South American pilchard

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South American pilchard
Catch of Pacific sardines.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Clupeiformes
Family: Clupeidae
Genus: Sardinops
C. L. Hubbs, 1929
Species: S. sagax
Binomial name
Sardinops sagax
(Jenyns, 1842)

The South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax) is a sardine of the family Clupeidae, the only member of the genus Sardinops. It is found in the Indo-Pacific and East Pacific oceans. Its length is up to 40 cm (16 in). It has other names, some of which more appropriately refer to subspecies, including blue pilchard, Australian pilchard (S. s. neopilchardus), blue-bait, Californian pilchard (S. s. caeruleus), Peruvian Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax sagax), Chilean sardine (S. s. sagax), Japanese pilchard (S. s. melanostictus), Pacific sardine, and Southern African pilchard (S. s. ocellatus).

South Australian sardine fishery[edit]

South Australian sardine fishery - Total catch (1990-2012)
South Australian sardine fishery - Total catch (1990-2012)

The South Australian sardine fishery targets Sardinops sagax and is the highest yielding single species fishery in Australia by volume. The fishery employs the technique of purse seining. Schools of sardines are encircled by a net up to 1 kilometre in length which is then drawn closed at the bottom. The catch is then pumped on board the fishing vessel where it is stored in refrigerated holds at below freezing temperatures. 94% of the catch is used as feed in Southern bluefin tuna ranching operations off Port Lincoln, South Australia. The remaining 6% of the catch serves human consumption, recreational fishing bait and premium pet food markets.[1]

Visitors watch a school of thousands of Pacific sardines form a tornado in an exhibit at Monterey Bay Aquarium
A school of S. sagax in the Open Sea exhibit at Monterey Bay Aquarium

The industry commenced in South Australia in 1991 with an annual catch quota of 1,000 metric tons (980 long tons; 1,100 short tons). In 2003, the fishery's annual quota was set at 36,000 metric tons (35,000 long tons; 40,000 short tons).[2] By 2014, the annual quota had increased to 38,000 metric tons (37,000 long tons; 42,000 short tons).[3] The fishery's total landed catch peaked at 56,952 metric tons (56,053 long tons; 62,779 short tons) in the financial year 2004-05 stabilising at around 32,000 metric tons (31,000 long tons; 35,000 short tons) per year thereafter.

A key area of concern for industry compliance in 2004 was quota evasion. Quota evasion had previously occurred in several forms: unloading catch directly to tuna farms, failing to report prior to unloading catch and dumping excess catch at sea.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sardines". South Australian Sardine Industry Association. Retrieved 2015-04-26. 
  2. ^ a b Ecological Assessment of South Australian Pilchard Fishery (PDF). South Australia: Primary Industries and Resources South Australia (PIRSA). 2004. pp. 23–24. 
  3. ^ Neindorf, Brooke (2014-11-26). "Catch increase for South Australian sardine fishers". Rural. ABC. Retrieved 2015-04-26.