005.06.003. PMID16046164.
Peruzzi F (2006). "The multiple functions of HIV-1 Tat: proliferation versus apoptosis". Frontiers in Bioscience. 11: 708–17. doi:10.2741/1829. PMID16146763.
Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (Apr 1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction". Analytical Biochemistry. 236 (1): 107–13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID8619474.
Seeger M, Ferrell K, Frank R, Dubiel W (Mar 1997). "HIV-1 tat inhibits the 20 S proteasome and its 11 S regulator-mediated activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (13): 8145–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.13.8145. PMID9079628.
Simon JH, Gaddis NC, Fouchier RA, Malim MH (Dec 1998). "Evidence for a newly discovered cellular anti-HIV-1 phenotype". Nature Medicine. 4 (12): 1397–400. doi:10.1038/3987. PMID9846577.
McCutchen-Maloney SL, Matsuda K, Shimbara N, Binns DD, Tanaka K, Slaughter CA, DeMartino GN (Jun 2000). "cDNA cloning, expression, and functional characterization of PI31, a proline-rich inhibitor of the proteasome". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (24): 18557–65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001697200. PMID10764772.
Mulder LC, Muesing MA (Sep 2000). "Degradation of HIV-1 integrase by the N-end rule pathway". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (38): 29749–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M004670200. PMID10893419.
Huang X, Seifert U, Salzmann U, Henklein P, Preissner R, Henke W, Sijts AJ, Kloetzel PM, Dubiel W (Nov 2002). "The RTP site shared by the HIV-1 Tat protein and the 11S regulator subunit alpha is crucial for their effects on proteasome function including antigen processing". Journal of Molecular Biology. 323 (4): 771–82. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00998-1. PMID12419264.