Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve

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Pachmarhi Valley, in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.

The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is a non-use conservation area and biosphere reserve in the Satpura Range of Madhya Pradesh state, in central India.

The conservation area was created in 1999 by the Indian government. UNESCO designated a biosphere reserve in 2009.


The Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve is located within areas of Hoshangabad, Betul, and Chhindwara Districts in Madhya Pradesh state.

The biosphere reserve's total area is 4,926.28 square kilometres (1,217,310 acres). It includes three wildlife conservation units:

Satpura National Park is designated as the core zone and the remaining area of 4401.91 km², including the Bori and Pachmarhi sanctuaries, serves as the buffer zones.

Waterfall in Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve.


The reserve is composed primarily of forest habitats, and is an important transition zone between the forest species of western and eastern India.


The forests are dominated by Teak (Tectona grandis).They include the westernmost groves of Sal (Shorea robusta), which is the dominant tree of eastern India's forests. Other endemic vegetation includes Wild mango, Silver fern, Jamun and arjun.[1]

The reserve is well known for its rich forests, and has several sacred groves. They have a diverse range of flora and comprise many useful species, including wild edible fruits and medicinal plants.[2]


Fourteen ethno-botanical plant species occur in PBR have been studied, which are traded from the selected villages of the buffer zone area of PBR. Different plant parts of these important species are collected by the local people for their own consumption and trade. A part of the reserve vegetation has been studied by Prof. Chandra Prakash Kala, especially with respect to the indigenous uses of the plants.

A total 5 ethno-botanical species such as Acacia nilotica, Anogeissus latifolia, Sterculia urens, Terminalia tomentosa, and Terminalia arjuna are in the collection of gums. With Acacia nilotica and Terminalia tomentosa, the gums ooze out from their branches without needing any cuts on the tree. Anogeissus latifolia, Sterculia urens, and Terminalia arjuna are treated conventionally for collection of gums, by making cuts into the stem. The trade in gum generally has brought good returns to the local people.[3]


Large mammal species include tigers, leopard, wild boar, Gaur (Bos gaurus), Chital deer (Axis axis)s, Muntjac deers, Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor)s, and Rhesus macaques.

The endemic fauna includes chinkara, nilgai, wild dogs, the Indian Wolf, bison, Indian giant squirrels, and flying squirrels.


With an annual precipitation of 2m, Pachmarhi boasts of myriad habitats suitable for Herpetofauna. Snakes are often found in this reserve.

It has been reported by Indian herpetologists that 31 species of the following snake families are present in the biosphere:[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ National Council of Educational Research and Training. "Science: Textbook for Class VIII". Publication Department, 2010, p.80.
  2. ^ "Kala, Chandra Prakash 2011. Journal of Environmental Protection". 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2012-06-29. 
  3. ^ Kala, Chandra Prakash 2013. Harvesting and Supply Chain Analysis of Ethnobotanical Species in the Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve of India. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 1 (2): 20-27
  4. ^ [1]

External links[edit]