Pacorus II of Parthia
Pacorus II of Parthia (Persian: پاکور دوم, flourished 1st century & first half of second century), was a Parthian Prince who ruled the Parthian Empire from about 78 to 105. Pacorus II was a monarch of Iranian and Greek ancestry. Pacorus II was born from a Greek concubine as being the eldest son of Vonones II. Pacorus II was born and raised during his father’s kingship of Media Atropatene. Pacorus II was the namesake of his relative, a previous ruling Parthian King Pacorus I of Parthia.
When his father died in 51, his brother Vologases I succeeded his father as Parthian King. Vologases I had given Pacorus II their paternal dominion the Kingdom of Media Atropatene to rule as King. He ruled as King of Media Atropatene from 51 until 78 and little is known on his reign. After the death of Vologases I, Pacorus II revolted against his nephew Vologases II (c. 78–80) who was his father’s successor. After Pacorus II defeated Vologases II, he deposed of him.
According to the Roman Historian Cassius Dio, Pacorus II sold the kingdom of Osroene to Abgar VII and according to Ammianus Marcellinus he enlarged the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and built its walls. In 101, Pacorus II sent an embassy to the Han Dynasty of China, the latter which recorded Parthia as the Anxi kingdom.
On his numerous coins he always calls himself "Arsaces Pacorus". This mention of his proper name, together with the royal name Arsaces, shows that his kingdom was disputed by rivals. Three of them we know from coins; in addition to Vologases II, they included Artabanus IV, c. 80–90 and Vologases III, from about 105. Pacorus II died about 105; he was succeeded by his brother Osroes I, who maintained the rivalry with king Vologases III based in East Parthia.
- Crespigny, 239.
- Cassius Dio, lxviii, 17.
- Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae, xxiii, 6, 23.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press
- Crespigny, Rafe de. (2007). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 AD). Leiden: Koninklijke Brill. ISBN 90-04-15605-4.
Pacorus II of Parthia
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