PT-91 Twardy

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PT-91 "Twardy"
PT91 Twardy MSPO09.jpg
TypeMain battle tank
Place of originPoland
Service history
Used bySee Users
Production history
No. builtAround 285[2]
Mass45.9 tonnes
Length6.95 m (9.67 with barrel in forward position)[3]
Width3.59 m[3]
Height2.19 m[3]

Armorcomposite armour; front and side armor laminated; front, side and top armor behind Erawa-1/Erawa-2 ERA, steel side anti-cumulative screens
1 × 125 mm 2A46 (D-81TM) gun (42 rounds)[4]
1 × 7.62mm PKT coaxial general-purpose machine gun (2,000 rounds)
1 × 12.7 mm NSVT heavy machine gun (300 rounds)[3]
EnginePZL-Wola S-12U diesel
850 hp (634 kW)
Power/weight18.5 hp/tonne (13.8 kW/tonne)
Ground clearance395 mm[3]
Fuel capacity1,000 L[3]
650 km (700 km with extra fuel tanks)[5]
Maximum speed 60 km/h[3]
PT-91M "Pendekar"
Kereta kebal atm.jpg
PT-91M "Pendekar" of Malaysian Army on display
TypeMain battle tank
Place of originPoland
Service history
Used by Malaysia
Mass48.5 tonnes [6]
Length6.86 m[6]
(10.03 m with barrel in forward position)[6]
Width3.70 m [6]
Height2.60 m [6]

Armorcomposite armour; front and side armor laminated; front, side and top armor behind Erawa-1/Erawa-2 ERA, steel side anti-cumulative screens
1 × 125 mm 2A46MS gun (40 rounds)[6]
1 × 7.62mm FN MAG coaxial general-purpose machine gun (2,000 rounds),
1 x 12.7 mm FN M2 HB anti-aircraft heavy machine gun (250 rounds)[6]
EnginePZL-Wola S-1000R diesel
1,000 hp (735 kW)[6]
Power/weight20.6 hp/t (16 kW/t)
TransmissionAutomatic RENK-SESM/ESM-350M[6]
Ground clearance395 mm[6]
Maximum speed 70 km/h [6]

The PT-91 Twardy (Polish pronunciation: [ˈtfar.dɨ]) ("Tough") is a Polish main battle tank. A development of the T-72M1, it first entered service in 1995. The PT-91 was designed at the OBRUM (OBRUM for Ośrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Urządzeń MechanicznychPolish for Research and Development Centre for Mechanical Appliances) and is produced by the Bumar Łabędy company,[7] a part of the Bumar Group,[8] a Polish technical military consortium. Changes from the T-72 include a new dual-axis stabilized fire-control system, reactive armour, a more powerful engine, transmission and new automatic loader.

Unlike many other T-72 upgrades, the Polish Army PT-91s are upgraded using elements created almost exclusively by domestic companies, including a new engine, the fire control system and all communication system elements. Many of those elements were used to upgrade existing fleets of T-72 tanks in countries including the Czech Republic (T-72M4 CZ), Georgia (T-72SIM-1), and India (T-72 Ajeya Mk. 2). A total of 232 PT-91 tanks were delivered to the Polish Land Forces: 92 newly built vehicles and 140 from refurbished T-72A and T-72M1 tanks designated PT-91M1 and PT-91MA1, respectively.


In the late 1980s, the Polish Army modernized all of its obsolete T-55 tanks to the T-55AM Mérida standard. The successful conversion convinced the General Staff that similar modernization could also be applied to other Soviet-designed tanks made in Poland and used by the Polish Armed Forces. In late 1988 it was decided to prepare a project of modernization for the T-72M1 design – using the experience from the production of licensed T-72M (obiekt 172M-E3 – Polish army designation T-72), T-72M1 (obiekt 172M-E5), T-72M1K (Polish army designation T-72M1D).

POD-72 commanders sight

The Gliwice-based Research and Development Centre of Mechanical Systems OBRUM (Polish: Ośrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Urządzeń Mechanicznych) was chosen as the main design bureau. However, initially, the work progressed at a very slow pace, mainly because the Polish General Staff was also considering the purchase of a newer version of T-72 (T-72S) or the modern T-80.

After the political changes of 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet bloc, Polish-Soviet talks on purchase of modern tanks came to a halt and the design of a new Polish tank gained momentum. The first design proposed by the bureau was code-named Wilk (Polish for wolf), but the project was canceled. Instead, the priority was shifted to a different project named Twardy. The basic aim of the conversion of T-72 was to adapt it to the reality of modern warfare and fix its most visible deficiencies. Among those were low mobility, insufficient armour, lack of a fire control system and poor stabilisation of the main gun, which resulted in poor firing accuracy. An additional problem was the lack of passive night vision aiming systems.


Starting from July 1991 T-72 modernization programs were implemented by the Bumar-Labedy factory which had been producing T-72s under Soviet license. The modernized main battle tank was designated PT-91 Twardy. From base modification, it differs in increased protection, fire control system and engine. In 1993 the Polish Defense Ministry ordered 20 PT-91 tanks to be used for field trials and Armed Forces tests.

Driver's control panel US-DK-1.

The main battle tank's protection from high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) projectiles and missiles is increased by the new Erawa dynamic armor developed by the Poland Military-Technical Institute. This protection consists of 394 tiles with explosives, detonating in case of a direct hit. The tiles cover 9 m2 on the tank. 108 tiles are placed on the turret, 118 on the hull and 84 on each side's anti-HEAT screens. The Twardy uses steel anti-HEAT screens instead of the rubber used on the T-72. Erawa's main difference from the Soviet analogs is that Erawa's containers fit almost without gaps while on the Soviet modernized T-72 gaps reach 10–15 mm noticeably decreasing defense effectiveness. There are two Erawa modifications: Erawa-1 and -2, differing in weight of the explosives.

Experiments showed that the Erawa dynamic defense decreases the high-explosive jet impact depth by 50–70% and penetrator (APFSDS) projectiles by 30–40%. Furthermore, explosive containers do not detonate when hit by a shot of up to 30 mm calibre or by shell or mine fragments, or when covered in burning napalm or petrol.

The Twardy is armed with the same 125 mm smoothbore gun 2A46 used in the T-72, fitted with an automatic reloading mechanism which reduced the tank crew by one as it replaced the gun loader, and gave a rate of fire of 8 to 10 rounds per minute. Additional armament comprises the 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general-purpose machine gun and 12.7 mm NSVT anti-aircraft heavy machine gun. The PT-91 has a thermosmoke device generating smoke screens from fuel and 24 grenade launchers fitted with smoke, anti-personnel frag or tear gas grenades developed specifically to provide a non-lethal protection.

The modernization of the fire control system started by replacing the earlier used Soviet two plane stabilizer 2Є28M with a new stabilizer developed in Slovakia. It has an electronic information block showing the tank's technical condition. Furthermore, it informs the commander when the effective sighted fire becomes ineffective because of an excessively high cross-country speed or other reasons.

Drawa fire control system

The Drawa fire control system, developed by Polish engineers, contains the gunner's day sight PCD and the TES thermovision night sight developed by the Israeli company El-Op, the commander's combined day-night passive observation and aiming sight POD-72, a ballistic computer, a laser rangefinder and a data system processing information for the ballistic computer. The sighting of the ballistic computer depends on the target's speed, weather conditions, projectile temperature, and projectile type.

The driver uses the control and diagnostic complex US-DK-1 controlling the tank's main systems and displaying information on a monitor. The driver's night sight was replaced by the Radomka passive night sight.

The modernized tank's increased weight led the developers to add a more powerful engine. It is a 12-cylinder S-12U diesel engine, a modernized version of the Soviet V-46-6 produced in Warsaw by PZL-Wola (850 hp instead of 780). The main improvement is the modernized fuel and air injection system. This caused a noticeable decrease in the tank's road endurance. The latest Twardy variants have the 1,000 hp S-1000 engine with a turbocharger.


PT-91 Twardy[edit]

Production variant for Polish Army, extensively modernized development of T-72M1. Most of the vehicles are equipped with SKO-1M Drawa-1T dual-axis stabilized fire control system (with TES – Thermal Elbow Sight – total number of delivered thermal sights is 202[9]) though some early production vehicles have a SKO-1 Drawa (with NV sight), Erawa reactive armour, a PCO SSC-1 Obra-1 laser-warning system and 850 hp PZL-Wola S-12U engine.[10] The first 20 initial production vehicles were delivered to Polish Land Forces in 1993–1994 with another 78 full-scale production vehicles delivered 1995–1997, 135 modernized T-72M1 tanks (made in late 80s) delivered 1998–2002. Both new and modernized tanks have the same combat capabilities.[10] Depending exact configuration Polish Army uses PT-91s in 3 variants PT-91, PT-91M and PT-91MA1.[11]

PT-91A Twardy[edit]

Development variant with PZL-Wola S-1000 1,000 hp engine with mechanic transmission and number of other minor changes. Used for trials and as a demonstrator on military exhibitions.

PT-91Z Hardy[edit]

(Z for Zmodernizowany – literally Modernized) Further development with SAGEM Savan-15 fire control system; according to live fire tests Savan-15 has an only minor advantage in accuracy over Drawa.[12] The biggest advantage was a new gun stabilization system that gave the tank a significant increase in accuracy when the tank is on the move. Later it was used as a base to develop the PT-91M. This variant has won a number of stress tests in Malaysia over T-90, T-84 and K1 tanks, and has won the competition for a new Malaysian MBT. Only one prototype was made.

PT-91M Pendekar[edit]

(M for Malaysia) — production export variant for Malaysia with Sagem Savan-15 fire control system, a new 1,000 hp powerpack with Renk automatic transmission bringing its top speed to 70 km/h. Its main gun has been changed to a ZTS 2A46MS 125 mm gun, a 7.62 mm FN MAG coaxial machine gun and a 12.7 mm FN Browning M2 HB AA machine gun. This variant is also equipped with Sagem panoramic sight, a Sagem laser gyro inertial navigation system, turret stabilisation system, Obra-3 laser-warning system, integrated with 81 mm smoke grenade launchers, CBRN warning and protection system, Thales communication systems. ERAWA 2 Explosive Reactive Armour, and German-made tank tracks (Diehl Defence). Two prototypes made (renamed PT-91E and PT-91Ex), 48 serial PT-91M Malaj vehicles produced 2007–2009.[6][13]

PT-91E on Bumar's exposition


(E for Export) – renamed prototypes of PT-91M used as demonstrators of the export variant shown at military exhibitions. PT-91E is a first prototype initially named SP1 (it is the same vehicle as was shown on military parade in Kuala Lumpur in 2005), PT-91Ex is a second prototype named SP2.[6] Both vehicles faced a number of tests in Malaysia. SP1 was used for traction tests and has been driven 7000 km offroad in Malaysia, SP2 achieved 2000 km with 500 firings of the main cannon.[10] PT-91Ex is very similar to PT-91M, offered for export to other countries.


(P for Peru) – Demonstrator for SITDEF Peru'2009 military exhibition. A cheaper alternative to PT-91Ex. This variant is equipped with newest PCO Drawa-TG fire control system with a thermal sight and modern communication system (Radmor RRC9310 radio, WB Electronics Fonet-IP communication system and Teldat battlefield management system). The vehicle was shown at a number of South American events including SITDEF Peru'2009 Expo.[14][15][16]

PT-72U / PT-91U / PT-91EU[edit]

(U for Urbanizowany – Tank to fight in urbanized terrain) – Demonstrator for MSPO 2011 military exhibition. This is an offer for the Polish Army which involves certain modifications of the T-72 and PT-91 tanks. The modification includes installation of additional equipment, as remote-controlled cannon with an optical system, an omnidirectional observation system, add-on armour, and further engineering equipment. For the weapons systems, the PT-72U is equipped with a remote controlled weapon station armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun mounted to the crew commander hatch. The system had a fire rotation of 360° and an elevation angle for the gun from -5° to 55°. The observation system is equipped with 8 day-night cameras with the observation angle 55° and a rotary passive camera FLIR which has up to 26 times optical zoom. The armour package is composed by chassis and turret bar armour. The bottom of the chassis is equipped with reactive armour and add-on armour. The PT-72U is also equipped with a full range of new modern internal and external communication tools, which allow communication also via the internet.[17] There were also plans to modernize 84 Armenian T-72s to PT-72U standard.[18]


Further development introduced in 2016. Upgrades include improved armor, armament, and mobility. The hull armor and cast turret have been upgraded with add-on composite armor equivalent to up to 1000mm RHA (rolled homogenous armor), supplied by Germany. The protection can also be improved with Polish ERAWA explosive reactive armor. The 125mm smoothbore cannon has been replaced with a 120mm smoothbore cannon compatible with NATO ammunition and uses a carousel-type autoloader. This autoloader is separate from the crew compartment, where the T-72 autoloader was located. The manned 12.7mm machine gun has been upgraded to be remotely operated. Other improvements include an upgraded fire control system. The tank is proposed to be fitted with a new engine, options for which include an unspecified Serbian turbocharged diesel, a German 1088 hp, Serbian V46-TK, and potential, to be developed, 1200 hp engines. Other improvements include rubber skirts covering the lower hull and the tracks, and new tracks based on those found on German Leopard 2s, which can be fitted with deep wading kits to allow it to ford water obstacles up to 13 feet (4 meters) deep. The upgrade can be applied to both PT-91s and T-72M1s, of which Poland has a total of 823 (233 PT-91s, 120 active T-72M1s, and 470 reserve T-72M1s). The vehicle did not enter mass production.[19]


The main goals of the PT-17 tank were to increase firepower and fire maneuverability, increase mobility and survivability on the battlefield, improve crew comfort and increase mission duration. The Demonstrator was developed in cooperation with Ukrainian companies that supplied the tank turret. The PT-17's power range includes a S1000R ESM-350M engine and a reinforced suspension. In addition, DIEHL rubber tracks are used. Among the chassis equipment included: auxiliary power generator (APU), air conditioning, new steering system with shuttlecock and day/night reversing camera PCO KDN-1 Nyks.

As already mentioned, the tank turret is a Ukrainian construction. The Ukrainian KBM-2 smooth 120mm cannon with a barrel length of L50 and a 22mm ammunition charge unit mounted in the niche of the turret. The total ammunition capacity of the tank is 50 shells. The car's armament is supplemented by a 7.62 mm caliber machine gun and a remotely mounted ZSMU-1276 armament module manufactured by Zakłady Mechaniczne "Tarnów" S.A. The turret was also equipped with stabilized sight-and-sight optics, GOC-1 Nike and GOD-1 Iris from PCO S.A and BMS. Optionally, the manufacturer advises on the use of Safran's VIGY-15 panoramic day-observation device.

Survival of the tank on the battlefield is expected to increase the additional composite armor of both the hull and the turret, as well as the installed PCO SSP-1 OBRA-3 universal self-propelled vehicle system and two 6-gun intermittent grenade launchers.

Installed on the demonstrator systems are obviously just an example of the possibilities. Ultimately, they can be configured according to the needs of the potential recipient.[20]


Although PT-91M2's PT-91M2 modernization objectives are the same as PT-17, the range of PT-91M2 varies considerably. The S-12U engine is powered by an 850-horsepower engine with the enhanced mechanical transmission (Cx version). Tracks also come with rubber overlays but developed by OBRUM / BUMAR. Like the PT-17, reinforced suspension (torsion shafts, shock absorbers, and elastomer bumpers) are used. Among the chassis, equipment included the auxiliary power generator (APU), the modernized rotary car charger, the night vision driver PNK-72 "Radomka" and the night-time reversing camera PCO KDN-1 Nyks. Hull protection provides the ERAWA III reactive armor and rod armor at the rear of the chassis.

The increase in firepower is planned to be achieved by installing a 125 mm 2M46MS caliber Slovak cannon and the length of the L48 barrel. Inside the turret also changed the location of the second round of ammunition. Significant, the PT-91M2 demonstrated SAVAN-15 French fire control system (SAVAN-15) from Safran (previously used in PT-91M tanks in Malaysia). A TKN-3z night vision mount is also available for the commander. Among the equipment, PT-91M2 is also the SOD Observation System, the universal PCO SSP-1 OBRA-3 vehicle self-propelled system (both PCO S.A.) and two modules, each with 12 smoke grenades 902A. Additional protection for the turret also includes ERAWA reactive armor modules.[20]

Related vehicles[edit]


Polish Army WZT-3M.

WZT is the acronym of for Wóz Zabezpieczenia Technicznego literally Technical Support Vehicle: it indicates a family of armoured recovery vehicles based on the PT-91/T-72 tank hull, with over 400 vehicles delivered to the clients. It is armed with a 12.7 mm (12 in) machine-gun fitted to the commander's hatch. Standard equipment includes: crane with telescopic jib that can lift a maximum load of fifteen tonnes, front-mounted stabilizing dozer blade, main and secondary winches.

  • WZT-3 – A T-72 based variant for Polish Army – 20 vehicles.
  • WZT-3M – A PT-91 based variant for Polish Army – 9 new vehicles and 20 WZT-3 upgraded to this standard.
  • M-84AI – A M-84A based variant, made on licence in Yugoslavia – 15 vehicles for Kuwait
  • ARV-3 – A T-72 based variant for Indian Army – 352 vehicles made
  • WZT-4[21] – A PT-91M based variant for Malaysian Army (technically this vehicle is closely related to MID-M) – 6 vehicles
Polish Army MID

MID Bizon-S[edit]

(MID for Maszyna Inżynieryjno-Drogowa – lit. Engineering-Roading Machine; Bizon is Polish for Bison) – Polish engineering tank based on the PT-91 tank hull.

  • MID – A PT-91 based variant for Polish Army – 8 vehicles
  • MID-M – A PT-91M based variant for Malaysian Army – 3 vehicles


(PMC for Pomocniczy Most Czołgowy – lit. Auxiliary Tank Bridge) – Polish Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge is a close support bridge layer. The PMC-90, developed on the basis of PT-91, is able to carry out missions required to operations of combat forces.

  • PMC-90 – PT-91 based prototype vehicle with MLC-60 bridge. Not adopted.
  • PMC-Leguan – PT-91M based variant for Malaysia equipped with the 26 m (87 ft) long MLC 60 Leguan bridge system. 5 vehicles for Malaysia.
  • MG-20 Daglezja-G[22] (MG for Most Gąsienicowy – lit. Tracked Bridge) – a tracked bridge system, based on a lengthened T-72 chassis with one additional road wheel, equipped with a MLC-70 bridge system. Closely related to a truck based MS-20 Daglezja. Currently in development phase, it is expected to replace a T-55 based BLG-67M bridges in Polish Army.

PZA Loara[edit]

The PZA (Przeciwlotniczy Zestaw Artyleryjski, meaning "AA Artillery System"; “Loara” means “Loire” in Polish) is an armored self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery system developed in the late 1990s. Based around the Twardy chassis, this system mounts an armoured turret holding two Oerlikon KDA 35 mm cannons linked to a radar fire control system. It was planned that it would work closely together with PZR “Loara” (anti-aircraft rocket system) vehicles built on the basis of the PZA Loara but that project is currently on hold. The Loara is an autonomous fire unit capable of performing its tasks independently or acting as a component of a wider air defense system. The system has two radars, 3D search radar and engagement radar. The search radar has a range of 26 km (16 mi) and is capable of tracking and identifying up to 64 targets at once. The radar system can also be operated on the move, refreshing its data every second. The system also has a laser range-finder, TV and FLIR cameras giving the system both all-weather day/night capabilities and the ability to operate entirely passively in a heavy ECM environment. The system also has a reaction time less than 10 seconds. The system can engage aircraft flying at altitudes from very low altitudes up to 5,000 m (16,500 ft), and flying at speeds up to 500 m/s (1,125 mph). It is also effective against infantry, lightly armored ground and naval targets.


SJ-09 is one of the elements of the T-72 and PT-91 crew training system. The system is composed of both trainers teaching crew trainees how to operate different systems of the tank and simulators allowing training more advanced situations.[23] For example, the SJ-02 is used tech how to load the main gun. SJ-09 is the driver training vehicle used to train drivers in operating of the vehicle as big and heavy as main battle tank. The vehicle itself is a tank chassis that have turret replaced with instructor station. All unnecessary equipment (like side skirts) was removed, the vehicle have a dummy main gun that obstructs drivers view (like in the real tank). Vehicles used by the Polish Army were rebuilt from the few original T-72 Ural in Polish inventory delivered from Soviet Union; another vehicle was built new for Malaysian Army as a part of PT-91M order.

PT-94 Goryl[edit]

(Goryl is Polish for Gorilla) – project of a Polish main battle tank designed using experience gained on PT-91 project. The tank would be similar in its design to Merkava (engine at front), and it would feature redesigned engine, transmission and fire control system. Armor: composite + ERA, main armament: 120/125 mm gun, 60 mm mortar, secondary armament: 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun, 12.7 mm NSWT AA machine gun, crew: 3. This program was also known under the name Anders. The program was canceled at an early stage.

PT-97 Gepard[edit]

The Gepard (Polish for Cheetah), sometimes known as PT-2001, is another modification project of a Polish main battle tank prepared as future modernisation programme for T-72 family, the programme was called for, as first PT-91 proposition fell below requirements. Two propositions were submitted, one by Bumar which provided a project with modified frontal armor, different mortar and sporting Leclerc–like a turret with the 2A46 main gun. OBRUM's competing project had new front and sides reactive armor and L-44 main gun.

Despite considerable improvements, neither was approved for financial reasons, and no prototypes were built, however, design experience helped with new PT-91 versions.

Krab howitzer.


The Krab (Polish for Crab) is a 155 mm self-propelled howitzer designed by HSW S.A. combining OBRUMs UPG-NG chassis (a heavily modified variant of the SPG-1M vehicle) which utilizes only a handful of components from the PT-91 program such as the road wheels, suspension and S-12U power plant, with a licensed AS-90M Braveheart turret armed with a 52-calibre gun and WB Electronics Artillery Fire Control System Topaz. In 2014 however, this configuration of the Krab was abandoned due to manufacturing flaws (microfractures detected in the welded steel plates of the vehicle), numerous reliability concerns related to the automotive performance of the chassis and the loss of the Polish manufacturing line for the S-12U engine, and ultimately replaced by the Korean-made K9 tracked chassis.[24]

Operational history[edit]


233 PT-91s were delivered between 1995 and 2002 (232 vehicles remain in service, the early prototype is preserved in the Land Forces Training Center museum in Poznań) and 38 support vehicles based on the T-72/PT-91 hull (29 WZT-3M armoured recovery vehicles, 8 MID engineering tank and 1 prototype PZA Loara self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon).

Number of PT-91s delivered to Polish Land Forces each year[25]
1995–1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
58 58 7 33 50 20 7
PT-91 Twardy from 1st Armored Brigade on military parade in Warsaw.

Units equipped with PT-91 Twardy:

Former units equipped with PT-91 Twardy:

At the introduction of PT-91, the intention of Polish General Staff was to equip all brigades of 11th Armored Cavalry Division with PT-91, at the time the division had 4 brigades: 10th Armored Cavalry, 15th Armored Cavalry, 17th Mechanized, and 34th Armored Cavalry.

In 2002, 10th Armored Cavalry received Leopard 2A4 tanks donated to Poland by Germany, in 2007 the 15th Armored Cavalry was disbanded and the 17th Mechanized received the first KTO Rosomak. All these changes allowed the reallocation of PT-91s to other divisions, replacing the oldest T-72s. In early 2014, the 34th Brigade from Żagań received the first Leopard 2A5 tanks, shifting its PT-91 to the 9th Brigade in Braniewo, previously using T-72M1.

A typical Polish PT-91 tank battalion equipped with 58 tanks is composed of 4 frontline companies with 14 vehicles in each and 2 tanks for the battalion commander and battalions second in command. Every company of 14 tanks is composed of three platoons with 4 tanks in each and 2 tank for the company commander and companys second in command.


PT-91M Pendekar of the Malaysian Army on display.

In 2007–2009 Bumar Łabędy delivered to Malaysia 48 PT-91M and 15 support vehicles (6 WZT-4 {WZT-91M} armoured recovery vehicle, 3 MID-M {MID-91M} engineering tank, 5 PMC Leguan {PMC-91M} - armoured vehicle-launched bridge and one SJ-09 driver training tank), ammo, spares and support for US$370 million.[6][13] Operating capability since 1 September 2010.[27][28]

Number of PT-91M delivered to Malaysian Land Forces each year[29]
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
SP1 prototype for trials SP2 prototype for trials 6 24 18 + 15 support vehicles

Units equipped with PT-91M:

Rejimen ke-11 KAD is the sole user of PT-91M in the Malaysian Army.


In April 1999, India ordered 44 WZT-3 armored recovery vehicles, which were followed by another two orders in April 2002 (80 vehicles), and in July 2005 (228 vehicles) for a total of 352 WZT-3, armored recovery vehicles ordered. These vehicles are used to support the T-72 and T-90 MBT.[29] Deliveries began in 2001, and India is planning to upgrade its Ajeya Mk1 tanks (local name for T-72M1) to Ajeya Mk2 standard, with some elements from PT-91, such as the Drawa-TE1 fire control system and the PZL-Wola S-1000 engine.[citation needed] In October 2011, Indian Defense Ministry announced that the state-owned BEML will produce an additional 204 WZT-3 armored recovery vehicles – taking the total till 2011 to 556 vehicles.[30] The Ministry also clarified that no Global Tender was floated since it was a repeat order.


Georgian army upgraded T-72SIM-1 tanks are using Drawa-T fire control system, a development of the fire control system on PT-91. The FCS is equipped with laser range finder and thermal imaging sensor. The system is slightly different from the one used on Polish PT-91s, commander is using an LCD screen instead of the eyepiece. The Thermal Elbow Sight thermal imaging sensor used in Georgian tanks is of the same (Israeli) origin as the one used on PT-91 but the external housing is different.[31]


Operators of PT-91

Current operators[edit]

48 PT-91M Pendekar

92 PT-91
27 PT-91MA
113 PT-91MA1

Failed bids[edit]

  •  Peru: Was proposed to the Peruvian Army to replace their T-55s, but was not selected.[4]


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