Padang

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This article is about the city in Indonesia. For other uses, see Padang (disambiguation).
Padang
City
Skyline of Padang
Adityawarman Museum West Sumatra's Great Mosque
Tour de Singkarak Padang old town
Klenteng See Hin Kiong Imam Bonjol Park
(From top, left to right): Skyline of Padang, Adityawarman Museum, Grand Mosque of West Sumatra, Tour de Singkarak, Padang old town, Klenteng See Hin Kiong, and Imam Bonjol Park.
Official seal of Padang
Seal
Location of Padang in West Sumatra
Location of Padang in West Sumatra
Padang is located in Indonesia
Padang
Padang
Location of Padang in Indonesia
Coordinates: 0°57′0″S 100°21′11″E / 0.95000°S 100.35306°E / -0.95000; 100.35306Coordinates: 0°57′0″S 100°21′11″E / 0.95000°S 100.35306°E / -0.95000; 100.35306
Country Indonesia
Province West Sumatra
Founded 7 August 1669
Government
 • Mayor Mahyeldi Ansharullah
Area
 • City 695 km2 (268 sq mi)
 • Urban 249 km2 (96 sq mi)
Elevation 0-1,853 m (0-6,079 ft)
Population (2014 Estimate)
 • City 1,024,906
 • Density 1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 • Urban 896,400
 • Urban density 3,600/km2 (9,300/sq mi)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Area code(s) +62 751
Website www.padang.go.id

Padang (Indonesian pronunciation: [ˈpadaŋ]) is the capital of the West Sumatra province in Indonesia. It is the largest city in the western coast of Sumatra. Before Indonesia's independence, Padang was one of the major cities in the Dutch East Indies[1] and the second largest city in Sumatra behind Palembang. It has an area of 694.96 square kilometres (268.33 sq mi) and a population of 1,024,906 people at the 2014 estimated.

Padang is one of the cleanest big cities in Indonesia. Up to 2009, Padang has received the "Adipura" (cleanest and greenest city) award in the category of large city for 17 times and the "Adipura Kencana" award for 3 times.

Padang is exactly at the antipodes of Esmeraldas, Ecuador.

History[edit]

Padang circa 1795
Padang, 1859

Since the 16th century Padang has been a trade centre. During the 16th and 17th centuries pepper was cultivated and traded with India, Portugal, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. In 1663 the city came under the authority of the Dutch. The Dutch built a trading post here in 1680. The city came under British authority twice, the first time from 1781 to 1784 during the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, and again from 1795 to 1819 during the Napoleonic Wars. Afterwards the city was transferred back to the Netherlands. Up to approximately 1780 the most important trade product was gold, originating from the gold mines in the region. When the mines were exhausted, the emphasis turned to other products such as coffee, salts and textiles.

In 1797 Padang was inundated by a tsunami with an estimated flow depth of 5–10 meters, following an earthquake, estimated to be 8.5–8.7 Mw, which occurred off the coast. The shaking caused considerable damage and the deaths of two people, while the tsunami resulted in several houses being washed away and several deaths at the village of Air Manis. The boats moored in the Arau river ended up on dry land, including a 200-ton sailing ship which was deposited about 1 kilometer upstream. In 1833 another tsunami inundated Padang with an estimated flow depth of 3–4 meters as a result of an earthquake, estimated to be 8.6–8.9 Mw, which occurred off Bengkulu. The shaking caused considerable damage in Padang, and due to the tsunami the boats moored in the Arau river broke their anchors and were scattered.[2]

At the time of independence in the 1940s the city had around 50,000 inhabitants. Coffee was still important, but copra was also a major item produced by farmers in its hinterland. The population growth since then has been partly a result of growth in the area of the city, but largely is a result of the migration to major cities seen in so many developing nations. In 1950 there was development of the Ombilin coal field with Padang as its outlet. This was seen by some observers as reflecting the economic as well as political colonization of Indonesia.

On 30 September 2009, a 7.9 magnitude earthquake hit about 50 kilometers off the coast of Padang. There were more than 1,100 fatalities, 313 of which occurred within Padang.[3][4][5]

Administrative Districts[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1819 8,500 —    
1874 25,000 +194.1%
1900 35,158 +40.6%
1930 52,054 +48.1%
1961 143,699 +176.1%
1971 350,277 +143.8%
1980 480,922 +37.3%
1990 631,263 +31.3%
2010 833,562 +32.0%
2013 923,544 +10.8%

The city of Padang is divided into 11 districts (kecamatan):

Transportation[edit]

Padang is well-connected by road, air, rail and sea. There are so many public transport within city and intercity. There are several transportation mode in Padang such as taxi, bus, minibus, ojek (motorcycle taxi) and Trans Padang (bus rapid transit).

Public transport[edit]

The Trans Padang bus rapid transit service was developed used Jakarta's TransJakarta system as a model. Even with no dedicated lane and comfortable shelters. Nowadays, Trans Padang only serves from Lubuk Buaya to Pasar Raya along 18 km.

Corridor # Origin-Destination Opened [6]
1 Lubuk Buaya - Pasar Raya February 2014
2 Bungus - Pasar Raya planned
3 Air Pacah - Pasar Raya planned
4 Teluk Bayur - Lubuk Buaya planned
5 Indarung - Pasar Raya planned
6 Limau Manis - Pasar Raya planned

Airport[edit]

The city is served by the newly opened Minangkabau International Airport in Ketaping, Padang Pariaman. It replaces the old Tabing Airport. Tabing Airport now is used as a military base. There is one terminal building for both international and domestic flights. The airport has 4 aerobridges, 17 check-in counters, 5 baggage conveyors, and 9 ticket sales counters.[7] In late 2013, the runway was lengthened to 250 m that is now compatible with Boeing 747, Airbus A340 planes, and also there is a plan to connect the airport to the city of Padang with train service.[8] The terminal expansion (Phase II) is already announced and the rendering is already released in Angkasa Pura 2 website.[9]

Seaport[edit]

Padang's Teluk Bayur harbor (former Emmahaven Port) is the largest and busiest harbor on the west coast of Sumatra. It serves inter-island as well international routes. Built in 1888 by Netherlands colonial government, on April 29, 2013 a new container terminal is officially opened by West Sumatra Governor and can serve more than 4,000 containers in 46,886 square-meter area.[10] It is the main gateway to the Mentawai islands including Siberut, Sipora, and South Pagai. There are also ferry connections between Padang to Jakarta and Sibolga next to Gunung Sitoli (Nias).

Toll Road[edit]

West Sumatra administration has secured lands for 27-kilometer toll road between Padang and Sicincin district with about Rp.1.3 trillion ($141.7 million) investment. 80 percent land acquisition with 30 meters in width has already done, but they will acquire more land to meet an ideal 50 meters width. The construction project will be initialized in 2012.[11]

Railroad[edit]

Railroad tracks connect Padang to Pariaman to the north, Padangpanjang to the northeast, Solok and Sawahlunto to the east. The largest train station is Padang Station, known as Simpang Haru station. Sibinuang and Dang Tuanku provides the trip services from Padang (Simpang Haru) to Pariaman vice versa.

Education[edit]

Andalas University, Limau Manis campus

Minangkabau people highly respect education. Many intellectual figures come from West Sumatra. There are two institutes of higher education in Padang, i.e. Andalas University and the State University of Padang. Andalas University is the oldest university in Indonesia outside of Java. The main campus is located at Limau Manis, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) from the center of Padang. The Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Dentistry are located in the city center, near the Central General Hospital M. Djamil. State University of Padang located in Air Tawar.

The other universities in Padang are Imam Bonjol State Institute of Islamic Literature, Institut Teknologi Padang in Lapai, Bung Hatta University in Ulak Karang, Baiturrahmah University in Air Pacah, Universitas Putra Indonesia YPTK, Ekasakti University, Universitas Muhammadiyah Sumatera Barat, and Tamansiswa University.

The local library of West Sumatra, located in Padang is considered as one of the best Libraries in Indonesia, with the number of collection of 30 k tittles, including facilities and maximum conserve, and the highest number of Encyclopedic visitors.

Formal education state and private Elementary School neither Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI) state and private Junior High (JHS) or MTs state and private SHS state and private MA state and private Vocational High School (VHS) College
Quantity 477 129 49 10 42 58
Data sekolah di Kota Padang
Source:[12][13][14]

Climate[edit]

Padang features a tropical rainforest climate under Köppen’s climate classification. Padang is one of Indonesia’s wettest cities, with frequent rainfall throughout the course of the year. The city averages roughly 4300 mm of rain per year. Padang’s driest month is February, where 250 mm of precipitation on average is observed. The city temperatures are relatively constant throughout the year, with an average of 26 degrees Celsius.

Climate data for Padang
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.9
(93)
34.4
(93.9)
33.9
(93)
33.3
(91.9)
33.9
(93)
33.9
(93)
33.3
(91.9)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91)
32.8
(91)
34.4
(93.9)
Average high °C (°F) 30.6
(87.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90)
32.2
(90)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90)
32.2
(90)
31.7
(89.1)
31.1
(88)
30.6
(87.1)
31.6
(88.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.2
(81)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
25.0
(77)
25.0
(77)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
Average low °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
24.4
(75.9)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.3
(73.9)
23.3
(73.9)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
23.8
(74.8)
Record low °C (°F) 21.1
(70)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70)
21.7
(71.1)
21.7
(71.1)
20.0
(68)
21.1
(70)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70)
21.1
(70)
21.1
(70)
21.1
(70)
20.0
(68)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 351
(13.82)
259
(10.2)
307
(12.09)
363
(14.29)
315
(12.4)
307
(12.09)
277
(10.91)
348
(13.7)
152
(5.98)
495
(19.49)
518
(20.39)
480
(18.9)
4,172
(164.25)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 175 181 175 188 200 206 200 186 136 135 167 167 2,116
Source #1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[15]
Source #2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990)[16][a]

Culture[edit]

Cuisine[edit]

Main article: Minangkabau cuisine

The cuisine of the Minangkabau people is commonly called Padang cuisine. Padang restaurants are common throughout the country and are famous for their spicy food. Padang food is usually cooked once per day, and all customers choose from those dishes, which are left out on display until no food is left. It is served in small portions of various dishes, but constituting, with rice, a complete meal. Customers take – and pay for – only what they want from this array of dishes. The best known Padang dish is rendang, a spicy meat stew. Soto Padang (crispy beef in spicy soup) is local residents' breakfast favorite, meanwhile sate (beef satay in curry sauce served with ketupat) is a treat in the evening.

Sport[edit]

Padang is the home town of the soccer team Semen Padang, with Haji Agus Salim Stadium being the home stadium of the club. Padang is home to an annual international dragon boat competition.[17]

Tourism[edit]

Old Town Padang

Padang is a common transit point for surfers traveling to Batu Islands and Mentawai Islands, and for tourists visiting the West Sumatran highlands. Padang beach (known as Taplau or Tapi Lauik) which located from Samudra Street until Puruih, is well known for its beautiful sunset and hundreds of food stalls. Kuranji River flows in Padang and on top area of the river at Batu Busuk, Lambung Bukit sub-district is suitable for white water activities. Bungus bay, to the south of Padang, is suitable for swimming and boating. There are some pleasant offshore islands near Bungus, such as Sikuai island and Pagang island. Many beautiful spots which can be visited for snorkeling, fishing or just relaxing on the white sandy beaches.

Currently, Regional Development Planning Board (Bappeda) of Padang has established development plans "Padang Old City" in Kampung Pondok, South Padang district as a tourist area.[18] Mayor of Padang has been designate 73 historic buildings as cultural heritage of Padang.[19]

Landmarks[edit]

Masjid Muhammadan, a historic mosque in Padang
Facade of Ganting Grand Mosque, 2013

There are many old buildings in Padang that still retain their Dutch and Chinese architecture. The old city of Padang, located next to Muaro Harbor at Arau River, which formerly function as the city's main commercial avenue. The old city was the former business district of Padang, there are many important building such as Padang City Hall, De Javaschebank (present-day Bank Indonesia), Nederlandsch Spaarbank, Geo Wehry & Co, Escompto Maatschappij Office, warehouses, and merchant houses.

There are several historic places such as Adityawarman Museum specializes in the history and culture of the local Minangkabau ethnic group, and the main exhibits are housed within a Rumah Gadang style building. Grand Mosque of West Sumatra, a new modern large mosque that is built with Minangkabau architecture. The Mosque located on Jalan Khatib Sulaiman, city center of Padang. Ganting Grand Mosque, the oldest mosque in Padang and one of the oldest in Indonesia, is a popular tourist attraction. Muhammadan Mosque, founded by Indian merchant, also located on city center. St. Leo Monastery, mixture of traditional Minang architecture on its bell tower roofing and Dutch architecture church body, is one of the oldest church in Padang. Along the beachside road, just down from the Tourist Information office is a Buddhist Temple, Vihara Buddha Warman, opened in 2006 for the large Chinese Buddhist community.

Beaches and Parks[edit]

Air Manis Beach, sweet water beach is located 10 km south of Padang, location of the legend Malin Kundang Stone. The rock formations are found which resemble ship wrecks. Across from the Arau River is the Siti Nurbaya Park which can reached by bridge or boat. There are still remains of Japanese canons and bunkers from World War II. There are great views back over Padang city, Arau River and the Indian ocean. Bung Hatta Nature Reserve (Taman Hutan Raya Bung Hatta) is situated 18 km east of the city, with diverse flora and fauna including a few Sumatran Tigers, tapirs, Wild goats, Bears, as well as Raflesia Gaduansi, Balangphora, and Amorphopalus.

Shopping[edit]

Padang also has some modern malls, the most popular mall are Basko Grand Mall, SPR Plaza, Plaza Andalas, and Rocky Plaza. The upcoming malls in the city are Padang Landmark Mall and Padang Green City.

  • Basko Grand Mall – Situated at Jl. Prof Dr Hamka. Is a largest shopping malls in the city.
  • Plaza Andalas – Located at Jl. Pemuda. The anchor tenants are Ramayana Department Store, Solaria, KFC, Optik Melawai, Hammer and many more.
  • Rocky Plaza - Located at Jl. Permindo.
City skyline of Padang on 28 June 2013 from Gunung Padang hill.


Tsunami shelter[edit]

Government and the people of Hill Pangilun has agreed to make Mount Pangilun as tsunami shelter. Better road access to the hill will be built, as well as temporary shelters, including their facilities.[20]

Sister and Twin Town cities[edit]

Sister cities Country
Hildesheim Germany Germany
Vung Tau Vietnam Vietnam
Beit Lahiya State of Palestine Palestine
Chonburi Thailand Thailand
Bandung Indonesia Indonesia

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.kicc.jp Indonesia: Surabaya And Padang
  2. ^ Natawidjaja, D. H.; K. Sieh, M. Chlieh, J. Galetzka, B. W. Suwargadi, H. Cheng, R. L. Edwards, J.-P. Avouac, and S. N. Ward (June 2006). "Source parameters of the great Sumatran megathrust earthquakes of 1797 and 1833 inferred from coral microatolls" (PDF). Journal Of Geophysical Research 111 (B06403): B06403. Bibcode:2006JGRB..11106403N. doi:10.1029/2005JB004025. 
  3. ^ Telly Nathalia (30 September 2009). "Indonesian quake toll at 100-200: disaster agency". Reuters. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  4. ^ "Indonesia quake deaths pass 700". BBC. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  5. ^ B Kunto Wibisono (14 October 2009). "Number of fatalities in W Sumatra quake now 1,115". ANTARA News. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  6. ^ "Rute Baru Trans Padang Sejauh Total 33 Km Akan Dioperasikan 2015". Retrieved 2015-06-04. 
  7. ^ PT Angkasapura II – Minangkabau Airport Facilities
  8. ^ Minangkabau Airport
  9. ^ PT Angkasapura II
  10. ^ "Teluk Bayur container terminal inaugurated". April 30, 2013. 
  11. ^ "Jasa Marga sets sights on 27-kilometer Padang toll road". April 17, 2012. 
  12. ^ www.diknas-padang.org Profil Sekolah.
  13. ^ www.padang.go.id Dinas Pendidikan.
  14. ^ nisn.jardiknas.org Data Siswa.
  15. ^ "Indonesia–Padang". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Retrieved June 18, 2015. 
  16. ^ "Station 96163: Mia Padang". Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration. Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved June 18, 2015. 
  17. ^ Dragon Boat Races International
  18. ^ http://sumbar.antaranews.com Padang Old City Defined as Tourism Object
  19. ^ http://kotatuapadang.tumblr.com
  20. ^ "Gunung Pangilun Ditetapkan Jadi Shelter". April 30, 2012. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Station ID for Mia Padang is 96163 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration

External links[edit]