PSR B1257+12 A
|Exoplanet||List of exoplanets|
Size comparison of PSR B1257+12 b with Earth.
|Right ascension||(α)||13h 00m 01s|
|Declination||(δ)||+12° 40′ 57″|
|Semi-major axis||(a)||0.19 AU|
|Orbital period||(P)||25.262 ± 0.003 d|
|Time of periastron||(T0)||2,449,765.6 ± 0.2 JD|
|Mass||(m)||0.020 ± 0.002[note 1] M⊕|
|Discovery date||22 April 1994|
|Discovery method||Pulsar timing|
|Discovery site||United States|
|Open Exoplanet Catalogue||data|
PSR B1257+12 b, alternatively designated PSR B1257+12 A, also named Draugr, is an extrasolar planet approximately 2,300 light-years away in the constellation of Virgo. The planet is the innermost object orbiting the pulsar PSR B1257+12, i.e. a pulsar planet in the dead stellar system. It is about twice as massive as the Moon, and is listed as the least massive planet (with the mass accurately determined) known, including among the planets in the Solar System.
The convention that arose for designating pulsars was that of using the letters PSR (Pulsating Source of Radio) followed by the pulsar's right ascension and degrees of declination. The modern convention prefixes the older numbers with a B meaning the coordinates are for the 1950.0 epoch. All new pulsars have a J indicating 2000.0 coordinates and also have declination including minutes. Pulsars that were discovered before 1993 tend to retain their B names rather than use their J names, but all pulsars have a J name that provides more precise coordinates of its location in the sky.
On its discovery, the planet was designated PSR 1257+12 A and later PSR B1257+12 A. It was discovered before the convention that extrasolar planets receive designations consisting of the star's name followed by lower-case Roman letters starting from "b" was established. However, it is listed under the latter convention on astronomical databases such as SIMBAD and the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. Hence the designation PSR B1257+12 b.
In July 2014 the International Astronomical Union launched a process for giving proper names to certain exoplanets and their host stars. The process involved public nomination and voting for the new names. In December 2015, the IAU announced the winning name was Draugr for this planet. The winning name was submitted by the Planetarium Südtirol Alto Adige in Karneid, Italy. Draugr refers to undead creatures in Norse mythology.
- The value of the inclination is assumed to be 50° based on the inclinations of the other two planets in the system, which have inclinations of 53° and 47° respectively. The quoted mass value is based on this assumed inclination.
- Yan, Zhen; et al. (2013). "Very long baseline interferometry astrometry of PSR B1257+12, a pulsar with a planetary system". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 433: 162–169. Bibcode:2013MNRAS.433..162Y. doi:10.1093/mnras/stt712.
- Konacki, M.; Wolszczan, A. (2003). "Masses and Orbital Inclinations of Planets in the PSR B1257+12 System". The Astrophysical Journal. 591 (2): L147–L150. arXiv:astro-ph/0305536. Bibcode:2003ApJ...591L.147K. doi:10.1086/377093.
- Dumé, Belle (11 February 2005). "Astronomers find smallest exoplanet". PhysicsWeb. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
- Lyne, Andrew G.; Graham-Smith, Francis. Pulsar Astronomy. Cambridge University Press, 1998.
- Hessman, F. V.; Dhillon, V. S.; Winget, D. E.; Schreiber, M. R.; Horne, K.; Marsh, T. R.; Guenther, E.; Schwope, A.; Heber, U. (2010). "On the naming convention used for multiple star systems and extrasolar planets". arXiv:1012.0707 [astro-ph.SR].
- NameExoWorlds: An IAU Worldwide Contest to Name Exoplanets and their Host Stars. IAU.org. 9 July 2014
- NameExoWorlds The Process
- Final Results of NameExoWorlds Public Vote Released, International Astronomical Union, 15 December 2015.
- The Proposals page for Mu Arae, International Astronomical Union, 2016-01-03.
- NameExoWorlds The Approved Names
- Wolszczan, A. (1994). "Confirmation of Earth Mass Planets Orbiting the Millisecond Pulsar PSR B1257+12" (PDF). Science. 264 (5158): 538–542. Bibcode:1994Sci...264..538W. doi:10.1126/science.264.5158.538. PMID 17732735. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20.
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PSR B1257+12 C
| Least massive known exoplanet