Kereta Api Indonesia
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (May 2013)|
|PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero)|
|Locale||Java and Sumatra|
|Dates of operation||1945–present|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (Standard gauge)
1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) (Cape gauge)
750 mm (2 ft 5 1⁄2 in)
|Length||5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi)|
|Website||Official website of Indonesian Railways Co
The Indonesian Railways Co. (Indonesian: PT Kereta Api Indonesia [Persero]) is the major operator of public railways in Indonesia. It is completely owned by the government and pays track access charges to the government. One of its subsidiaries, PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ), is operating electrified commuter service in Jakarta metropolitan area from August 14, 2008.
- 1 History
- 2 Trackage
- 3 Rolling stock
- 4 Shops and facilities
- 5 Assets
- 6 Legislation
- 7 Named passenger trains
- 8 Disability wagons
- 9 Cargo
- 10 Library wagon
- 11 Joint operation
- 12 Heritage sites
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) is the modern incarnation of a long line of successive state railway companies dating from Dutch colonial days.
Indonesia gained independence in 1945, the separate systems (except the Deli Railway) were combined into the Djawatan Kereta Api. Non-state railway systems in Java retained their paper existence until 1958, when all railway lines in Indonesia were nationalised, including the Deli Railway, thereby creating the Perusahaan Negara Kereta Api (PNKA: Indonesian State Railway Corporation).
On 15 September 1971 PNKA was reorganised into Perusahaan Jawatan Kereta Api (Indonesian Railways Corporation), then reorganised into Perumka (Perusahaan Umum Kereta Api: Public Railway Corporation) on 2 January 1991. Perumka was transformed into PT Kereta Api (Persero) on 1 June 1999. Since 2010 the name of PT Kereta Api was changed into PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) till now.
The headquarters of the state railway system, are located in Bandung, West Java.
In 2014, PT Kereta Api carried 300 million passengers and 30 million tonnes cargo a year. The prediction is it will be doubled in 5 years.
The total number of trackage laid in Indonesia was 7,583 kilometres (4,712 mi), although not all lines were in operation at the same time. In 1939, the total operational trackage was 4,588 kilometres (2,851 mi) (It is unclear whether dual gauge tracks were counted once or twice). The present extent of the railways is now 5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi), with the Aceh system, most of the West Sumatra system and most former steam tram lines disused, but including new tracks built alongside old tracks (double tracking projects).
Much of the branch lines constructed in the colonial era has been lifted up or abandoned in the 1980s. No major railway construction has since taken place, however, many of the busiest lines have been double tracked. The northern coast line of Java would be double tracked completely in May 2014 after completion of 68 kilometers Babat-Kandangan-Pasar Turi double trackage from 727 kilometers of Jakarta-Surabaya double tracked, following by the proposed completion of a 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) double tracking project on the southern line by 2015.
Significant projects being considered include:
- Redoubling Manggarai-Cikarang line (adding two more tracks to the present two). The project will be divided into 2 segments: Manggarai-Bekasi, 15 kilometers long and scheduled to be finished in 2016 and Bekasi-Cikarang, 17 kilometers long scheduled to be finished in 2017
- Airport line to the Sukarno-Hatta International Airport. A 33 kilometers line from Manggarai, Dukuh Atas in Sudirman, Tanah Abang, Angke, Pluit and inline with airport toll road to the Airport. The cost will be $1.13 billion start at 2012 and complete at 2014.
- Rebuilding of the Aceh railway, with assistance from the French railway company
- Building new 15-kilometres-long track between Cibungur and Tanjungrasa station. This shortcut will makes trains from Bandung to Semarang v.v. do not need through Cikampek station.
Future expansion plans of the railway will include linking of existing railway lines in Sumatra from Aceh to Lampung via both west and east coasts of the island. Railway lines are also planned to be built on the currently railway-less islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed to build railway around Bali with length of 565 kilometers. Nowadays, the Sulawesi first trackage 143 kilometers from Makassar to Pare-pare has been initialized with 30 kilometers of land acquisitions and initial construction will be built in June 2015, then 70 kilometers in 2016 and the rest 43 kilometers in 2017. The train is predicted runs in 2018 with trackage wider than in Java to accommodate more weigh and speed. The schedule for Pare-pare to Manado trackage will be completed in 5 years after it.
There are also plans to reactivate non-operational railway lines in West Java, such as Bandung-Ciwidey line, intended to ease road traffic congestion; and Rancaekek-Tanjung Sari line. 4 other non-operational lines are still in consideration.
Kedungjati-Tuntang trackage as a part of Semarang-Ambarawa reactivated trackage is the only trackage in Indonesia without crossing with roads. It has 8 fly overs or underpasses to make more safety in congested traffic roads, now still underconstruction.
As of 2004, PT Kereta Api Indonesia operates:
- 74 diesel multiple units
- 253 electric multiple units
- 846 revenue passenger cars
- 65 non-revenue passenger cars (baggage-generator and dining cars)
- 3,214 freight wagons
PT Kereta Api Indonesia is a major customer of the local railway equipment industry, PT Industri Kereta Api (INKA), by using passenger coaches, freight wagons and electric multiple units made by the Madiun-based company.
PT Kereta Api Indonesia's diesel-electric locomotives are mostly made in United States or Canada, while the diesel-hydraulics are mostly German. Electric multiple units are mostly Japanese-built. Local industry is capable of building multiple units, both diesel and electric.
All locomotives of the PT Kereta Api Indonesia (with the exception of steam locomotives for tourist trains in Ambarawa) are diesel-engined. Most new locomotives use electric transmission, while older and lighter ones have hydraulic transmission. A total of 451 locomotives are in the books, but the actual number of operational locomotives is smaller. A 2004 source mentions 374 operational locomotives. The oldest locomotive in the system dates from 1953.
The numbering scheme of locomotives dated from the Japanese occupation, using a combination of letters and numbers. A letter or a combination of letters is used to denote the wheel arrangement (currently there are C, D, BB and CC types), and a three-digit number is used to denote the class (20x for classes with electric transmission and 30x for classes with hydraulic or mechanical transmission), starting from 0. A two- or three-digit number shows the individual number, starting from 01.
- D301 70: the 70th member of the second class of D type diesel-hydraulic locomotive
- CC203 13: the 13th member of the fourth class of diesel electric locomotives with Co-Co wheel arrangement
The steam locomotive classification was directly derived from Japanese practice. Tank locomotives were numbered from the 10's, while tender locomotives from the 50's. Letter combinations were used for articulated locomotives (in the case of Indonesia these were Mallets).
Electric locomotives in Indonesia had always been a minority, and no new electric locomotives had been acquired in the last 70 years. However, electric multiple units have been imported from Japan and elsewhere since 1976. These are operated by the Jabotabek commuter transport division of the PT Kereta Api Indonesia, which has been spun off in August 2008.
May 2011: After changing the rail between Purwosari station and Wonogiri station and also the bridges with R42 (37 kilometers), so line between Srangkah station, Solo and Wonogiri will be served by heavy electric diesel locomotives.
PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) diesel locomotive classes
Shops and facilities
In Java, PT Kereta Api Indonesia has its main diesel shop in Pengok, Yogyakarta (special region) for maintenance of both diesel electric and diesel hydraulic locomotives. The separate systems in Sumatra has their shops in Lahat (South Sumatra), Padang (West Sumatra) and Pulubrayan (North Sumatra).
Other maintenance facilities are present in Manggarai (Jakarta), Tegal and Gubeng (Surabaya). These are used to repair coaches and wagons.
Locomotive depots are located in Medan, Tebingtinggi, Padang, Padang Panjang, Kertapati, Tanjungkarang, Rangkasbitung, Tanahabang (Jakarta), Jatinegara (Jakarta), Bandung, Banjar, Cibatu, Cirebon, Purwokerto, Cilacap, Kutoarjo, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Cepu, Madiun, Sidotopo (Surabaya), and Jember.
Large area in front of Purwakarta station (ex-locomotive depot) has been used for scrapping area of the unused KRL ekonomi since 2013, where the KRL Ekonomi non-AC already not in service.
To know which Assets are belong to PT KAI (not government), internal revaluation of assets has been done by Transportation Ministry. They are Rp.35 trillion ($4.1 billion) as Land and Rp.22 trillion ($2.6 billion) as Other Assets (Bridges, signals, etc.). The exact value will get at end of 2011 or 2012 with audit by Finance Ministry.
Railway operations in Indonesia was formerly regulated by the Law No. 13 of 1992 on Railways. This legislation stated that the government operates railways (arts. 4 and 6), delegates operations to an operating body [then the Perumka, and later PT Kereta Api Indonesia] (art. 6) and provides and maintains railway infrastructure (art. 8). Private companies are allowed to cooperate in operation of railways (art. 6).
From 25 April 2007, the new regulation, Law No. 23 of 2007 is in effect. There are some changes in operating body. In this law, track maintenance is handed over to the government (via Directorate General of Railways/ Ministry of Transportation).
The Indonesian government has recently created the Directorate General of Railways, directly answerable to the Minister of Transportation. This is expected to improve the railway's position vis-a-vis other transportation modes.
The parliament of Indonesia has finished an amendment to the current legislation, which is to allow greater role for private companies and regional governments in providing railway services. However, as yet there are no private operators of railway services.
Named passenger trains
PT Kereta Api runs to classes of named passenger trains on Java, Executive class (class 1) and Business class (class 2), and Economy class (class 3).
On October 18, 2014 PT Kereta Api launched Jayabaya train with route Pasar Senen-Surabaya-Malang vice versa (north route on all double track) with 2 disability wagons include toilets for diability persons, wide doors and spacious area for wheel chairs. It will be implemented to other train gradually.
To anticipate steady number of passengers, PT KAI has boosted cargo deliveries. At May 3, 2011 PT KAI has tried the line from Cikarang Dry Port to Surabaya vice versa. PT Kereta Api and PT Danone Indonesia has made an agreement to carry Danone's water in 2013 to Jakarta. PT Kereta Api Indonesia will replace the track from R33 to R54 between Cicurug and Sukabumi with length 20 kilometers and spends Rp2 trillion ($222 million). One cargo train can replace 40 to 60 trucks. In addition, PT Kereta Api Indonesia also serves trains of coal in South Sumatera.
Government has appointed PT KAI to connect Cikarang Dry Port and Tanjung Priok Port to ease heavy traffic jam between two locations. The construction will be initialized in early 2015. A truck can only run 1.5 trip per day, while a train can carry 40 TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) per trip.
To popularize more about the business, PT Kereta Api Indonesia will launch Library Wagon which will display documented company activities, small size assets and books. The library wagon will make exhibition for a week in one station and then move to other station.
In December 2011, a memorandum of understanding has been signed between PT Kereta Api Indonesia and Bombardier Transportation AG related with final assembly of diesel-electric TRAXX Asia Locomotives in Surabaya, East Java begins in early 2012 for Southeast Asia market, including for PT Kereta Api itself.
In early March 2012, both parties GE Transportation and PT Kereta Api Indonesia have announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding about services and cooperation. All services will be done in Indonesia by Indonesian workers and makes Traction Motor Remanufacturing Center to serve all ASEAN countries.
In 2012, PT KAI allocated Rp20 billion ($2.2 million) to restore and renovate 20 heritage sites from at least 260 (680 in the future) heritage sites and historical railways on the islands of Java and Sumatra. One of them is Lawang Sewu (1,000 doors) in Semarang which attracted many tourists which got Rp.1.5 billion ($0.17 million) from tickets revenue per year.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to PT Kereta Api.|
- "PT KAI Targetkan 600 Juta Penumpang Tahun 2019". January 3, 2015.
- Asep Munazat Zatnika (April 25, 2014). "KA Jalur Ganda Pantura Beroperasi Penuh Akhir Mei".
- "Rp 6t railway project to boost train capacity, economic expansion". September 16, 2011.
- Ainur Rohmah (March 14, 2014). "Double track railway expected to be launched in April".
- Willy Widianto (June 23, 2014). "Hore ! Stasiun Matraman akan Dibangun untuk Pengguna KRL Commuter Line".
- Airport railway ‘to operate in 2014’ | The Jakarta Post[dead link]
- Kamis, 19 Mei 2011 - 14:17 WIB. "Pemotongan Jalur KA di Purwakarta Siap Dilakukan | Poskotanews.com". Poskota.co.id. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- http://www.pu.go.id/Humas/news2003/ppw110804w.htm[dead link]
- http://www.pu.go.id/ditjen_ruang/Makalah/Paper-Sul-KA-150702.doc[dead link]
- "2015, Bali punya kereta wisata - National Geographic Indonesia". Nationalgeographic.co.id. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- Andri Hajramurni (April 28, 2015). "Trans-Sulawesi railway project to begin soon, using Chinese tracks".
- "PT KA DAOP II Hidupkan lagi Perlintasan Mati". September 8, 2011.
- "Jalur KA Kedungjati-Tuntang Tanpa Perlintasan Sebidang Pertama di Indonesia". October 8, 2014.
- Alat Produksi PT Kereta Api Indonesia[dead link]
- "Jalur Solo Wonogiri akan Dilayani Kereta Elektrik". Media Indonesia. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
- Max Agung Pribadi (October 18, 2014). "Dua Gerbong KA Jayabaya Untuk Penyandang Cacat".
- "Beban Jalan Raya Semakin Berat". December 12, 2011.
- Nadya Natahadibrata. "KAI agrees to overtake Priok railway". Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- PT KAI launches Library Wagon
- "PT KAI Gandeng Perusahaan Jerman". December 25, 2011.
- "Pusat Perawatan Lokomotif ASEAN Dibangun di Indonesia". March 3, 2012.
- "PT KAI to offer 260 heritage sites as tourist attractions". February 21, 2012.
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- (Indonesian) Official website of Indonesian Railways Co.
- (Indonesian) Industri Kereta Api, Indonesian railway industry