Pac-Man

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the original Pac-man arcade game from 1980. For the video game series, see List of Pac-Man video games. For the video game character, see Pac-Man (character). For other uses, see Pac-Man (disambiguation).
Pac-Man
Pac-Man
North American flyer
Developer(s) Namco
Publisher(s)
Designer(s) Toru Iwatani
Programmer(s) Shigeo Funaki
Composer(s) Toshio Kai
Platform(s) Arcade, Various
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Maze
Mode(s) Up to two players, alternating turns
Cabinet Standard upright, mini-upright and cocktail
Arcade system Namco Pac-Man
CPU 1x ZiLOG Z80 @ 3.072 MHz[4][5]
Sound 1× Namco WSG (3-channel mono) @ 3.072 MHz
Display Vertically oriented, 224 × 288, 16 palette colors

Pac-Man (パックマン Pakkuman?) is an arcade game developed by Namco and first released in Japan on May 22, 1980.[1][2] It was created by Japanese video game designer Toru Iwatani. It was licensed for distribution in the United States by Midway and released in October 1980. Immensely popular from its original release to the present day, Pac-Man is considered one of the classics of the medium, virtually synonymous with video games, and an icon of 1980s popular culture.[6][7][8][9] Upon its release, the game—and, subsequently, Pac-Man derivatives—became a social phenomenon[10] that sold a large amount of merchandise and also inspired, among other things, an animated television series and a top-ten hit single.[11]

When Pac-Man was released, the most popular arcade video games were space shooters, in particular Space Invaders and Asteroids. The most visible minority were sports games that were mostly derivatives of Pong. Pac-Man succeeded by creating a new genre and appealing to both genders.[12] Pac-Man is often credited with being a landmark in video game history, and is among the most famous arcade games of all time.[13] It is also one of the highest-grossing video games of all time,[14] having generated more than $2.5 billion in quarters by the 1990s.[15][16]

The character has appeared in more than 30 officially licensed game spin-offs,[17] as well as in numerous unauthorized clones and bootlegs.[18] According to the Davie-Brown Index, Pac-Man has the highest brand awareness of any video game character among American consumers, recognized by 94 percent of them.[19] Pac-Man is one of the longest running video game franchises from the golden age of video arcade games. It is part of the collection of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.[20] and of New York's Museum of Modern Art.[21]

Gameplay[edit]

Screenshot of play area

The player controls Pac-Man through a maze, eating pac-dots (also called pellets or just dots). When all pac-dots are eaten, Pac-Man is taken to the next stage. Between some stages one of three intermission animations plays.[22] Four enemies (Blinky, Pinky, Inky and Clyde) roam the maze, trying to catch Pac-Man. If an enemy touches Pac-Man, a life is lost and the Pac-Man itself withers and dies. When all lives have been lost, the game ends. Pac-Man is awarded a single bonus life at 10,000 points by default—DIP switches inside the machine can change the required points or disable the bonus life altogether.

Near the corners of the maze are four larger, flashing dots known as power pellets that provide Pac-Man with the temporary ability to eat the enemies. The enemies turn deep blue, reverse direction and usually move more slowly. When an enemy is eaten, its eyes remain and return to the center box where it is regenerated in its normal color. Blue enemies flash white to signal that they are about to become dangerous again and the length of time for which the enemies remain vulnerable varies from one stage to the next, generally becoming shorter as the game progresses. In later stages, the enemies go straight to flashing, bypassing blue, which means that they can only be eaten for a short amount of time, although they still reverse direction when a power pellet is eaten; in even later stages, the ghosts do not become edible (i.e., they do not change color and still make Pacman lose a life on contact), but they still reverse direction.

Enemies[edit]

Main article: Ghosts (Pac-Man)
North American Pac-Man title screen, showing the official enemy names.

The enemies in Pac-Man are known variously as "ghosts," "goblins," "octopi" and "monsters".[23][24][25] Despite the seemingly random nature of the enemies, their movements are strictly deterministic, which players have used to their advantage. In an interview, creator Toru Iwatani stated that he had designed each enemy with its own distinct personality in order to keep the game from becoming impossibly difficult or boring to play.[26] More recently, Iwatani described the enemy behaviors in more detail at the 2011 Game Developers Conference. He stated that the red enemy chases Pac-Man, and the pink and blue enemies try to position themselves in front of Pac-Man's mouth.[27] Although he claimed that the orange enemy's behavior is random, a careful analysis of the game's code reveals that it actually chases Pac-Man most of the time, but also moves toward the lower-left corner of the maze when it gets too close to Pac-Man.

Enemy Color Original Puck Man[28] American Pac-Man
Character Translation Nickname Translation Alternate
character
Alternate
nickname
Character Nickname
Red Oikake (追いかけ) chaser Akabei (赤ベイ) red guy Urchin Macky Shadow Blinky
Pink Machibuse (待ち伏せ) ambusher Pinky (ピンキー) pink guy Romp Micky Speedy Pinky
Cyan Kimagure (気まぐれ) fickle Aosuke (青助) blue guy Stylist Mucky Bashful Inky
Orange Otoboke (お惚け) stupid Guzuta (愚図た) slow guy Crybaby Mocky Pokey Clyde

Split-screen[edit]

The 256th "Split-Screen" level cannot be completed due to a software bug.

Pac-Man was designed to have no ending – as long as the player keeps at least one life, he or she should be able to play the game indefinitely. However, a bug keeps this from happening: Normally, no more than seven fruit are displayed at the bottom of the screen at any given time. But when the internal level counter, which is stored in a single byte (eight bits), reaches 255, the subroutine that draws the fruit erroneously "rolls over" this number to zero when it is determining the number of fruit to draw, using fruit counter = internal level counter + 1. Normally, when the fruit counter is below eight, the drawing subroutine draws one fruit for each level, decrementing the fruit counter until it reaches 0. When the fruit counter has overflowed to zero, the first decrement sets the fruit counter back to 255, causing the subroutine to draw a total of 256 fruit instead of the maximum of seven.

This corrupts the bottom of the screen and the entire right half of the maze with seemingly random symbols, overwriting the values of edible dots which makes it impossible to eat enough dots to beat the level. Because this effectively ends the game, this "split-screen" level is often referred to as the "kill screen". Emulators and code analysis have revealed what would happen should this 256th level be cleared: The fruit and intermissions would restart at level 1 conditions, but the enemies would retain their higher speed and invulnerability to power pellets from the higher stages.[29]

World record and perfect play[edit]

As of 2015, the world record according to Twin Galaxies is held by David Race, who in 2013 attained the maximum possible score of 3,333,360 points in 3 hours, 28 minutes and 49 seconds. He has uploaded a recording of his record-breaking game to YouTube.

A perfect Pac-Man game occurs when the player achieves the maximum possible score on the first 255 levels (by eating every possible dot, power pellet, fruit, and enemy) without losing a single life, and using all extra lives to score as many points as possible on Level 256.[30][31] The first person to achieve this score was Billy Mitchell of Hollywood, Florida, who performed the feat in about six hours.[31][32] Since then, six other players have attained the maximum score in increasingly faster times.

In December 1982, an 8-year-old boy, Jeffrey R. Yee, supposedly received a letter from U.S. President Ronald Reagan congratulating him on a worldwide record of 6,131,940 points, a score only possible if he had passed the unbeatable Split-Screen Level.[31] In September 1983, Walter Day, chief scorekeeper at Twin Galaxies, took the US National Video Game Team on a tour of the East Coast to visit video game players who claimed they could get through the Split-Screen Level. No video game player could demonstrate this ability. In 1999, Billy Mitchell offered $100,000 to anyone who could pass through the Split-Screen Level before January 1, 2000. The prize was never claimed.[31]

Development[edit]

The North American Pac-Man cabinet design (left) differs significantly from the Japanese Puck Man design (right).

The game was developed primarily by a young Namco employee named Toru Iwatani over the course of a year, beginning in April 1979, employing a nine-man team. It was based on the concept of eating, and the original Japanese title was Pakkuman (パックマン?), inspired by the Japanese onomatopoeic slang phrase paku-paku taberu (パクパク食べる?),[33][34] where paku-paku describes (the sound of) the mouth movement when widely opened and then closed in succession.[35]

Although Iwatani has repeatedly stated that the character's shape was inspired by a pizza missing a slice,[10] he admitted in a 1986 interview that this was a half-truth and the character design also came from simplifying and rounding out the Japanese character for mouth, kuchi ().[36] Iwatani attempted to appeal to a wider audience—beyond the typical demographics of young boys and teenagers. His intention was to attract girls to arcades because he found there were very few games that were played by women at the time.[37] This led him to add elements of a maze, as well as cute ghost enemy characters. Eating to gain power, Iwatani has said, was a concept he borrowed from Popeye.[38] The result was a game he named Puck Man[39] as a reference to the main character's hockey puck shape.[40]

Later in 1980, the game was picked up for manufacture in the United States by Bally division Midway,[36] which changed the game's name from Puck Man to Pac-Man in an effort to avoid vandalism from people changing the letter 'P' into an 'F' to form the word fuck.[39][40][41] The cabinet artwork was also changed and the pace and level of difficulty increased to appeal to western audiences.[39]

Impact and legacy[edit]

When first launched in Japan by Namco in 1980, the game received a lukewarm response, as Space Invaders and other similar games were more popular at the time.[12] However, Pac-Man‍ '​s success in North America in the same year took competitors and distributors completely by surprise. Marketing executives who saw Pac-Man at a trade show prior to release completely overlooked the game (along with the now classic Defender), while they looked to a racing car game called Rally-X as the game to outdo that year.[42] The appeal of Pac-Man was such that the game caught on immediately with the public; it quickly became far more popular than anything seen in the game industry up to that point. Pac-Man outstripped Asteroids as the best-selling arcade game in North America,[43][44] grossing over $1 billion in quarters within a decade,[15][45] by the end of the 1980s,[46] surpassing the revenues grossed by the then highest-grossing film Star Wars.[47]

It sold more than 350,000 arcade cabinets[48][49] (retailing at around $2400 each)[50] for $1 billion within 18 months[48] (inflation adjusted: $2.4 billion in 2011).[51] By 1982, the game had sold 400,000 arcade machines worldwide and an estimated 7 billion coins had been inserted into Pac-Man machines.[52] In addition, United States revenues from Pac-Man licensed products (games, T-shirts, pop songs, wastepaper baskets, etc.) exceeded $1 billion[52] (inflation adjusted: $2.33 billion in 2011).[51] The game was also estimated to have had 30 million active players across the United States in 1982.[53]

Towards the end of the 20th century, the game's total gross in quarters had been estimated by Twin Galaxies at more than 10 billion quarters ($2.5 billion),[15][16] making it the highest-grossing video game of all time.[14] In January 1982, the game won the overall Best Commercial Arcade Game award at the 1981 Arcade Awards.[54] In 2001, it was voted the greatest video game of all time by a Dixons poll in the UK.[55]

Pac-Man intermission cutscene. It exaggerated the effect of the power pellet power-up showing a comically large Pac-Man.[56]

The game is regarded as one of the most influential video games of all time,[57][58] for a number of reasons: its titular character was the first original gaming mascot, the game established the maze chase game genre, it demonstrated the potential of characters in video games, it opened gaming to female audiences, and it was gaming's first licensing success.[57] In addition, it was the first video game to feature power-ups,[59] and it is frequently credited as the first game to feature cut scenes, in the form of brief comical interludes about Pac-Man and the ghosts chasing each other around during those interludes,[60] though Space Invaders Part II employed a similar technique that same year.[61] Pac-Man is also credited for laying the foundations for the stealth game genre, as it emphasized avoiding enemies rather than fighting them,[62] and had an influence on the early stealth game Metal Gear, where guards chase Solid Snake in a similar manner to Pac-Man when he is spotted.[63]

Pac-Man has also influenced many other games, ranging from the sandbox game Grand Theft Auto (where the player runs over pedestrians and gets chased by police in a similar manner)[64] to early first-person shooters such as MIDI Maze (which had similar maze-based gameplay and character designs).[65][66] Game designer John Romero credited Pac-Man as the game that had the biggest influence on his career;[67] Wolfenstein 3D was similar in level design[68] and featured a Pac-Man level from a first-person perspective,[69][70] while Doom had a similar emphasis on mazes, power-ups, killing monsters, and reaching the next level.[71] Pac-Man also influenced the use of power-ups in later games such as Arkanoid.[72]

Remakes and sequels[edit]

Pac-Man is one of the few games to have been consistently published for over three decades, having been remade on numerous platforms and spawned many sequels. Re-releases include ported and updated versions of the original arcade game. Numerous unauthorized Pac-Man clones appeared soon after its release. The combined sales of counterfeit arcade machines sold nearly as many units as the original Pac-Man, which had sold more than 300,000 machines.[73]

The Atari 2600 version of Pac-Man only somewhat resembled the original and had the ghosts take turns appearing on the screen, creating a flicker effect.

One of the first ports to be released was the much-maligned port for the Atari 2600, which only somewhat resembled the original and was widely criticized for its flickering ghosts, due to the 2600's limited memory and hardware compared to the arcade machine.[74][75][76] Despite the criticism, this version of Pac-Man sold seven million units[77] at $37.95 per copy,[11][78] and the best-selling game of all time on the Atari 2600 console. While enjoying initial sales success, Atari had overestimated demand by producing 12 million cartridges, of which 5 million went unsold.[77][79][80] The port's poor quality damaged the company's reputation among consumers and retailers, which would eventually become one of the contributing factors to Atari's decline and the North American video game crash of 1983, alongside Atari's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial.[77]

Meanwhile, Coleco's tabletop Mini-Arcade versions of the game sold 1.5 million units in 1982.[81][82]

II Computing listed it tenth on the magazine's list of top Apple II series games as of late 1985, based on sales and market-share data,[83] and in December 1987 alone Mindscape's IBM PC version of Pac-Man sold over 100,000 copies.[84] The game was also released for Atari's 5200 and 8-bit computers, Intellivision, the Commodore 64 and VIC-20, and the Nintendo Entertainment System. For handheld game consoles, it was released on the Game Boy, Sega Game Gear, Game Boy Color, and the Neo Geo Pocket Color.

The game has also been featured in Namco's long-running Namco Museum video game compilations. Downloads of the game have been made available on game services such as Xbox Live Arcade, GameTap and Virtual Console. Namco has also released mobile versions for BREW, Java, and iOS, as well as Palm PDAs and Windows Mobile-based devices. A port of Pac-Man for Android[85] can be controlled not only through an Android phone's trackball but through touch gestures or its on-board accelerometer. As of 2010, Namco had sold over 30 million paid downloads of Pac-Man on BREW in the United States alone.[86]

In addition, Namco has repeatedly re-released the game to arcades. In 2001, Namco released a Ms. Pac-Man/Galaga "Class of 1981 Reunion Edition" cabinet with Pac-Man available for play as a hidden game. To commemorate Pac-Man‍ '​s 25th anniversary in 2005, Namco released a revision that officially featured all three games.

Namco Networks ported Pac-Man to the PC (bought online) in 2009 which also includes an "Enhanced" mode which replaces all of the original sprites with the sprites from Pac-Man Championship Edition but it's still the original Pac-Man otherwise, Namco Networks also made a bundle (also bought online) which includes their PC version of Pac-Man as well as their port of Dig Dug called Namco All-Stars: Pac-Man and Dig Dug.

In 2010 Namco Bandai announced the release of the game on Windows Phone 7 as an Xbox Live game.[87]

Pac-Man's spawned sequels and spin-offs includes only one which was designed by Tōru Iwatani . Some of the follow-ups were not developed by Namco either – including the most significant, Ms. Pac-Man, released in the United States in 1981. Originally called Crazy Otto, this unauthorized hack of Pac-Man was created by General Computer Corporation and sold to Midway without Namco's permission. The game features several changes from the original Pac-Man, including faster gameplay, more mazes, new intermissions, and moving bonus items. Some consider Ms. Pac-Man to be superior to the original or even the best in the entire series.[13] Stan Jarocki of Midway stated that Ms. Pac-Man was conceived in response to the original Pac-Man being "the first commercial videogame to involve large numbers of women as players" and that it is "our way of thanking all those lady arcaders who have played and enjoyed Pac-Man."[88] Namco sued Midway for exceeding their license. Eventually, Bally Midway struck a deal with Namco to officially license Ms. Pac-Man as a sequel. Namco today officially owns Ms. Pac-Man in its other releases.

Following Ms. Pac-Man, Bally Midway released several other unauthorized spin-offs, such as Pac-Man Plus, Jr. Pac-Man, Baby Pac-Man and Professor Pac-Man, resulting in Namco severing business relations with Midway.[10][89]

Pac-Man Championship Edition (2007), commemorating the first World Championship

Various platform games based on the series have also been released by Namco, such as 1984's Pac-Land and the Pac-Man World series, which features Pac-Man in a 3-D world. More modern versions of the original game have also been developed, such as the multiplayer Pac-Man Vs. for the Nintendo GameCube.

On June 5, 2007, the first Pac-Man World Championship was held in New York City, which brought together ten competitors from eight countries to play the new Pac-Man Championship Edition developed by Tōru Iwatani.[90] Its sequel was released on November 2010.

The initial configuration of the Google Pac-Man banner

For the weekend of May 21–23, 2010, Google changed the Google logo on its homepage to a Google Doodle of a fully playable version of the game[91] in recognition of the 30th anniversary of the game's release. The game featured the ability to play both Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man simultaneously.[92] After finishing the game, the website automatically redirected the user to a search of Pac-Man 30th Anniversary.[93] Companies across the world experienced slight drops in productivity due to the game, estimated to be valued at the time as $120,000,000 (approximately €95,400,000; £83,000,000). However, The Official ASTD Blog noted that the total loss, "spread out across the entire world isn't a huge loss, comparatively speaking".[94] In total, the game devoured around 4.8 million hours of work productivity that day.[58] Some organizations even temporarily blocked Google's website from workplace computers on the Friday it was uploaded, particularly where it violated regulations against recreational games.[95][96][97] Because of the popularity of the Pac-Man doodle, Google decided to allow access to the game through a separate web page; doing a Google search for the phrase "pac man" yields this doodle as the first result. On March 31, 2015, Google Maps added an option allowing a Pac-Man style game to be played using streets on the map as the maze.[98]

In 2011, Namco sent a DMCA notice to the team that made the programming language Scratch saying that a programmer had infringed copyright by making a Pac-Man game using the language and uploading it to Scratch's official website.[99]

In April 2011, Soap Creative published World's Biggest Pac-Man working together with Microsoft and Namco-Bandai to celebrate Pac-Man's 30th anniversary. It is a multiplayer browser-based game with user-created, interlocking mazes.[100]

In popular culture[edit]

Pac-Man went on to become an icon of video game culture during the 1980s, and a wide variety of Pac-Man merchandise was marketed with the character's image, from t-shirts and toys to hand-held video game imitations and even specially shaped pasta. An animated TV series produced by Hanna–Barbera aired on ABC from 1982 to 1983.[101] The Killer List of Videogames lists Pac-Man as the No. 1 video game on its "Top 10 Most Popular Video games" list.[102] At one time, a feature film based on the game was also in development.[103][104] In 2010, a computer-generated animated series titled Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures, was reported to be in the works. The show was released on Disney XD in June, 2013.[105][106] Pac-Man has also been referenced in the 2010 film Scott Pilgrim vs. the World, where the game's origins as Puck-Man is mentioned several times.[107] Clyde appears in the Disney animated film Wreck-It Ralph as one of several villains participating in a group therapy session, voiced by Kevin Deters. His cohorts, Inky, Blinky, and Pinky, appear together in Game Central Station for a few scenes, and Pac-Man makes a cameo appearance during the Fix-It Felix Jr. 30th Anniversary party. General Mills manufactured a cereal by the Pac-Man name in 1983.

Guinness World Records has awarded the Pac-Man series eight records in Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008, including First Perfect Pac-Man Game for Billy Mitchell's July 3, 1999 score and "Most Successful Coin-Operated Game". On June 3, 2010, at the NLGD Festival of Games, the game's creator Toru Iwatani officially received the certificate from Guinness World Records for Pac-Man having had the most "coin-operated arcade machines" installed world wide: 293,822. The record was set and recognized in 2005 and mentioned in the Guinness World Records: Gamer's Edition 2008, but finally actually awarded in 2010.[25]

Pac-Man has been referenced in numerous other media. In music, the Buckner & Garcia song "Pac-Man Fever" (1981) went to No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100 charts,[11] and received a Gold certification with over a million records sold by 1982,[108] and a total of 2.5 million copies sold as of 2008.[109] Their Pac-Man Fever album (1982) also received a Gold certification for selling over a million records.[110] "Weird Al" Yankovic recorded a song titled "Pac-Man" that was a parody of The Beatles' "Taxman", in 1981.[111] Jonzun Crew's "Pack Jam" (1983) was inspired by Michael Jonzun's distaste towards the popular Pac-Man game.[112] Hip hop emcee Lil' Flip sampled sounds from the game Pac-Man and Ms. Pac-Man to make his top-20 single "Game Over" (2004). Namco America filed a lawsuit against Sony Music Entertainment for unauthorized use of these samples. The suit was eventually settled out of court.[113][114] Aphex Twin released an EP dedicated to the game, Pac-Man EP, in 1992.

Ken Uston's strategy guide Mastering Pac-Man sold 750,000 copies, reaching No. 5 on B. Dalton's mass-market bestseller list.[115] By 1983, 1.7 million copies of Mastering Pac-Man had been printed.[116] In comedy, there is a popular Pac-Man joke on the controversy regarding the influence of video games on children.[117]

Students' Spring Days in Tartu: runners in Pac-Man costume.

The game has also inspired various real-life recreations, involving either real people or robots. One event called Pac-Manhattan set a Guinness World Record for "Largest Pac-Man Game" in 2004.[118][119][120] The term Pac-Man defense in mergers and acquisitions refers to a hostile takeover target that attempts to reverse the situation and take over its would-be acquirer instead, a reference to Pac-Man's power pellets.[121] The game's popularity has led to "Pac-Man" being adopted as a nickname, most notably by boxer Manny Pacquiao,[122] as well as the American football player Adam Jones.

Pac-Man has also found its position beyond the game world. Under a National Science Foundation funded project, the computer science department at UC Berkeley has developed a custom version of the Pac-Man in Python to teach students basic Artificial Intelligence concepts, such as informed state-space search, probabilistic inference, and reinforcement learning.[123] Students are asked to complete a series of problems from simple to difficult, to eventually design a Pac-Man agent that automatically eats all the beans on the map. The concepts learned during these problems underly many real-world AI application areas, such as natural language processing, computer vision, and robotics.

In January 2013, Pac-Man and Blinky appeared on the top Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Great Dome as part of a traditional hack or prank used to demonstrate the technical aptitude and cleverness of the students. According to the MIT alumni blog, Slice of MIT, the Pac-Man, Blinky battle was intended to serve as a metaphor for the semester. "Pac-Man represents the unquenchable search for knowledge, while Blinky represents the unforeseen distractions that may occur.”[124][125]

On June 10, 2014, Pac-Man was confirmed to appear as a playable character in the game Super Smash Bros. for Nintendo 3DS and Wii U. The 3DS version also has a stage based on the original arcade game, called Pac-Maze.[126]

On February 1, 2015, as part of the Super Bowl, a Bud Light commercial featured a real-life Pac-Man board with one of the players as Pac-Man, and using computer graphic ghosts.

Pac-Man will be appearing in the upcoming film Pixels (2015), with Denis Akiyama playing series creator Toru Iwatani.[127][128]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Namco Bandai Games Inc. (June 2, 2005). "Bandai Namco press release for 25th Anniversary Edition" (in Japanese). bandainamcogames.co.jp/. Archived from the original on December 30, 2007. Retrieved October 10, 2007. 2005年5月22日で生誕25周年を迎えた『パックマン』。 ("Pac-Man celebrates his 25th anniversary on May 22, 2005", seen in image caption) 
  2. ^ a b Long, Tony (October 10, 2007). "Oct. 10, 1979: Pac-Man Brings Gaming Into Pleistocene Era". Wired. Retrieved October 10, 2007. [Bandai Namco] puts the date at May 22, 1980 and is planning an official 25th anniversary celebration next year. [dead link]
  3. ^ Year 1980 shown on North American Pac-Man title screen.
  4. ^ "Game Board Schematic". Midway Pac-Man Parts and Operating Manual (PDF). Chicago, Illinois: Midway Games. December 1980. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  5. ^ Nitsche, Michael (March 31, 2009). "Games and Rules". Video Game Spaces: Image, Play, and Structure in 3D Worlds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. p. 26. ISBN 0-262-14101-9. [...] they would not realize the fundamental logical difference between a version of Pac-Man (Iwatani 1980) running on the original Z80 [...] 
  6. ^ "Pac-Man still going strong at 30". UPI.com. May 22, 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  7. ^ "Oct. 10, 1979: Pac-Man Brings Gaming Into Pleistocene Era". Wired. October 10, 2007. 
  8. ^ "Pac 'n Roll Review". GameSpot.com. August 23, 2005. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  9. ^ Wolf, Mark J. P. (2008). "The video game explosion: A history from PONG to PlayStation and beyond". ISBN 978-0-313-33868-7. 
  10. ^ a b c Green, Chris (June 17, 2002). "Pac-Man". Salon.com. Retrieved February 12, 2006. 
  11. ^ a b c "Pac-Man Fever". Time Magazine. April 5, 1982. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2009. Columbia Records' Pac-Man Fever ... was No. 9 on the Billboard Hot 100 last week. 
  12. ^ a b Goldberg, Marty (January 31, 2002). "Pac-Man: The Phenomenon: Part 1". Arcadegaming.us. Retrieved July 31, 2006. 
  13. ^ a b Parish, Jeremy (2004). "The Essential 50: Part 10 – Pac Man". 1UP.com. Retrieved July 31, 2006. 
  14. ^ a b Steve L. Kent (2001). The ultimate history of video games: from Pong to Pokémon and beyond : the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world. Prima. p. 143. ISBN 0-7615-3643-4. Retrieved May 1, 2011. Despite the success of his game, Iwatani never received much attention. Rumors emerged that the unknown creator of Pac-Man had left the industry when he received only a $3500 bonus for creating the highest-grossing video game of all time. 
  15. ^ a b c Mark J. P. Wolf (2008). The video game explosion: a history from PONG to PlayStation and beyond. ABC-CLIO. p. 73. ISBN 0-313-33868-X. Retrieved April 10, 2011. It would go on to become arguably the most famous video game of all time, with the arcade game alone taking in more than a billion dollars, and one study estimated that it had been played more than 10 billion times during the twentieth century. 
  16. ^ a b Chris Morris (May 10, 2005). "Pac Man turns 25: A pizza dinner yields a cultural phenomenon – and millions of dollars in quarters". CNN. Retrieved April 23, 2011. In the late 1990s, Twin Galaxies, which tracks video game world record scores, visited used game auctions and counted how many times the average Pac Man machine had been played. Based on those findings and the total number of machines that were manufactured, the organization said it believed the game had been played more than 10 billion times in the 20th century. 
  17. ^ "The Legacy of Pac-Man". Archived from the original on January 21, 1998. 
  18. ^ "Pac Man Bootleg Board Information". Archived from the original on July 2, 2007. 
  19. ^ "Davie Brown Celebrity Index: Mario, Pac-Man Most Appealing Video Game Characters Among Consumers". PR Newswire. Archived from the original on June 27, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 
  20. ^ "History of Computing: Video games – Golden Age". Thocp.net. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  21. ^ Antonelli, Paola (29 November 2012). "Video Games: 14 in the Collection, for Starters". MoMA. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
  22. ^ "Pacman Game". Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
  23. ^ Pac-Man, The Arcade Flyer Archive, 1980, archived from the original on November 30, 2013, retrieved May 23, 2012 [dead link]
  24. ^ "What is Pacman?". Pacman.com. Namco. Archived from the original on 2010-11-28. Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  25. ^ a b Martijn Müller (June 3, 2010). "Pac-Man wereldrecord beklonken en het hele verhaal" (in Dutch). NG-Gamer. 
  26. ^ Mateas, Michael (2003). "Expressive AI: Games and Artificial Intelligence" (PDF). Proceedings of Level Up: Digital Games Research Conference, Utrecht, Netherlands. 
  27. ^ "News Headlines". Cnbc.com. March 3, 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  28. ^ DeMaria, Rusel; Wilson, Johnny L. (December 18, 2003). High Score!: The Illustrated History of Electronic Games (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 9780072224283. 
  29. ^ Don Hodges. "Pac-Man's Split-screen level analyzed and fixed". Retrieved April 29, 2008. 
  30. ^ "Pac-Man review at OAFE". Oafe.net. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  31. ^ a b c d Ramsey, David. "The Perfect Man". Oxford American. Archived from the original on 2008-02-29. Retrieved 13 November 2012. 
  32. ^ "Pac-Man at the Twin Galaxies Official Scoreboard". Twin Galaxies. Archived from the original on May 23, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2006. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Top 25 Smartest Moves in Gaming". Gamespy.com. Archived from the original on 2009-02-18. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  34. ^ Kohler, Chris (2005). Power-Up: How Japanese Video Games Gave the World an Extra Life. Brady Games. ISBN 0-7440-0424-1. 
  35. ^ "Daijisen Dictionary entry for ぱくぱく (paku-paku), in Japanese". Retrieved January 27, 2007. 
  36. ^ a b Lammers, Susan M. (1986). Programmers at Work: Interviews. New York: Microsoft Press. p. 266. ISBN 0-914845-71-3. 
  37. ^ http://www.cnbc.com/id/41888021
  38. ^ "The Collection: Selected Works from Applied Design; Pac-Man". MoMA. Retrieved March 4, 2013. 
  39. ^ a b c Kohler, Chris (May 21, 2010). "Q&A: Pac-Man Creator Reflects on 30 Years of Dot-Eating". Wired. Retrieved July 15, 2010. 
  40. ^ a b Kent, Steve. Ultimate History of Video Games, p.142. "Before Namco showed Pac-Man to Midway, one change was made to the game. Pac-Man was originally named Puck-Man, a reference to the puck-like shape of the main character. Nakamura worried about American vandals changing the "P" to an "F." To prevent any such occurrence, he changed the name of the game."
  41. ^ Brian Ashcraft. "This Guy Has a Rare Arcade Cabinet. Is It Real?". Kotaku. 
  42. ^ Bowen, Kevin (2001). "Game of the Week: Defender". ClassicGaming.com. Retrieved August 17, 2006. 
  43. ^ "Pac-Man – The Dot Eaters". The Dot Eaters. Retrieved August 17, 2006. 
  44. ^ Mark J. P. Wolf (2001). The medium of the video game. University of Texas Press. p. 44. ISBN 0-292-79150-X. Retrieved April 9, 2011 
  45. ^ Bill Loguidice & Matt Barton (2009). Vintage games: an insider look at the history of Grand Theft Auto, Super Mario, and the most influential games of all time. Focal Press. p. 181. ISBN 0-240-81146-1. Retrieved April 23, 2011. The machines were well worth the investment; in total they raked in over a billion dollars worth of quarters in the first year alone. 
  46. ^ Kline, Stephen; Nick Dyer-Witheford; Greig de Peuter (2003). Digital play: the interaction of technology, culture, and marketing (Reprint ed.). Montréal, Quebec: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0-7735-2591-2. Retrieved February 25, 2012. The game produced one billion dollars in 1980 alone 
  47. ^ "Electronic and Computer Games: The History of an Interactive Medium". Screen 29 (2): 52–73 [53]. 1988. doi:10.1093/screen/29.2.52. Retrieved January 25, 2012. Revenue from the game Pac-Man alone was estimated to exceed that from the cinema box-office success Star Wars. 
  48. ^ a b Marlene Targ Brill (2009). America in the 1980s. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 120. ISBN 0-8225-7602-3. Retrieved May 1, 2011 
  49. ^ Kevin "Fragmaster" Bowen (2001). "Game of the Week: Pac-Man". GameSpy. Retrieved April 9, 2011. 
  50. ^ Infoworld Media Group, Inc (April 12, 1982). "Video arcades rival Broadway theatre and girlie shows in NY". InfoWorld 4 (14). p. 15. ISSN 0199-6649. Retrieved May 1, 2011 
  51. ^ a b "CPI Inflation Calculator". Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved March 22, 2011. 
  52. ^ a b Kao, John J. (1989). Entrepreneurship, creativity & organization: text, cases & readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. p. 45. ISBN 0-13-283011-6. Retrieved February 12, 2012. Estimates counted 7 billion coins that by 1982 had been inserted into some 400,000 Pac Man machines worldwide, equal to one game of Pac Man for every person on earth. US domestic revenues from games and licensing of the Pac Man image for T-shirts, pop songs, to wastepaper baskets, etc. exceeded $1 billion. 
  53. ^ "Men's wear, Volume 185". Men's wear (Fairchild Publications) 185. 1982. Retrieved February 28, 2012. 
  54. ^ "Electronic Games Magazine". Internet Archive. Retrieved February 1, 2012. 
  55. ^ "Pac Man 'greatest video game'". BBC News. November 13, 2001. Retrieved March 13, 2012. 
  56. ^ Aaron Matteson. "Five Things We Learned From Pac-Man". http://joystickdivision.com.  "This cutscene furthers the plot by depicting a comically large Pac-Man".
  57. ^ a b The Essential 50 – Pac-Man, 1UP
  58. ^ a b Wilson, Jeffrey L. (June 11, 2010). "The 10 Most Influential Video Games of All Time". PC Magazine. 1. Pac-Man (1980). Retrieved April 19, 2012. 
  59. ^ Playing With Power: Great Ideas That Have Changed Gaming Forever, 1UP
  60. ^ Gaming's Most Important Evolutions, GamesRadar
  61. ^ "Space Invaders Deluxe". klov.com. Retrieved March 28, 2011. 
  62. ^ Al-Kaisy, Muhammad (June 10, 2011). "The history and meaning behind the 'Stealth genre'". Gamasutra. Retrieved September 15, 2011. 
  63. ^ David Low (April 2, 2007). "GO3: Kojima Talks Metal Gear History, Future". Gamasutra. Retrieved August 3, 2011. 
  64. ^ Brian Ashcraft (July 16, 2009). "Grand Theft Auto And Pac-Man? "The Same"". Retrieved March 8, 2011. 
  65. ^ "25 years of Pac-Man". MeriStation. July 4, 2005. Retrieved May 6, 2011.  (Translation)
  66. ^ "Gaming's Most Important Evolutions". GamesRadar. October 8, 2010. p. 5. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  67. ^ Bailey, Kat (March 9, 2012). "These games inspired Cliff Bleszinski, John Romero, Will Wright, and Sid Meier". Joystiq. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
  68. ^ Stephan Günzel, Michael Liebe, Dieter Mersch (2008). Sebastian Möring, ed. Conference Proceedings of The Philosophy of Computer Games 2008. Potsdam University Press. pp. 191–2. ISBN 3-940793-49-3. Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  69. ^ Book of Games: The Ultimate Reference on PC & Video Games. Book of Games. 2006. p. 24. ISBN 82-997378-0-X. Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  70. ^ "Game developer". 2 & 5. Miller Freeman. 1995. p. 62. Retrieved June 6, 2011. If you made it to the secret Pac-Man level in Castle Wolfenstein, you know what I mean (Pac-Man never would have made it as a three-dimensional game). Though it may be less of a visual feast, two dimensions have a well-established place as an electronic gaming format. 
  71. ^ Media, Spin L.L.C. (September 1995). "Children of Doom". Spin 11 (6). p. 118. ISSN 0886-3032. Retrieved May 6, 2011 
  72. ^ Gutman, Dan (July 1989). "Nine for '89". Compute!. p. 19. Retrieved 11 November 2013. 
  73. ^ Leonard Herman, Jer Horwitz, Steve Kent, Skyler Miller (2002). "The History of Video Games" (PDF). GameSpot. p. 7. Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  74. ^ "Creating a World of Clones". Philadelphia Inquirer. October 9, 1983. p. 16. 
  75. ^ Thompson, Adam (Fall 1983). "The King of Video Games is a Woman". Creative Computing Video and Arcade Games 1 (2): 65. 
  76. ^ Ratcliff, Matthew (August 1988). "Classic Cartridges II". Antic 7 (4): 24. 
  77. ^ a b c Buchanan, Levi (August 26, 2008). "Top 10 Best-Selling Atari 2600 Games". IGN. Retrieved July 15, 2009. 
  78. ^ "The A-Maze-ing World of Gobble Games". Electronic Games 1 (3): 62–63 [63]. May 1982. Retrieved February 3, 2012. 
  79. ^ Ellis, David (2004). "The Atari VCS (2000)". Official Price Guide to Classic Video Games. Random House. pp. 98–99. ISBN 0-375-72038-3. 
  80. ^ Buchanan, Levi (2008-11-26). "Top 10 Videogame Turkeys". IGN. Retrieved 2009-07-15. 
  81. ^ "Mini-Arcades 'Go Gold'". Electronic Games 1 (9): 13. November 1982. Retrieved February 5, 2012. 
  82. ^ "Coleco Mini-Arcades Go Gold" (PDF). Arcade Express 1 (1): 4. August 15, 1982. Retrieved February 3, 2012. 
  83. ^ Ciraolo, Michael (Oct–Nov 1985). "Top Software / A List of Favorites". II Computing. p. 51. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  84. ^ J.F. Archibald, J. Haynes, ed. (1988). "Video Games Are Back". The Bulletin (5609–5616): 134. Retrieved January 29, 2012. Mindscape, a software company based in Northbrook, sold more than 100,000 copies of Pac Man for the PC last December alone. 
  85. ^ Nguyen, Vincent (May 28, 2008). "First LIVE images and videos of fullscreen Android demos!". Retrieved July 5, 2008. 
  86. ^ "Namco Networks' Pac-Man Franchise Surpasses 30 Million Paid Transactions in the United States on Brew". AllBusiness.com. 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2012. [dead link]
  87. ^ "A quick look at some of the new WP7 games from Namco". BestWP7Games. November 9, 2010. 
  88. ^ Worley, Joyce (May 1982). "Women Join the Arcade Revolution". Electronic Games 1 (3): 30–33 [33]. Retrieved February 3, 2012. 
  89. ^ "Ms. Pac-Man". Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved July 31, 2006. 
  90. ^ Schiesel, Seth (2007-06-06). "Run, Gobble, Gobble, Run: Vying for Pac-Man Acclaim". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  91. ^ "Google gets Pac-Man fever". cnet. May 21, 2010. 
  92. ^ Terdiman, Daniel (May 21, 2010). "Google gets Pac-Man fever". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  93. ^ "'Insert Coin': Google Doodle Celebrates Pac-Man's 30th Anniversary". ABC. ABC. May 21, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2010. 
  94. ^ "Pac-Man gobbles up $120M in workplace productivity". .astd.org. May 26, 2010. Retrieved 2015-03-09. 
  95. ^ "CANOE – Technology: Pac-Man gobbles up $120M in workplace productivity". Technology.canoe.ca. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  96. ^ "Quit playing Google Pac Man and get back to work, everyone!". Inquisitr.com. May 21, 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  97. ^ Terdiman, Daniel (May 21, 2010). "Is playable Pac-Man getting Google's home page banned?". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  98. ^ Michael Calia. "You Can Play Pac-Man on Your City's Streets". Wall Street Journal (blogs). Retrieved March 31, 2015. 
  99. ^ Tom Goldman. "The Escapist : News : Namco Shuts Down Student's Pac-Man Project". Escapistmagazine.com. Retrieved 2012-05-22. 
  100. ^ Ki Mae Huessner. "World's Biggest Pac-Man Is Web Sensation". ABC News Internet Ventures. Retrieved April 13, 2013. 
  101. ^ "The Pac-Page (including database of Pac-Man merchandise and TV show reference)". GameSpy. Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved May 7, 2011. 
  102. ^ McLemore, Greg. "The Top Coin-Operated Videogames of All Times". Killer List of Videogames. Archived from the original on July 17, 2006. Retrieved July 22, 2006. 
  103. ^ "Crystal Sky, Namco & Gaga are game again". Crystalsky.com. Retrieved August 11, 2008.
  104. ^ Jaafar, Ali (May 19, 2008) "Crystal Sky signs $200 million deal". Variety.com. Retrieved September 4, 2008.
  105. ^ White, Cindy. (June 17, 2010) "E3 2010: Pac-Man Back on TV?". IGN.com. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  106. ^ Morris, Chris. (June 17, 2010) "Pac-Man chomps at 3D TV. Variety.com. Retrieved July 7, 2010.
  107. ^ Ivan-Zadeh, Larushka (August 26, 2010). "Scott Pilgrim Vs The World is almost Spaced in Toronto". Metro. Retrieved March 15, 2012. 
  108. ^ "Popular Computing". McGraw-Hill. 1982. Retrieved August 14, 2010. Pac-Man Fever went gold almost instantly with 1 million records sold. 
  109. ^ Turow, Joseph (2008). Media Today: An Introduction to Mass Communication (3rd ed. ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 554. ISBN 0-415-96058-4. Retrieved January 29, 2012. 
  110. ^ RIAA Gold & Platinum Searchable Database – Pac-Man Fever. RIAA.com. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
  111. ^ Dr. Demento's Basement Tapes #4, a Demento Society members-only compilation from 1994, contains the demo. It was never commercially recorded or released.
  112. ^ "The Vocoder: From Speech-Scrambling To Robot Rock". NPR. May 13, 2010. Retrieved February 4, 2012. 
  113. ^ Carless, Simon (August 29, 2005). "Namco, Sony Music Settle Over Pac-Man Samples". Gamasutra.com. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  114. ^ Lai, Marcus (August 29, 2005). "Namco and Sony settle Pac-Man lawsuit". News.punchjump.com. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  115. ^ "Learn The Code Book And Beat Video Games". Ludington Daily News. March 1, 1982. p. 25. Retrieved April 30, 2011. 
  116. ^ Uston, Ken (Fall 1983). "Mastering Pac-Man Plus and Super Pac-Man". Creative Computing Video & Arcade Games 1 (2): 32. Retrieved February 22, 2012. 
  117. ^ "Official site for the stand-up comic, writer, presenter & actor". Marcus Brigstocke. Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved March 13, 2009.  "If Pacman had affected us as kids we'd be running around in dark rooms, munching pills and listening to repetitive music."
  118. ^ "About Pac-Manhattan". Pac-Manhattan. 2004. Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  119. ^ "Roomba Pac-Man Web Site". Retrieved October 10, 2009. 
  120. ^ Lau, Dominic. "Pacman in Vancouver". SFU Computing Science. Archived from the original on 2009-05-30. Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  121. ^ "Origins of the 'Pac-Man' Defense". The New York Times. January 23, 1988. Retrieved November 20, 2010. 
  122. ^ Brunell, Evan (May 22, 2010). "Popular Video Game Pac-Man Celebrates 30th Anniversary". New England Sports Network. Retrieved April 11, 2012. 
  123. ^ "The Pac-Man Project". UC Berkeley. Retrieved July 19, 2012. 
  124. ^ Landry, Lauren (January 11, 2013). "New Year, New Hack: MIT Students Place Pac-Man On Top of the Great Dome". BostInno (Streetwise Media). Retrieved 2013-01-11. 
  125. ^ Dezenski, Lauren (January 11, 2013). "In whimsical retro tribute, Pac-Man appears on MIT's Great Dome". Boston.com (NY Times Co). Retrieved 2013-01-11. 
  126. ^ "Pac-Man". 
  127. ^ "Classic video game characters unite via film 'Pixels'". Philstar. July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014. 
  128. ^ Tarek Bazley: Pac-man at 35: the video game that changed the world. Al Jazeera English, 2015-05-25

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]