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The primary value learned value (PVLV) model is a possible explanation for the reward-predictive firing properties of dopamine (DA) neurons.[1] It simulates behavioral and neural data on Pavlovian conditioning and the midbrain dopaminergic neurons that fire in proportion to unexpected rewards. It is an alternative to the temporal-differences (TD) algorithm.[2]

It is used as part of Leabra.


  1. ^ http://psych.colorado.edu/~oreilly/pubs-abstr.html#OReillyFrankHazyEtAl07
  2. ^ http://grey.colorado.edu/emergent/index.php/Leabra_PVLV