Pacific Crest Trail

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Pacific Crest Trail
Ritter Range Pacific Crest Trail.jpg
The Pacific Crest Trail in the Ansel Adams Wilderness, with a view of the Ritter Range
Length2,653 mi (4,270 km)[1]
LocationCalifornia / Oregon / Washington, USA / British Columbia, Canada
DesignationNational Scenic Trail
TrailheadsCampo, California
Manning Park, British Columbia
UseHiking
Horse riding
Elevation
Elevation change420,880 ft (128,284 m)[2]
Highest pointForester Pass, 13,153 ft (4,009 m)[3]
Lowest pointCascade Locks, 140 ft (43 m)[4]
Hiking details
MonthsLate April to Late September
SightsSierra Nevada (U.S.)
Cascade Range
HazardsSevere Weather
Dehydration
Wildlife
Map

The Pacific Crest Trail, officially designated as the Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail (PCT) is a long-distance hiking and equestrian trail closely aligned with the highest portion of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountain ranges, which lie 100 to 150 miles (160 to 240 km) east of the U.S. Pacific coast. The trail's southern terminus is on the U.S. border with Mexico, just south of Campo, California, and its northern terminus on the Canada–US border on the edge of Manning Park in British Columbia; its corridor through the U.S. is in the states of California, Oregon, and Washington.

The Pacific Crest Trail is 2,653 mi (4,270 km) long[1] and ranges in elevation from just above sea level at the Oregon–Washington border to 13,153 feet (4,009 m)[3] at Forester Pass in the Sierra Nevada. The route passes through 25 national forests and 7 national parks.[7] Its midpoint is near Chester, California (near Mt. Lassen), where the Sierra and Cascade mountain ranges meet.[8]

It was designated a National Scenic Trail in 1968, although it was not officially completed until 1993.[9] The PCT was conceived by Clinton Churchill Clarke in 1932.[10] It received official status under the National Trails System Act of 1968.

It is the westernmost and second longest component of the Triple Crown of Hiking and is part of the 6,875-mile Great Western Loop.

Route[edit]

The route is mostly through National Forest and protected wilderness. The trail avoids civilization and covers scenic and pristine mountainous terrain with few roads. It passes through the Laguna, Santa Rosa, San Jacinto, San Bernardino, San Gabriel, Liebre, Tehachapi, Sierra Nevada, and Klamath ranges in California, and the Cascade Range in California, Oregon, and Washington.

PCT overview from Forest Service brochure

A parallel route for bicycles, the Pacific Crest Bicycle Trail (PCBT) is a 2,500-mile (4,000 km) route designed closely parallel to the PCT on roads. The PCT and PCBT cross in about 27 places along their routes.

History[edit]

The Pacific Crest Trail was first proposed by Clinton C. Clarke, as a trail running from Mexico to Canada along the crest of the mountains in California, Oregon, and Washington. The original proposal was to link the John Muir Trail, the Tahoe-Yosemite Trail (both in California), the Skyline Trail (in Oregon) and the Cascade Crest Trail (in Washington).[9]

The Pacific Crest Trail System Conference was formed by Clarke to both plan the trail and to lobby the federal government to protect the trail. The conference was founded by Clarke, the Boy Scouts, the YMCA, and Ansel Adams (amongst others). From 1935 through 1938, YMCA groups explored the 2000 miles of potential trail and planned a route, which has been closely followed by the modern PCT route.[9]

In 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson defined the PCT and the Appalachian Trail with the National Trails System Act. The PCT was then constructed through cooperation between the federal government and volunteers organized by the Pacific Crest Trail Association. In 1993, the PCT was officially declared finished.[9]

The Trust for Public Land has purchased and conserved more than 3,000 acres along the Pacific Crest Trail in Washington.[11] Consolidation of this land has allowed for better recreational access as well as greater ease to manage conservation lands.[11]

Thru hiking[edit]

Thru hiking is a term used in referring to hikers who complete long-distance trails from end to end in a single trip. The Pacific Crest Trail, Appalachian Trail, and Continental Divide Trail were the first three long-distance trails in the U.S.. Successfully thru-hiking all of these three trails is known as the Triple Crown of Hiking.[12] Thru-hiking is a long commitment, usually taking between four and six months, that requires thorough preparation and dedication. The Pacific Crest Trail Association estimates that it takes most hikers between six and eight months to plan their trip.[13]

While most hikers travel from the Southern Terminus at the Mexico–US border northward to Manning Park, British Columbia, some hikers prefer a southbound route. In a normal weather year, northbound hikes are most practical due to snow and temperature considerations. Additionally, some hiker services are seasonal and may be better timed for northbound hikers.[14] If snowpack in the Sierra Nevada is high in early June and low in the Northern Cascades, some hikers may choose to 'flip-flop.' Flip-flopping can take many forms but often describes a process whereby a hiker begins at one end (on the PCT, usually the southern end) of the trail and then, at some point, like reaching the Sierra, 'flips' to the end of the trail at the Canada–US border and hikes southbound to complete the trail. However, it is not currently possible to legally enter the United States from Canada by using the Pacific Crest Trail.[15]

Hikers also have to determine their resupply points. Resupply points are towns or post offices where hikers replenish food and other supplies such as cooking fuel. Hikers can ship packages to themselves at the U.S. Post Offices along the trail, resupply at general and grocery stores along the trail, or any combination of the two.[16] The final major logistical step is to create an approximate schedule for completion. Thru hikers have to make sure they complete enough miles every day to reach the opposite end of the trail before weather conditions make sections impassable. For northbound thru-hikers, deep snow pack in the Sierra Nevada can prevent an early start. The timing is a balance between not getting to the Sierra too soon nor the Northern Cascades too late. Most hikers cover about 20 miles (32 km) per day.[13]

In order to reduce their hiking time and thereby increase their chances of completing the trail, many hikers try to substantially reduce their pack weight. Since the creation of the Pacific Crest Trail there has been a large movement by hikers to get away from large heavy packs with a lot of gear. There are three general classifications for hikers: Traditional, Lightweight, and Ultralight.[17][18] Over the past few years[when?] the number of traditional hikers has dropped considerably.

Notable hikers[edit]

Before the PCT was planned, Martin Papendick was the first known person to hike across three states of the PCT in 1952.[19] After being one of the first to finish the Appalachian trail in 1951, Papendick hiked between July 4 and December 1, 1952, from British Columbia to the Mexico–US border over the crests of the mountains along the Pacific Coast, a feat he reported in a periodical under the title "Pacific Crest Trails".[20]

On October 16, 1970, Eric Ryback, an 18-year-old student, completed the first PCT thru-hike. His personal congratulations came by telegram from Edward P. Cliff, Chief of the U.S. Forest Service.[21] Ryback is credited, recognized, and has been honored by the Pacific Crest Trail Association as the official first thru-hiker of the entire trail.[22] Ryback completed the Appalachian Trail in 1969 (as a 16-year-old); the Pacific Crest Trail in 1970; and a route approximating today's Continental Divide Trail in 1972.[23] Ryback's 1971 book The High Adventure of Eric Ryback: Canada to Mexico on Foot focused public attention on the PCT. Ryback carried an 80-pound pack on his 1970 thru-hike. He had only five resupply packages on the entire trip and was loaded with 40 pounds of food at the start of each leg. He often ran out of food and foraged or went hungry.[22] Ryback also helped the Forest Service lay out future plans for the PCT.[24]

However, Ryback's claim is disputed. When the guidebook publisher, Wilderness Press, stated that Ryback had used motor transport in places along the PCT, Ryback sued for $3 million but withdrew the suit after Wilderness Press revealed statements from the people who claim to have picked up the young hiker along highways parallel to the 2,600-mile trail. Ryback is in Smithsonian's top 9 list of people Cheating Their Way to Fame though it notes that The claims that Ryback "cheated" are still doubted by some.[25]

The first person to hike the PCT from south to north was Richard Watson, who completed the trail on September 1, 1972.[19] Watson was often credited as the first PCT thru-hiker, because Papendick was generally unknown and Ryback may have accepted rides.[19] The first woman to complete the PCT was Mary Carstens, who finished the journey later in 1972, accompanied by Jeff Smukler.[19]

The first person to thru-hike the entire PCT both ways in a single continuous round-trip was Scott Williamson, who completed the "yo-yo" circuit on his fourth attempt in November 2004. Williamson traveled a total of 5,300 miles (8,530 km) in 197 days, covering an average of 35 to 40 miles (56 to 64 km) per day when not in snow – an overall average of 27 miles (43 km) per day – wearing an extremely ultra-lightweight pack, which "without food, weighed about 8.5 pounds (3.9 kg)".[26] Williamson then went on to complete a second round trip on November 28, 2006, cutting two weeks off his 2004 time.[27]

The youngest person to hike the trail is Christian Thomas Geiger, who at the age of 6 completed the 2,686 mile trail with his parents Andrea Rego and Dion Pagonis.[28] Christian, also known by his trail name Buddy Backpacker, is also the youngest person to hike the Appalachian Trail [29][30]

Other notable young hikers include Sierra Burror and Reed Gjonnes. Sierra Burror, who completed a continuous thru-hike of the trail in 2012 at the age of 9, is the youngest girl to thru-hike the trail. She completed her hike with her mother, Heather Burror.[31][32][33][34] Reed Gjonnes, who thru-hiked the trail in 2011 at age 11, went on to complete the Triple Crown of Hiking, becoming the youngest person ever to do so.[35]

Teddi Boston hiked from Canada to Mexico on the PCT in 1976 at age of 49. She was one of the first women to hike the trail alone.[36]

An autobiographical account of a woman hiking a portion of the PCT alone in 1995 at age 26 was written by Cheryl Strayed. Her memoir Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail was published in 2012 and reached #1 on the New York Times Best Sellers list.[37] Her hike is the subject of the 2014 film Wild, starring Reese Witherspoon.

The first two reported deaths on the Pacific Crest Trail were in November 1995, when thru-hikers Jane and Flicka Rodman were killed during a detour down California State Route 138 in Southern California, when they were struck by a motorist who lost control of his vehicle. They were less than 400 miles from their goal of reaching the Mexico–US border.[38][39]

The oldest person to thru-hike the trail is not fully established, with multiple competing claims.

On August 7, 2013, Heather "Anish" Anderson of Bellingham, Washington, set the current unsupported speed record. She completed the entire PCT in 60 days, 17 hours, 12 minutes,[40] beating the previous record by almost 4 days.[41]

In 2014, Olive McGloin (from Ireland) became the first woman to thru-hike the PCT both ways in a single continuous round-trip.[42]

On August 10, 2014, Joseph McConaughy of Shoreline, Washington, and a former Boston College middle distance runner, set a new supported speed record and the overall fastest time for the PCT. The distance was covered in 53 days, 6 hours, and 37 minutes.[43][44][45] This overcame the previous record of 59 days, 8 hours, 14 minutes,[41][46][47][48] set by Josh Garret on August 8, 2013, by more than 6 days. Joe was supported by a team of three hikers, Jordan Hamm (a former Boston College distance runner), Michael Dillon, and Jack Murphy.

McConaughy's record was broken on August 14, 2016 by Karel Sabbe, a 27-year-old dentist from Ghent, Belgium. He covered the distance in a total time of 52 days, 8 hours, and 25 minutes, averaging over 50 miles a day and shaving almost a day (22 hours) off the previous record set by McConaughy.[49][50] Sabbe was supported by his friend Joren Biebuyck. With his run Sabbe was also awarded the official Guinness World Record for fastest completion of the Pacific Crest Trail.[51] For their record runs, McConaughy as well as Sabbe had to take some official detours because of wildfires.[52]

Equestrian use[edit]

Don and June Mulford made the first verifiable equestrian Thru-Ride of the PCT in 1959.[53][54][55] In that year the Pacific Crest Trail stretched a poorly marked 2,400 miles from Mexico to Canada. More concept than footpath, the trail was an oft-broken, high-ridge track disappearing regularly from map and terrain. On April 19, 1959, on an empty scrub sage plain seven miles east of Tijuana, with four horses, Don and June Mulford began their journey north to the Washington–Canada border. The Mulfords went to Hollywood for three months immediately after the ride and were featured on network television. June's old press book yields a half-dozen TV-Guide pages, and she recalls, "Art Linkletter was such a nice man. We appeared on his 'House Party' show and he had coffee with us afterward." "High Road to Danger," a syndicated TV show, made an episode on their ride. Even after they had returned home to the Northwest, there was continued TV coverage. A January 1961 TV Guide records their appearance on Portland's KOIN Red Dunning Show. The Mulfords even made a 90-minute movie and showed it around 12 western states for 10 years.

The Murray family – Barry, Bernice, Barry Jr. and Bennette – completed the trek on horseback on October 7, 1970.[56]

Future[edit]

• In 2008, an agreement for realignment through Tejon Ranch in Southern California was reached.[57] This realignment would relocate 37 miles of the PCT from the Mojave Desert floor to the more scenic Tehachapi Mountains. While an agreement was reached, the realignment is a long-term project; many details remain to be determined, as well as an Optimal Location Review—a lengthy process through which the ideal path for the new section of trail is specified. Actual relocation of the trail is unlikely to happen before 2021.

• Portland, Oregon's 40-Mile Loop proposes to extend the Springwater Corridor hiking and bicycling spur trail to connect the Pacific Crest Trail[58] with the proposed Cazadero Trail.[59]

• Plans are currently in progress to add a dedicated pedestrian/equestrian lane to the Bridge of the Gods (modern structure) across the Columbia River. Currently, PCT hikers and equestrians must cross the bridge walking in vehicle traffic lanes—a potential danger which the new lane will eliminate. A completion date for this project is unknown.

Notable locations[edit]

The following notable locations are found along or adjacent to the route of the Pacific Crest Trail. They are listed from south to north to correspond with the itinerary typically followed by thru-hikers to take advantage of the best seasonal weather conditions. The numbers in parentheses correspond to the numbers on the PCT overview map above.

California[edit]

Oregon[edit]

Washington[edit]

Mount Daniel in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness
Adams Glacier viewed from the PCT on Mount Adams
Cascade Pass in the North Cascades National Park
Old Snowy in the Goat Rocks Wilderness, north of Mount Adams

British Columbia, Canada[edit]

Location coordinates[edit]

Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Pacific Crest Trail logo
Point Coordinates
(links to map & photo sources)
Notes
United States – Mexico border 32°35′23″N 116°28′07″W / 32.5898°N 116.4685°W / 32.5898; -116.4685 (United States – Mexico border)
Forester Pass 36°41′39″N 118°22′19″W / 36.6941°N 118.3720°W / 36.6941; -118.3720 (Forester Pass) highest point
Midpoint 40°12′48″N 121°21′17″W / 40.2132°N 121.3546°W / 40.2132; -121.3546 (Midpoint)
Oregon – California border 42°00′14″N 122°54′36″W / 42.0038°N 122.9100°W / 42.0038; -122.9100 (Oregon – California border)
Columbia River 45°39′45″N 121°53′58″W / 45.6624°N 121.8994°W / 45.6624; -121.8994 (Columbia River) lowest point
Canada – United States border 49°00′00″N 120°47′55″W / 49.0000°N 120.7987°W / 49.0000; -120.7987 (Canada – United States border)


Coordinates: 40°12′48″N 121°21′17″W / 40.2132°N 121.3546°W / 40.2132; -121.3546

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Halfmile's Pacific Crest Trail Notes - Ashland, OR to Manning Park, BC (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-09, retrieved 2016-03-05
  2. ^ Parks, Scott (2011-04-06). "Postholer.com Pacific Crest Trail Data Book". Archived from the original on 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2011-04-18.
  3. ^ a b Sources disagree on Forester Pass's elevation. The Forest Service claims 13,180 feet (4,017 m)[5] while the USGS says 13,153 feet (4,009 m),[6] but topographic maps showing 36°41′39″N 118°22′19″W / 36.6941°N 118.3720°W / 36.6941; -118.3720 indicate a little less than 13,123 feet (4,000 m).
  4. ^ "Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail". USFS. Archived from the original on 2010-01-16.
  5. ^ "Pacific Crest Trail – Central California Online Map and Guide". USFS. 2005-04-26. Archived from the original on 2006-05-25. Retrieved 2006-09-23.
  6. ^ "Forester Pass". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  7. ^ "Pacific Crest National Scenic Trail." Parks Directory of the United States. 2004 ed.
  8. ^ Backpacker Magazine. "Pacific Crest Trail: CA Section 31". Trimble Outdoors. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02.
  9. ^ a b c d "History of the Pacific Crest Trail". Archived from the original on 2010-01-22. Retrieved 2010-03-28.
  10. ^ Gally, Sid. "The Pacific Crest Trail had its roots in Pasadena". Pasadena Star News. Archived from the original on 2015-01-14.
  11. ^ a b "Pacific Crest Scenic Trail". The Trust for Public Land. Retrieved 2018-08-03.
  12. ^ Berger, Karen (2001). Hiking the Triple Crown: How to Hike America's Longest Trails : Appalachian Trail, Pacific Crest Trail, Continental Divide Trail. Seattle: Mountaineers Press. ISBN 0-89886-760-6.
  13. ^ a b "FAQs". Pacific Crest Trail Association. Archived from the original on 2011-12-25. Retrieved 2006-12-19.
  14. ^ Mitchell, Jackie. (2017) Yogi's Pacific Crest Trail Handbook 2017-2018
  15. ^ Wilson, Kimberly (2010-07-02). "Mind the border: Feds warn Pacific Crest Trail hikers crossing from Canada to U.S." The Oregonian. Archived from the original on 2013-11-09.
  16. ^ "Pacific Crest Trail Resupply Points". PlanYourHike.com. Archived from the original on 2011-01-07. Retrieved 2010-03-01.
  17. ^ Jardine, Ray (2000). Beyond Backpacking: Ray Jardine's Guide to Lightweight Hiking. LaPine, OR: AventureLore. ISBN 0-9632359-3-1.
  18. ^ "Ultralight Backpacking: Have You Considered It?". hikingspree.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  19. ^ a b c d Schifrin, Ben; Schaffer, Jeffrey P; Jenkins, Ruby Johnson (2003). The Pacific Crest Trail: Southern California. Wilderness Press. p. 5. ISBN 0-89997-316-7.
  20. ^ Papendick, Martin. "Pacific Crest Trails". Appalachia. Appalachian Mountain Club, 1953. XXVIII: 374–376.
  21. ^ "Ryback Returns" (PDF). Pcta.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  22. ^ a b "Fun Facts". Pacific Crest Trail Association. Archived from the original on 2012-08-28. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  23. ^ "Medals for Miles" (PDF). Pcta.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  24. ^ "Muir Trail Story". Mchalepacks.com. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  25. ^ Alastair Bland (April 17, 2013). "Cheating Their Way to Fame". smithsonian.com. Retrieved October 10, 2014.
  26. ^ "Hiker Completes First Round-Trip of Pacific Crest Trail". Outside Magazine. November 18, 2004. Archived from the original on 2004-12-04. Retrieved 2009-09-14.
  27. ^ "A solo accomplishment is appreciated by many". San Diego Union-Tribune. 2006-12-02. Archived from the original on 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2006-12-02.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-02-28. Retrieved 2016-01-30.
  29. ^ "Meet Buddy Backpacker, The 5 Year Old Thru-Hiker - The Trek". appalachiantrials.com. 2 March 2014. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2016-10-06.
  31. ^ "Nine-year-old Monkey completes the PCT". Pacific Crest Trail Association. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  32. ^ "An Interview with "Monkey"". Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  33. ^ Burror, Heather (March 29 & 30, 2014) "Adventures on the Pacific Crest Trail" Inyo Register p. 15.
  34. ^ See also Heather and Sierra's PCT Thru Hike Journal Archived 2013-04-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^ Zach Urness, (Salem, Ore.) Statesman Journal (27 October 2013). "Ore. girl, 13, youngest to claim hiking 'Triple Crown'". Usatoday.com. Archived from the original on 1 December 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  36. ^ Martinez, A., KPCC Take Two (3 August 2015). "Teddi Boston recalls historic solo walk on the Pacific Crest Trail". scpr.org. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  37. ^ Taylor, Ihsan. "Best Sellers - The New York Times". Nytimes.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2012-03-06.
  38. ^ "Jane and Flicka Rodman", Pacific Crest Trail Association', Retrieved 2015-05-07. Archived 2015-04-26 at the Wayback Machine.
  39. ^ "Sierra hikers remembered in trek by family, friends". The Las Vegas Sun. Aug 18, 1997. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  40. ^ Doug Williams, Records set on Pacific Crest Trail Archived 2015-10-01 at the Wayback Machine., at ESPN Enduracne Sports, September 3, 2013
  41. ^ a b "Pacific Crest Trail (CA, OR, WA)". Fastest Known Time. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  42. ^ "A walk on the wild side: meet the first woman to YoYo the Pacific Crest Trail". Irish Times. Archived from the original on 2015-01-25.
  43. ^ "Seattle Runner Smashes Speed Record For Full Length of Pacific Crest Trail". Northwest Public Radio. Archived from the original on 2014-08-12.
  44. ^ "55 miles a day: Blistering pace for hiker seeking Pacific Crest record". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 2014-08-12.
  45. ^ "Run For Colin". Runforcolin.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  46. ^ "PCT speed record is shattered twice". Pacific Crest Trail Association. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  47. ^ "Vegan Hiker Sets New Record On Pacific Crest Trail". Oregon Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  48. ^ "Man, woman set records on Pacific Crest Trail". Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  49. ^ "Karel Sabbe Claims New Supported PCT Speed Record - The Trek". appalachiantrials.com. 17 August 2016. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  50. ^ "How a Dentist from Belgium Clipped a Day off the PCT Thru-Hike Record - REI Co-op Journal". REI Co-op Journal. 2016-10-06. Archived from the original on 2017-10-27. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  51. ^ "Fastest completion of the Pacific Crest Trail on foot". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 2017-10-27. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  52. ^ "Pacific Crest Trail (CA, OR, WA) | Fastest Known Time". fastestknowntime.proboards.com. Archived from the original on 2017-10-27. Retrieved 2017-10-27.
  53. ^ Meadows, Mel (1959-09-06). Seattle Post Intelligencer. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  54. ^ Mann, Barney (2009-09-25). Portland Oregonian. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  55. ^ Mann, Barney (December 2009). PCTA Communicator. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  56. ^ Life Magazine, September 3, 1971
  57. ^ "PCT alignment through Tejon Ranch a big step closer - Pacific Crest Trail Association". 2014-05-07. Archived from the original on 2016-08-06. Retrieved 2016-07-26.
  58. ^ "40-Mile Loop map" (PDF). 40-Mile Loop Land Trust. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 2008-07-10.
  59. ^ "Cazadero Trail". Metro (Oregon). Archived from the original on August 7, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
  60. ^ "Chapter 6: Washington State". United Divide: A Linear Portrait of the USA/Canada Border. The Center for Land Use Interpretation. Winter 2015. Archived from the original on 2017-11-14.

External links[edit]