Kereta Api Indonesia

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PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero)
Formerly
Indonesian State Railways (1945–1991)
Indonesian Railway Public Corporation (1991–1998)
State-owned perseroan terbatas
Key people
Didiek Hartantyo
(CEO), Jusman Syafii Djamal
(chairman of the advisory board)
RevenueIncrease Rp 17.9 trillion (2017)[1]
Increase Rp 1.72 trillion (2017)[1]
Total assetsIncrease Rp 33.5 trillion (2017)[1]
OwnerGovernment of Indonesia
Number of employees
27,396 (2017)[1]
SubsidiariesKereta Commuter Indonesia
Railink [id]
Kereta Api Logistik [id]
Kereta Api Pariwisata [id]
Kereta Api Property Management [id]
Reska Multi Usaha [id]
Websitewww.kai.id Edit this on Wikidata
Kereta Api Indonesia
Logo PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) 2020.svg
Java Transportation Network id.svg
Map of railway lines in Java.
Kereta api Serayu dengan Logo KAI Terbaru.jpg
The Serayu
Overview
Fleet size
HeadquartersBandung, Indonesia
LocaleJava, Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, and Lampung (current operation); All of Indonesia (future operation)
Dates of operation1945–present
Predecessor
Technical
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (Standard gauge)
1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) (Cape gauge)
Previous gauge750 mm (2 ft 5 12 in) (Aceh tramway gauge)[3]
600 mm (1 ft 11 58 in) (tramway gauge)[3]
Electrification1500 V DC overhead wiring for KCI operation
750 V DC third rail for Palembang LRT operation[4]
Length5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi)
Highest elevation1,246 m (4,088 ft) (Cikajang railway station)[5]

PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) (English: Indonesian Railways Company) is the major operator of public railways in Indonesia. It is completely owned by the government and pays track access charges to the government. One of its subsidiaries, PT KAI Commuter Indonesia (KCI), is operating electrified commuter service in Jakarta metropolitan area from 14 August 2008.

History[edit]

Logo PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) used until 28 September 2020 (still seen in some locations)

Indonesian Railways Co. is the latest of a long line of successive state railway companies dating from Dutch colonial days.

Indonesia gained independence in 1945-1953, the separate systems (except the Deli Railway) were combined into the Djawatan Kereta Api. Non-state railway systems in Java retained their paper existence until 1958, when all railway lines in Indonesia were nationalised, including the Deli Railway, thereby creating the Perusahaan Negara Kereta Api (PNKA: Indonesian State Railway Corporation) on 25 May 1963.[6][7] On 15 September 1971 the name of PNKA was changed to Perusahaan Jawatan Kereta Api (PJKA, the Indonesian State Railways).[8] Later then, on 2 January 1991, PJKA was changed its name and status as Perusahaan Umum Kereta Api (Perumka, the Indonesian Railway Public Corporation),[9][10] and as of 1 June 1999 was converted into a joint-stock company as PT Kereta Api (Persero).[11] On May 2010, the name of "PT KA" was changed to PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) (PT KAI, The Indonesian Railways Company) till present.[12]

The headquarters of the state railway system, are located in Bandung, West Java.

In 2014, Indonesian Railways carried 300 million passengers and 30 million tonnes cargo a year. The prediction is it will be doubled in 5 years.[13]

PT Kereta Api has conducted some export operations with narrow gauge-type trains exported Australia, Malaysia, and Thailand (freight wagons), Bangladesh (passenger wagons) and locomotives and DMUs to the Philippines.[14]

Assets[edit]

In order to value assets belong to Indonesian Railways (not the government), internal revaluation of assets has been done by the Ministry of Transportation. Indonesian Railways own Rp.35 trillion ($4.1 billion) as land and Rp.22 trillion ($2.6 billion) as other assets (bridges, signals, etc.). The exact value was to be determined by the end of 2011 or 2012, based on an audit by the Ministry of Finance.

Trackage[edit]

The company currently operates two types of railways, i.e. Cape gauge (1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)) and standard gauge (1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)). The 1,067 mm gauge is most common in Java and all regional divisions of Sumatra, while the currently operated Aceh railway uses 1,435 mm gauge. Historically, the company had operated 600 mm gauge and 750 mm gauge for some tramway lines.[3]

The total number of trackage laid in Indonesia was 7,583 kilometres (4,712 mi), although not all lines were in operation at the same time. In 1939, the total operational trackage was 4,588 kilometres (2,851 mi) (It is unclear whether dual gauge tracks were counted once or twice). The present extent of the system is now 5,042 kilometres (3,133 mi) as of 2019, with the Aceh system, most of the West Sumatra system and most former steam tram lines abandoned, but including new tracks built alongside old tracks (double tracking projects).

Much of the branch lines constructed in the colonial era has been lifted up or abandoned in the 1980s. No major railway construction has since taken place, however, many of the busiest lines have been double tracked. The northern coast area of Java would be double tracked in May 2014 after completion of 68 kilometres Babat-Kandangan-Pasar Turi double trackage from 727 kilometres of Jakarta-Surabaya double tracked,[15] followed by the proposed completion of a 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) double tracking project on the south coast by 2015.[16][17] On 8 June 2015 Duri-Tangerang double tracks is formally used for KA Commuter Jabodetabek, but it can be also used for airport trains.[18]

Significant projects being considered include:

  • Quadrapling Manggarai-Cikarang line . The project will be divided into 2 segments: Manggarai-Bekasi, 15 kilometres long and scheduled to be finished in 2016 and Bekasi-Cikarang, 17 kilometres long scheduled to be finished in 2017[19]
  • Airport line to the Sukarno-Hatta International Airport. A 33 kilometers line from Manggarai, Dukuh Atas in Sudirman, Tanah Abang, Angke, Pluit and inline with airport toll road to the Airport. The cost will be $1.13 billion start at 2012 and complete at 2014; though the completion of the railway had been delayed to 2017, when the train also commenced operation.
  • Rebuilding of the Aceh railway, with assistance from the French railway company
  • Building new 15-kilometres-long track between Cibungur and Tanjungrasa station. This shortcut will make trains from Bandung to Semarang do not need to go through Cikampek station.[20]

Future expansion plans of the railway will include linking of existing railway lines in Sumatra from Aceh to Lampung via both west and east coasts of the island. Railway lines are also planned to be built on the currently railway-free islands of Kalimantan[21] and Sulawesi.[22] A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed to build railway around Bali with length of 565 kilometers.[23] Nowadays, the first trackage of the Trans-Sulawesi Railway with a length of 143 kilometres from Makassar to Pare-pare has been initialised with 30 kilometres of land acquisitions and initial construction will be built in June 2015, then 70 kilometres in 2016 and the rest 43 kilometres in 2017. The train is predicted to run in 2018 with trackage wider than in Java to accommodate more weight and speed. The schedule for Pare-pare to Manado trackage will be completed in 5 years after it.[24]

There are also plans to reactivate non-operational railway lines in West Java, such as Bandung-Ciwidey line, intended to ease road traffic congestion; and Rancaekek-Tanjung Sari line. 4 other non-operational lines are still in consideration.[25]

Kedungjati-Tuntang trackage as a part of Semarang-Ambarawa reactivated trackage is the only track in Indonesia without road crossing. It has 8 fly overs or underpasses to make more safety in congested traffic roads, now still underconstruction.[26]

Rolling stock[edit]

As of 2016, Indonesian Railways operates:

Indonesian Railways is a major customer of the local railway equipment industry, PT Industri Kereta Api, by using passenger coaches, freight wagons and electric multiple units made by the Madiun-based company.

Indonesian Railways' diesel-electric locomotives are mostly made in United States or Canada, while the diesel-hydraulics are mostly German. Electric multiple units are mostly Japanese-built. Local industry is capable of building multiple units, both diesel and electric.

Locomotives[edit]

All locomotives of the Indonesian Railways (with the exception of Steam locomotives for railway tours in Ambarawa) are diesel-engined. Most new locomotives use diesel-electric transmission, while older and lighter ones have hydraulic transmission. A more than 400 locomotives (see below) are in the books, but the actual number of operational locomotives is smaller. A current source mentioned that Indonesian Railways have had 409 units of diesel locomotives. The oldest diesel locomotive in the system dates from 1953.

Based on 2010 Minister of Transportation's Regulation No. 45, all of locomotives using a combination of letters and numbers. A letter or a combination of letters is used to denote the wheel arrangement (currently there are C, D, BB and CC types), and a three-digit number is used to denote the class (2xx for classes with electric transmission and 3xx for classes with hydraulic or mechanical transmission), starting from 0. A two-digit number shows the year of operations, and two- or three-digit after the year shows the running number.

Examples

  • CC 206 13 31: The 7th generation of diesel-electric Co'Co' locomotives, has operated since 2013, and have a running number 31.
  • CC 201 77 01R: The 2nd generation of diesel-electric Co'Co' locomotives, has operated since 1977, and have a running number 01 and has been repowered.
  • BB 304 84 07R: The 5th generation of diesel-hydraulic B'B' locomotives, has operated since 1984, and have a running number 07 and has been repowered.

The steam locomotive classification was directly derived from Japanese practice. Tank locomotives were numbered from the 10s, while tender locomotives from the 50s. Letter combinations were used for articulated locomotives (in the case of Indonesia these were Mallets).

Electric locomotives in Indonesia had always been a minority, and no new electric locomotives had been acquired in the last 70 years. However, electric multiple units have been imported from Japan and elsewhere since 1976. These are operated by the Jabotabek commuter urban transport division of the Indonesian Railways, which has been spun off in August 2008.

May 2011: After changing the rail between Purwosari station and Wonogiri station and also the bridges with R42 (37 kilometres), so line between Sangkrah station, Solo and Wonogiri will be served by heavy electric diesel locomotives.[28]

Indonesian Railways diesel locomotive classes

Named passenger trains[edit]

Indonesian Railways runs to classes of named passenger trains on Java, Executive class (class 1) and Business class (class 2), and Economy class (class 3).

Exclusive wagon[edit]

Exclusive wagon is luxury wagon which a whole wagon should be rented for a certain route, because the luxury wagon should be attached to the regular train. Exclusive wagon is called as kereta wisata (tourist wagon), Main users of this exclusive cars are the president, vice-president, a group of a company for meeting, big extended family, and group of artists or tourists. The rent fee of a wagon is about Rp 15,000,000 for short trip as Jakarta-Bandung or Jakarta-Cirebon and up to Rp 27,000,000 for trip of Jakarta-Surabaya. All wagons can accommodate 22 passengers, and only 19 passengers for Nusantara wagon with a queen bed. Snacks, meals and drinks are provided for free.[29] And advanced booking with payment should be done due to big animo of the exclusive wagons.

Disability wagons[edit]

On 18 October 2014, Indonesian Railways launched Jayabaya train with route Pasar Senen-Surabaya-Malang vice versa (north route on all double track) with 2 disability wagons include toilets for disability persons, wide doors and spacious area for wheel chairs. It will be implemented to other train gradually.[30][31]

Cargo[edit]

To anticipate steady number of passengers, Indonesian Railways has boosted cargo deliveries. At 3 May 2011 Indonesian Railways has tried the line from Cikarang Dry Port to Surabaya vice versa.

Indonesian Railways and Danone Indonesia has made an agreement to carry Danone's water in 2013 to Jakarta. Indonesian Railways will replace the track from R33 to R54 between Cicurug and Sukabumi with length 20 kilometres and spends Rp2 trillion ($222 million). One cargo train can replace 40 to 60 trucks.[32] In addition, Indonesian Railways also serves trains of coal in South Sumatera.

Government has appointed Indonesian Railways to connect Cikarang Dry Port and Tanjung Priok Port to ease heavy traffic jam between two locations. The construction will be initialised in early 2015. Trucks and flatbeds can only run 1.5 trip per day, while a train can carry 40 TEUs (Twenty-foot Equivalent Units) per trip.[33]

Library wagon[edit]

To popularise more about the business, Indonesian Railways will launch Library Wagon (Kereta Pustaka Indonesia) which will display documented company activities, small size assets and books. The library wagon will make exhibition for a week in one station and then move to other station.[34]

Depot and facilities[edit]

In front of Indonesian Railways Locomotives and Rolling Stocks Workshop in Jogjakarta.

In Java, PT Kereta Api Indonesia has its main diesel workshop in Pengok, Jogjakarta for maintenance of both diesel electric and diesel hydraulic locomotives. The separate systems in Sumatra has their shops in Lahat (South Sumatra), Padang (West Sumatra) and Pulubrayan (North Sumatra).

Other maintenance facilities are present in Manggarai (Jakarta), Tegal and Gubeng (Surabaya). These are used to repair coaches and wagons.

A large stabling point and maintenance facilities for electric rail cars has been constructed in Depok, West Java.

Motive power depots are located in Medan, Tebing Tinggi, Padang, Padang Panjang, Kertapati, Tanjungkarang, Rangkasbitung, Tanahabang (Jakarta), Jatinegara (Jakarta), Bandung, Banjar, Cibatu, Cirebon, Purwokerto, Cilacap, Kutoarjo, Semarang Poncol, Yogyakarta, Solo Balapan, Cepu, Madiun, Sidotopo (Surabaya), and Jember.

Large area in front of Purwakarta station (formerly a motive power depot) has been used for scrapping area of the unused economy class Electric Multiple Units since 2013, where the non-air-conditioned electrical multiple units had not in service.

Safety and Security[edit]

Polsuska (Indonesian: Polisi Khusus Kereta Api or Railroad Special Police) is a law enforcement unit under the auspices of the Indonesian Railway Company. Polsuska in its role as a special railroad police is tasked to: apply sanctions in accordance with legislation and implement security, prevention of crime, and prevent non-justice actions within the scope of the Indonesian railways as a partner of the national police. Polsuska has the responsibilities relating to law and order including security of railway stations and train users.[35] Polsuska officers wear black as their uniform and wear orange berets pulled to the left. Polsuska is trained by but not part of the Indonesian National Police. Polsuska is under the command of the Indonesian Railway Company's Directorate of Safety and Security.

The Commuter Lines which serve Greater Jakarta maintains its own security force which are categorized as security guards. Their service uniform are in dark-blue and wear white helmets (or peaked caps) and are known as (Petugas Keamanan Dalam /PKD). These are not part of Polsuska.

Every railway station in Indonesia also operates several security guards to assist Polsuska in the field of law and order including security. During peak seasons such as during the last days of Ramadan and other national holidays, Polsuska may be assisted by members from the armed forces and police to provide additional security presence within the KAI system.

Legislation[edit]

Railway operations in Indonesia was formerly regulated by the 1992 Indonesian Law No. 13 concerning Railways. This legislation stated that the government operates railways (arts. 4 and 6), delegates operations to an operating body [then the Perumka, and later PT Kereta Api] (art. 6) and provides and maintains railway infrastructure (art. 8). Private companies are allowed to co-operate in operation of railways (art. 6).

From 25 April 2007, the new regulation, Act No. 23 of 2007[36] is in effect. There are some changes in railway operators. In this law, track maintenance is handed over to the government (via Directorate General of Railways, Ministry of Transportation).

The Indonesian government has recently created the Directorate General of Railways, directly answerable to the Ministry of Transportation. This is expected to improve the railway's position vis-à-vis other transportation modes.

The parliament of Indonesia has finished an amendment to the current legislation, which is to allow greater role for private companies and regional governments in providing railway services. However, as yet there are no private operators of railway services.

Joint operation[edit]

In December 2011, a memorandum of understanding has been signed between Indonesian Railways and Bombardier Transportation AG related with final assembly of diesel-electric TRAXX Asia Locomotives in Surabaya, East Java begins in early 2012 for Southeast Asia market, including for Indonesian Railways itself.[37]

In early March 2012, both parties GE Transportation and Indonesian Railways have announced the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding about services and co-operation. All services will be done in Indonesia by Indonesian workers and makes Traction Motor Remanufacturing Center to serve all ASEAN countries.[38]

Heritage sites[edit]

In 2012, Indonesian Railways allocated Rp20 billion ($2.2 million) to restore and renovate 20 heritage sites from at least 260 (680 in the future) heritage sites and historical railways on the islands of Java and Sumatra. One of them is Lawang Sewu in Semarang which attracted many tourists which got Rp.1.5 billion ($0.17 million) from tickets revenue per year.[39][40]

Subsidiaries[edit]

The Railway Employee Welfare Center (Pusaka), one of PNKA's foundations, established a company called PT Karya Pusaka which was founded on December 5, 1967 and changed its name to PT Pusaka Nusantara on April 18, 1970. Pusaka focuses on restoration companies, `` outsourcing , and cleanliness of train infrastructure and facilities. [41]

The first subsidiary of PT Kereta Api after its conversion to Persero is Reska Multi Usaha. This company focuses on multi-business services to support railroad operations, such as restoration, parking, cleanliness on the train, restaurant and cafe, train washing, and comfort support. The company was formed on July 2, 2003. [42] Reska is also the owner of the trademark Loko, a restaurant chain with the theme of rail transportation which has opened many outlets around the station. [43]

On August 12, 2008, PT Kereta Api separated the Urban Transport Division Jabotabek into a subsidiary under the name KAI Commuter Jabodetabek (KCJ). [44] In connection with the expansion plan, PT KCJ officially changed its name to PT Kereta Commuter Indonesia (KCI) as of September 20, 2017. Thus, commuter train services will no longer only focus on the Jabodetabek area. [45]

On September 8, 2009, three subsidiary companies were formed, namely the Tourism Train ( Tourism, formerly IndoRailTour), the Property Management Train ( KAPM), and the Logistics Railway ( Kalog). [42] KAI also formed a joint venture with Angkasa Pura II to operate the Airport Railway, which then given the name Railink. Railink was founded on September 28, 2006, [46] but has only started operations since 2013 by launching the train `` Airport Raillink Services route Medan-Kualanamu Airport pp. [47] PT KAI also formed a consortium with Wijaya Karya (Wika), Perkebunan Nusantara VIII | PTPN VIII, and Jasa Marga under the name Pilar Sinergi BUMN Indonesia for the Jakarta – Bandung fast train project operated by Indonesian – China High Speed Rail (KCIC). [48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Annual Report" (PDF). Indonesia Railway Company. Retrieved 31 July 2018.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ a b c Nasir, Muhammad; Azril, Andi (28 June 2003). "Pembangunan Rel KA Langkat-Banda Aceh Terbengkalai". Liputan6.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  4. ^ Putra, Aji YK (12 April 2018). "Ini Perbedaan LRT di Palembang dan Jakarta". KOMPAS (in Indonesian). Retrieved 14 August 2018.
  5. ^ "Mempercantik Kembali Sinyal Stasiun Cikajang-Garut" (in Indonesian). 11 May 2017. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  6. ^ 1963 Indonesian Government's Regulation No. 22
  7. ^ Harinowo, C.; Purwita, T.; Wibowo; Wiko, G.; Primiana, I.; Sutaryono, P.; Augusta, F. (2019). Kebangkitan BUMN Sektor Perhubungan (SC). Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. p. 9. ISBN 9786020633664.
  8. ^ [https://peraturan.bpk.go.id/Home/Details/69552/pp-no-61-tahun-1971#:~:text=PP%20No.%2061%20Tahun%201971,Perjan)%20%5BJDIH%20BPK%20RI%5D 1971 Indonesian Government's Regulation No. 61, dated 15 September 1971
  9. ^ 1990 Indonesian Government's Regulation No. 57
  10. ^ "Kereta Api Resmi Jadi Perumka". AB. 3 January 1991.
  11. ^ "Situs Resmi Keterbukaan Informasi Publik | PT Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero)". kip.kai.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 27 March 2018. KAI didirikan sesuai dengan akta tanggal 1 Juni 1999 No. 2 yang dibuat dihadapan Imas Fatimah, S.H., Sp.N., Notaris di Jakarta, dan kemudian diperbaiki kembali sesuai dengan akta tanggal 13 September 1999 No. 14.
  12. ^ 2010 The Indonesian Railways Directors' Decree No. 16/OT.203/KA 2010
  13. ^ "PT KAI Targetkan 600 Juta Penumpang Tahun 2019". 3 January 2015.
  14. ^ https://thediplomat.com/2020/02/indonesias-burgeoning-railway-diplomacy/
  15. ^ Asep Munazat Zatnika (25 April 2014). "KA Jalur Ganda Pantura Beroperasi Penuh Akhir Mei".
  16. ^ "Rp 6t railway project to boost train capacity, economic expansion". 16 September 2011.
  17. ^ Ainur Rohmah (14 March 2014). "Double track railway expected to be launched in April".
  18. ^ Max Aging Pribadi (6 July 2015). "Dirjen KA Resmikan Pengoperasian Jalur Ganda Duri-Tangerang".
  19. ^ Willy Widianto (23 June 2014). "Hore ! Stasiun Matraman akan Dibangun untuk Pengguna KRL Commuter Line".
  20. ^ Kamis, 19 Mei 2011 – 14:17 WIB. "Pemotongan Jalur KA di Purwakarta Siap Dilakukan | Poskotanews.com". Poskota.co.id. Archived from the original on 22 April 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  21. ^ PEMBANGUNAN KERETA API TRANS BORNEO Archived 12 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ http://www.pu.go.id/ditjen_ruang/Makalah/Paper-Sul-KA-150702.doc Archived 12 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "2015, Bali punya kereta wisata – National Geographic Indonesia". Nationalgeographic.co.id. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  24. ^ Andri Hajramurni (28 April 2015). "Trans-Sulawesi railway project to begin soon, using Chinese tracks".
  25. ^ "PT KA DAOP II Hidupkan lagi Perlintasan Mati". 8 September 2011. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012.
  26. ^ "Jalur KA Kedungjati-Tuntang Tanpa Perlintasan Sebidang Pertama di Indonesia". 8 October 2014.
  27. ^ "BeritaSatu.com - Informasi Kelas Satu". m.beritasatu.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Jalur Solo Wonogiri akan Dilayani Kereta Elektrik". Media Indonesia. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 15 May 2012.
  29. ^ Dewi Rachmat Kusuma. "Mau Rasakan Sensasi Kereta Mewah PT KAI? Ini Tarifnya". Retrieved 6 December 2013.
  30. ^ Max Agung Pribadi (18 October 2014). "Dua Gerbong KA Jayabaya Untuk Penyandang Cacat".
  31. ^ Indonesian Railways Magazine. November 2014. 100th Edition.
  32. ^ "Beban Jalan Raya Semakin Berat". 12 December 2011.
  33. ^ Nadya Natahadibrata. "KAI agrees to overtake Priok railway". Retrieved 12 July 2014.
  34. ^ PT KAI launches Library Wagon
  35. ^ http://www.hukumonline.com/klinik/detail/lt55fb77dd06a10/dasar-hukum--tugas--fungsi--dan-peran-polisi-khusus-kereta-api-polsuska
  36. ^ http://www.bpkp.go.id/uu/filedownload/2/36/165.bpkp
  37. ^ "PT KAI Gandeng Perusahaan Jerman". 25 December 2011.[permanent dead link]
  38. ^ "Pusat Perawatan Lokomotif ASEAN Dibangun di Indonesia". 3 March 2012.
  39. ^ "PT KAI to offer 260 heritage sites as tourist attractions". 21 February 2012. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012.
  40. ^ An official site of Heritage Unit of Indonesian Railways Archived 15 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ [http: //pusakusantara.co.id/index.php/kilas -seharah / "Brief History - Pusaka Nusantara"] Check |url= value (help) (in Indonesian). Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  42. ^ a b Harinowo et al. 2019, p. 14-17.
  43. ^ Liputan6.com (5 May 2020). [https: / /www.liputan6.com/bisnis/read/4245527/layani-k needs-yang-dirumahaja-anak-usaha-kai-l Launching-aplikasi-lokomart]website=liputan6.com]language=id]access-date=2020-09 -28 "Serve the Needs #diRumahAja, KAI's Subsidiary Launches the Lokomart Application"] Check |url= value (help).
  44. ^ Cite error: The named reference : 1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  45. ^ Post, The Jakarta. [https: //www.thejakartapost.com/news/2017/09/20/state-run-commuter-line- operator-pt-kcj-transforms-into-pt-kci.html "State-run commuter line operator PT KCJ transforms into PT KCI"] Check |url= value (help). The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  46. ^ Harinowo et al. 2019, p. 15.
  47. ^ VIVA, PT VIVA MEDIA BARU- (31 January 2013). [https: //www.viva.co. id / archive / 386719-this-train-airport-first-in-Indonesia "This is the First Airport Train in Indonesia"] Check |url= value (help). www.viva.co.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 28 September 2020.
  48. ^ Template:Web site

External links[edit]