This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

16 Vayathinile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Padhinaru Vayadhiniley)
Jump to: navigation, search
16 Vayathinile
16 Vayathinile.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by P. Bharathiraja
Produced by S. A. Rajkannu
Written by P. Bharathiraja
Starring Kamal Haasan
Sridevi
Rajinikanth
Music by Ilaiyaraaja
Cinematography P. S. Nivas
Edited by R. Bhaskaran
Production
company
Sri Amman Creations
Distributed by Sri Amman Creations
Release date
  • 15 September 1977 (1977-09-15)
Running time
139 minutes[1]
Country India
Language Tamil

16 Vayathinile (English: At Age 16; read as Pathinaaru Vayathinile) is a 1977 Indian Tamil-language romantic drama film written and directed by P. Bharathiraja in his directorial debut. The film features Kamal Haasan, Sridevi, and Rajinikanth in the lead roles, with Ganthimathi, Sathyajith and Goundamani in supporting roles. 16 Vayathinile's soundtrack album and background score were composed by Ilaiyaraaja, with cinematography by P. S. Nivas. P. Kalaimani wrote the film's dialogue.

The film focuses on the strengths and vulnerabilities of Mayil (Sridevi), a 16-year-old schoolgirl, and the challenges she faces and overcomes. The film, originally titled Mayil, is set in rural Tamil Nadu and is Rajinikanth's first colour film. 16 Vayathinile is the first Tamil film to be shot completely outdoors; Tamil films were primarily filmed in Chennai studios.

Produced and distributed by S. A. Rajkannu, 16 Vayathinile was released on 15 September 1977 to critical praise for Bharathiraja's script, Ilaiyaraaja's music and the performances of Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth. It was commercially successful, with a 175-day theatrical run.

16 Vayathinile, considered a Tamil cult film, is the bellwether of films featuring realistic portrayals of rural life. Making stars of its director and lead actors, the film won the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for S. Janaki, the Filmfare Award for Best Actor (Tamil) for Kamal and four State Awards, including Best Director for Bharathiraja and Best Actor for Kamal. It was remade in Telugu by K. Raghavendra Rao as Padaharella Vayasu (1978), in Hindi by Bharathiraja as Solva Sawan (1979), and in Malay as Melati Putih (1984).

Plot[edit]

Mayil is a 16-year-old schoolgirl who lives in a village with her mother, Guruvammal. Guruvammal also takes care of the limping orphan Gopalakrishnan, who is called "Chappani" ("Lame") by the villagers and does whatever he can to earn a living. Mayil's ambition is to become a teacher, and she hopes to marry a sophisticated, educated man; although Chappani is in love with her, she ignores him.

An urban veterinarian named Sathyajith arrives in the village to work and falls in love with Mayil. Mayil, believing that Sathyajith is the man for her, falls in love with him, to the point of refusing an opportunity to attend a teacher-training course in Madras to remain with him. Despite loving Sathyajith, she does not allow him to exploit her sexually, which disappoints him. Never intending a serious relationship with Mayil, he proceeds to his native place to get married to another woman. When Mayil begs Sathyajith not to leave her, he says he befriended her for pleasure—not marriage.

A dejected Mayil confesses this to Guruvammal, who quickly plans to betroth her to someone else. The village ruffian Parattai—who lusts for Mayil—spreads rumours about her relationship with Sathyajith. Because of this, Mayil's engagement plans are halted and the village becomes hostile to her. Unable to bear the shame, Guruvammal dies and leaves Chappani to take care of Mayil.

Chappani takes good care of Mayil, cheering her up when she needs it. She warms to Chappani, making him more confident and assertive and grooming him and his manners, to the surprise of many in the village. Mayil tells him to slap anyone who calls him "Chappani" and to respond only to those who address him by his name, Gopalakrishnan. When Sathyajith and Parattai call him "Chappani" despite his request to use his real name, Gopalakrishnan slaps them. Mayil and Gopalakrishnan celebrate his newfound courage. An insulted Parattai later beats Gopalakrishnan badly. Mayil saves him, spitting on Parattai for the brutal attack.

Mayil decides to marry Gopalakrishnan, and sends him to the nearby town for buying wedding supplies. Learning of Gopalakrishnan's absence, Parattai goes to Mayil's house and tries to rape her. Gopalakrishnan returns to Mayil's house and pleads with Parattai to leave her. When Parattai refuses, Gopalakrishnan kills him with a rock and is arrested. He promises Mayil that he will return, and she waits everyday for him.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

16 Vayathinile was P. Bharathiraja's directorial debut and his first screenplay.[1] It was originally planned to be a black-and-white film titled Mayil and funded by the National Film Development Corporation of India (NDFC), but according to Bharathiraja, the NFDC withdrew at the last minute without a reason.[2] The film was eventually produced by S. A. Rajkannu under the banner Shri Amman Creations.[1] Mayil was re-titled 16 Vayathinile,[3] and the dialogue was written by P. Kalaimani.[1] P. S. Nivas was signed as cinematographer, Somnath-Kamalasekharan as art director and R. Bhaskaran as editor.[4]

Bharathiraja wanted Chithra Lakshmanan, who was an assistant director with K. Bhagyaraj, to sign Kamal Haasan for the role of Chappani, expecting to pay Kamal 15,000[a] since the actor had received 17,000[b] for Aayirathil Oruthi (1975). When Kamal asked for 30,000,[a] Lakshmanan suggested that Bharathiraja offer the role to Sivakumar since the production unit could not afford Kamal's request; however, Bharathiraja saw Kamal as the ideal choice and agreed to pay him 27,000.[6][a] For his character, the actor grew his curly hair long and wore lungis and khadi high-buttoned shirts.[7] In 2017, Kamal recalled, "Years ago, a man sporting a soiled dhoti and shirt came to my office to narrate a script. Had I turned the offer down on the basis of his dirty clothes, I wouldn’t have been here talking to you. After listening to the script, I realised that he was such a genius and the movie was the cult classic [16 Vayathinile], and he was none other than ace Bharathiraja sir".[8] Bharathiraja also recalled that he showed a "handsome Kamal Haasan in an ugly way" as he wanted to prove that characters need not always be attractive, and to break this stereotype in the film industry.[9]

Rajinikanth was cast as the village ruffian Parattai.[10] Although Bharathiraja had finalised 3,000 as the salary for Rajinikanth after the latter initially charged 5,000, he had paid 2,500 to Rajinikanth.[11][12][a] 16 Vayathinile marked Rajinikanth's first appearance in a colour film.[10] Since the actor was not fluent in Tamil at the time, Bhagyaraj read him his lines and Rajinikanth repeated them until he mastered them.[13] Sridevi was cast as Mayil, after whom the film was initially titled.[3][10] For the role of Mayil's mother Guruvammal, Bharathiraja wanted someone who could speak the village dialect fluently and chose Ganthimathi for her acting style.[14] Receiving a salary of 150,[13][a] Bhagyaraj was initially considered for the veterinarian's role but wanted to concentrate on directing;[15] despite that, he still made a cameo appearance in the film.[16] The role of the veterinarian went to newcomer Shabbir Ahmed, who was given the screen name Sathyajith during post-production. His scenes were shot in ten days.[17][18] Comedian Goundamani was cast as a character named Koothu.[19] Kamal, Sridevi, Rajinikanth and Gandhimathi were credited by their character names in the opening credits, rather than their actual names.[19]

Filming[edit]

Shot mainly in Mysore and Kollegal,[15][17] 16 Vayathinile was the first Tamil film made completely outdoors and no sets were used.[20][21] Due to budgetary constraints the technical crew could not afford a camera which could film slow motion and Sridevi had to run in slow motion for the song "Chendoora Poove".[22][23] The scene where Mayil spits on Parattai required several takes before Rajinikanth insisted that Sridevi actually spit on him for real.[22]

While Bharathiraja wanted the film to follow a linear narration, it was Bhagyaraj's idea to begin the film with a flashback sequence. After the film completed its shoot, it was screened at least 20 times for the distributors and the narrative switched every time between the linear and non-linear versions. Eventually, the producer himself released the film, with the flashback narrative.[13] The budget of the film was 0.5 million (equivalent to 9.8 million or US$150,000 in 2016).[11]

Themes[edit]

16 Vayathinile focuses on rural Tamil Nadu,[24] and the vulnerabilities of Mayil.[25] Film critic Naman Ramachandran compared Parattai to Rajinikanth's character Kondaji from Katha Sangama (1975), stating "Like in that film, Rajinikanth is a card-playing wastrel with henchmen in tow. Just like the Thimmaraya character in Katha Sangama runs errands for Kondaji, here Chappani/Gopalakrishnan performs services for Parattai, but the similarity ends there because Thimmaraya is evil and Chappani is good." He also described the film as the first instance when a villainous character played by Rajinikanth does not have a change of heart or get away without being punished: "Here he pays for his deeds with his life."[26]

According to Kamal, the film was inspired by David Lean's 1970 drama, Ryan's Daughter.[27] Film scholar Swarnavel Eswaran Pillai noted that the film was marked by "ambiguous and dark protagonists, new subjectivity, [and] avoidance of clichéd and cathartic closures".[28] Kumuthan Maderya, writing for Jump Cut, described 16 Vayathinile as a "neo-nativity" film — a story set in rural Tamil Nadu, valorising the rustic and foregrounding the lives of villagers.[29] Ashis Nandy, in his 1998 book The Secret Politics of Our Desires, noted that doctors in Tamil films like 16 Vayathinile are always viewed with "a bit of suspicion" and remain complete outsiders "capable of seducing women and polluting the community".[30]

Music[edit]

16 Vayathinile
Soundtrack album by Ilaiyaraaja
Genre Feature film soundtrack
Length 16:53
Language Tamil
Label EMI Records
Producer Ilaiyaraaja

The soundtrack album and background score for 16 Vayathinile were composed by Ilaiyaraaja with lyrics by Kannadasan, Gangai Amaran and Alangudi Somu.[31] Ilaiyaraaja, in an April 2015 interview with Maalai Malar, stated that Kannadasan accepted salaries ranging from 1,000 to 1,500. Ilaiyaraaja requested Kannadasan to accept 750 citing the film's budget constraints, to which Kannadasan agreed.[32] The album was released on EMI Records.[33]

16 Vayathinile was Ilaiyaraaja's first collaboration with Kamal.[34] Bharathiraja insisted that Rajkannu meet Ilaiyaraaja, although Rajkannu doubted if Ilaiyaraaja would sign on since he had become well-known after his debut film Annakili (1976). Ilaiyaraaja initially refused because of an earlier bet with Bharathiraja that Ilayaraaja's mentor, G. K. Venkatesh, would compose the music for Bharathiraja's first film. Venkatesh later insisted that Ilaiyaraaja compose the music.[32]

Although Ilaiyaraaja wanted S. P. Balasubrahmanyam to sing "Chavanthi Poo" and "Aattukkutti", the singer had pharyngitis at that time and was replaced by Malaysia Vasudevan.[35] "Chavanthi Poo", the first song recorded, was the first written by Kannadasan for the film.[35] Gangai Amaran made his debut as lyricist with "Chendoora Poove".[36] Ilaiyaraaja also debuted as a singer with this film by singing the number "Solam Vidhaikkaiyile", although it does not appear on the soundtrack.[37][38] According to film critic Baradwaj Rangan, "Chendoora Poove" used Viennese musical tropes.[39] B. Kolappan of The Hindu wrote that the song "employs a rush of violins to set up the intro for the folk melody that follows."[40] The term "Chendoora Poove", which refers to a flower, was coined by Amaran since there is no such flower by that name.[41]

The album, a blend of folk and Western classical music,[20] was praised by critics, and "Aattukkutti" established Vasudevan's popularity.[42] About "Chendoora Poove", B. Kolappan wrote, "The maestro's genius is most evident in his ability to combine forms seamlessly."[40] Tribune described "Chendoora Poove" as a "silver lined melody that paced the film and added to its brilliance. Do not miss it at any cost."[43] P. K. Ajith Kumar of The Hindu praised Janaki's vocals in "Chendoora Poove", saying the song "would not have sounded as special in any other voice".[44] Oinam Bedajit Metei, author of the article Influence of Cross Cultural Flows on National Integration through Bollywood musicals: An Analytical Study, praised the song for offering "an insight into the variety and diversity in [Janaki's] voice". He also praised its picturisation.[45] The song inspired the title of a 1988 film starring Vijayakanth,[46] and a television serial of the same name.[47] The film's songs were remastered in DTS 5.1 six-channel audio by A. Muthusamy of Honey Bee Music in June 2013.[48]

Side one
No. Title Lyrics Singer(s) Length
1. "Manjakkulichi" Alangudi Somu S. Janaki 4:26
2. "Chendoora Poove" Gangai Amaran S. Janaki 3:33
Side two
No. Title Lyrics Singer(s) Length
1. "Aattukkutti" Kannadasan Malaysia Vasudevan, S. Janaki 4:20
2. "Chavanthi Poo" Kannadasan Malaysia Vasudevan, P. Susheela 4:34

Release[edit]

16 Vayathinile was released on 15 September 1977.[49] Rajkannu released the film himself after no distributors were willing to buy it.[11] Although 16 Vayathinile was written off by the media as an experimental film that would fail, it became a commercial success,[11] running for over 175 days in theatres,[50] and becoming a silver jubilee film.[28][c] The film earned $1 million at the box office according to a 2010 estimate by the magazine South Scope, and Rajkannu went into hiding to avoid income-tax raids.[51] It was remade in Telugu by Kovelamudi Raghavendra Rao as Padaharella Vayasu (1978) and in Hindi by Bharathiraja as Solva Sawan (1979), with Sridevi reprising her role in both.[52][53] It was also remade in Malay as Melati Putih (1984).[54] In October 2009, actor Ganesh revealed that he and his wife bought the remake rights of 16 Vayathinile for Kannada.[55]

Critical reception[edit]

The film received critical acclaim, with praise for Bharathiraja's script, Ilaiyaraaja's music and the performances of Kamal, Sridevi and Rajinikanth.[28][56][57] The Tamil magazine Ananda Vikatan, in its original review, gave the film 62.5 marks out of 100, their highest rating for a Tamil film.[58] The reviewer praised the film for representing village life with realism, and for avoiding the cliché of (studio) court and police station in its climax, but criticised the error in focusing.[28] In the fourteenth volume of Film World, dated 1978, T. M. Ramachandran praised Kamal's performance.[59] Tribune stated in 1983, "[Kamal Haasan] by his youthfulness alone has many years ahead of him to adorn the Tamil and Hindu screens, and going by his brilliance in Pathinaru Vayathinile, could even, displace [Sivaji Ganesan] with the passage of time".[60]

In 2007, Rediff called 16 Vayathinile a "new genre of pastoral film, which was true to village life in characterisation, costumes and dialect".[56] The Times of India stated that it "showcase[s] the best of the superstar [Rajinikanth] and the universal hero [Kamal Haasan]".[61] On International Women's Day in 2017, writing for Firstpost, Sujatha Narayanan described Mayil as Sridevi's "earliest best role".[62]

Awards[edit]

In addition to the National Film Award for Best Female Playback Singer for S. Janaki,[63] 16 Vayathinile won Kamal the Filmfare Award in the Best Tamil Actor category.[64] The film won four Tamil Nadu State Film Awards,[26] and Rajinikanth won the Arima Sangam Award for Best Actor for his role as Parattai.[56]

Award Ceremony Category Nominee(s) Outcome Ref.
National Film Awards 25th National Film Awards Best Female Playback Singer S. Janaki Won [63]
Filmfare Awards 6th Filmfare Awards South Best Actor – Tamil Kamal Haasan Won [64]
Tamil Nadu State Film Awards 4th Tamil Nadu State Film Awards Best Director P. Bharathiraja Won
[26]
Best Actor Kamal Haasan Won
Best Music Director Ilaiyaraaja Won
Best Female Playback Singer S. Janaki Won

Legacy[edit]

I am [Bharathiraja's] very first fan ... These are not empty words. Before 16 Vayathinile's release, when he showed me the film, I wrote him a letter of appreciation. That's why I say that I'm his first fan and proud to be so.

— Director K. Balachander, on Bharathiraja.[26]

16 Vayathinile is considered a cult film and a landmark in Tamil cinema, diverging from traditional Tamil films of the time.[12][65][d] With Annakili, the film was a trendsetter for realistic portrayals of rural life,[20] and made superstars of Kamal, Rajinikanth and Sridevi,[66] as well as boosting Goundamani's popularity.[67] According to Naman Ramachandran and S. Shiva Kumar of The Hindu, Kamal's performance was considered a tour de force by critics since he was typecast as a romantic hero at that time.[26][68] The dialogue "Idhu Eppadi Irukku?" ("How's this?"), spoken by Parattai, became very popular;[26] IANS and Rediff included it on their lists of lines popularised by Rajinikanth.[56][69] Manisha Lakhe, writing for Forbes India, noted that 16 Vayathinile "paved the way for unkempt villains who had a singularly disgusting laugh."[70] A digitally remastered version of the film was being planned for a late 2013 release; although its trailer was released in October that year,[71] the film has yet to see a theatrical release as of 2016.[72]

In July 2007, S. R. Ashok Kumar of The Hindu asked eight Tamil directors to list their all-time favourite Tamil films; seven – C. V. Sridhar, K. Balachander, J. Mahendran, K. Bhagyaraj, Mani Ratnam, K. S. Ravikumar and Ameer – named 16 Vayathinile.[73] According to Ratnam, the film was "memorable for its script, high standard and realism."[73] South Scope included Kamal's performance on its list of "Kamal's best performances" in July 2010.[7] S. Shiva Kumar of The Hindu included the film on his December 2010 list of "Electrifying Rajinikanth-Kamal Haasan films" with Moondru Mudichu (1976), Avargal (1977) and Aval Appadithan (1978).[74] In April 2013 CNN-News18 included the film on its list of "100 greatest Indian films of all time", saying that it was a "decisive move away from the studio-bound productions and paved the way for successful integration of subaltern themes and folk arts into mainstream commercial cinema."[75] In December 2014, The Times of India included 16 Vayathinile on its list of "Top 12 Rajinikanth movies".[76] In August 2015, CNN-IBN included the film in its list of "10 performances that make [Sridevi] the 'Last Empress' of Indian cinema".[53] In November the same year, Daily News and Analysis included the film in its list of "Films you must watch to grasp the breadth of Kamal Haasan's repertoire".[77] Actors Vijay Sethupathi and Vikram included 16 Vayathinile among their favourite films.[78][79] After seeing the film, director K. Balachander wrote in a letter of appreciation to Bharathiraja, "You have hit the bull's eye".[80]

16 Vayathinile was spoofed in Murattu Kaalai (2012) by Vivek, whose character Saroja is called "Mayil" by Cell Murugan's character (a veterinarian similar to Sathyajith's character in the film).[81][82] Sridevi's line, "Aatha Naan Passaayitten" ("Mother, I've passed the exam"),[4] was the title of a 1990 film starring Arjun Sarja.[83] In Sivaji (2007), Vivek's character delivers one of Rajinikanth's catchphrases and finishes by saying: "Idhu eppadi irukku?".[84] The film's title and characters have inspired other film titles: Parattai Engira Azhagu Sundaram (2007),[65] Mayilu (2012)[85] and 36 Vayadhinile (2015).[86] In Nayaki (2016) "Chendoora Poove" is frequently hummed by Trisha's character Gayathri.[87]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e The exchange rate in 1977 was 8.7386 Indian rupees () per 1 US dollar (US$)[5]
  2. ^ The exchange rate in 1975 was 8.3759 Indian rupees () per 1 US dollar (US$).[5]
  3. ^ A Silver Jubilee film is one that completes a theatrical run of 175 days (25 weeks).[28]
  4. ^ Tamil films were mostly made in studios in Chennai till then.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Rajadhyaksha & Willemen 1998, p. 433.
  2. ^ Ilangovan, R. (18 October 2013). "Man behind the 1970s wave". Frontline. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  3. ^ a b Suganth, M (4 February 2016). "Censoring, I think, should not be done in the modern world". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Bharathiraja, P. (director) (1977). 16 Vayathinile (motion picture). India: Sri Amman Creations. 
  5. ^ a b Antweiler, Werner (2015). "Foreign Currency Units per 1 U.S. Dollar, 1948–2014" (PDF). PACIFIC Exchange Rate Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "ரஜினியைவிட கமலுக்கு அதிக சம்பளம்!" [Kamal's salary was higher than Rajini's!]. Kungumam (in Tamil). 29 April 2013. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  7. ^ a b "Southscope July 2010 – Side A". South Scope. 2010. p. 51. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  8. ^ "I am a Tamil porukki for whatever it is worth: Kamal Haasan". Deccan Chronicle. 24 January 2017. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  9. ^ Suganth, M. (22 May 2017). "Yesteryear films had more heart; the present ones have more brain". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 31 May 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  10. ^ a b c Ramachandran 2014, p. 66.
  11. ^ a b c d "Rajini & Kamal come together to promote '16 Vayathinile'". Sify. 5 October 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  12. ^ a b Seshagiri, Sangeetha (10 October 2013). "Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan's Cult Classic '16 Vayathinile' to Re-Release in October". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  13. ^ a b c Sri (12 June 2010). "K.Bhaagya Raj — Chitchat — Slide 1". Telugucinema.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2015. 
  14. ^ "Actor Kanthimathi dead". The Hindu. 9 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  15. ^ a b Kumar, S. R. Ashok (29 March 2007). "A good feature film must be remembered for time to come". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  16. ^ Suganth, M. (13 February 2017). "From ADs to actors in their guru's films". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  17. ^ a b Ahmed, Sameera (14 January 2015). "Remember that doctor from the movie 16 Vayithinile?". The News Minute. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  18. ^ "16 வயதினிலே புது டிரெய்லர் வெளியீடு - ஒரே மேடையில் கமல், ரஜினி" [16 Vayathinile new trailer release — Kamal and Rajini on the same stage]. Dinamalar. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 
  19. ^ a b "அடம்பிடிக்கும் மயிலு!" [The tantrum-making Mayil!]. The Hindu (in Tamil). 26 December 2014. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c d Ramachandran 2014, p. 67.
  21. ^ Shrikumar, A. (26 January 2013). "Rustic tone". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  22. ^ a b "When Sridevi spat on Rajinikanth!". The Times of India. 5 October 2013. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  23. ^ Kumar, N. Vinoth (15 September 2017). "16 வயதினிலே - 40 ஆண்டுகள்: என்றும் வாழும் 'மயில்!'" [16 Vayathinile - 40 Years: Everlasting ‘Mayil’!]. The Hindu (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 22 September 2017. Retrieved 22 September 2017. 
  24. ^ Baskaran, S. Theodore (2009). "Tamil Cinema — DIARY OF A SOCIETY ON CELLULOID" (PDF). India Perspectives. pp. 24–27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 
  25. ^ Srivatsan (17 July 2016). "Happy 75th Birthday Bharathiraja: Remembering the iconoclasts best films". India Today. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f Ramachandran 2014, p. 68.
  27. ^ "'வெப் வேர்ல்ட்-டின் பலத்தை உலகம் உணர்கிறது!' - SICA விழாவில் கமல்" ['The world feels the strength of the Web World!' - Kamal at the SICA Function]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). 22 January 2017. Archived from the original on 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. 
  28. ^ a b c d e Pillai, Swarnavel Eswaran (31 January 2012). "The 1970s Tamil Cinema and the Post — classical Turn" (PDF). Temple University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 
  29. ^ Maderya, Kumuthan (2010). "Rage against the state: historicizing the "angry young man" in Tamil cinema". Jump Cut. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016. 
  30. ^ Nandy 1998, p. 209.
  31. ^ "16 Vayathinile songs". Raaga.com. Archived from the original on 15 August 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2013. 
  32. ^ a b Ilaiyaraaja (19 April 2015). "பாரதிராஜாவின் 16 வயதினிலே படத்திற்கு இசை அமைக்க இளையராஜா மறுப்பு!" [Ilayaraaja refuses to compose for Bharathiraja's 16 Vayathinile]. Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  33. ^ Ilaiyaraaja (1977). "16 Vayathinile". The Gramophone Company of India Ltd. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  34. ^ Rangan, Baradwaj (6 September 2014). "And more on the Ilaiyaraaja connection". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  35. ^ a b Ilaiyaraaja (20 April 2015). "16 வயதினிலே படத்தின் பாடல் பதிவு: எஸ்.பி.பாலசுப்பிரமணியத்துக்கு பதிலாக மலேசியா வாசுதேவன்" [16 Vayathinile song recording: S. P. Balasubrahmanyam replaced with Malaysia Vasudevan]. Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  36. ^ Ilaiyaraaja (21 April 2015). "இளையராஜா இசை அமைப்பில் செந்தூரப்பூவே பாடலை எழுதினார், கங்கை அமரன்" [Gangai Amaran wrote the lyrics for Ilaiyaraaja's "Chendoora Poove"]. Maalai Malar (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  37. ^ "Isaignani Ilaiyaraaja in Conversation with G. Venket Ram". The Brew. January 2013. pp. 22–26. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  38. ^ "இளையராஜாவின் இதயத்தில் இடம்பெற்ற எம்.எஸ்.வி" [MSV, who found a place in Ilaiyaraaja's heart]. Dina Thanthi (in Tamil). 16 April 2016. Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  39. ^ Rangan, Baradwaj (14 October 2011). "The strange man in a Superman suit". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  40. ^ a b Kolappan, B. (25 December 2012). "In tune with nativity and modernity". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  41. ^ Bala, Ramesh [@rameshlaus] (16 April 2013). "@minieSayz No Its not.. That is something Gangai Amaren came up with for his famous song in 16 Vayadhiniley." (Tweet). Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 6 October 2017 – via Twitter. 
  42. ^ "Singer Malaysia Vasudevan passes away". The Times of India. 21 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 
  43. ^ Tribune, Volume 27, Issues 15–33. Ceylon News Service. 1983
  44. ^ Kumar, P. K. Ajith (23 September 2016). "I have sung enough: S. Janaki". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 26 September 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  45. ^ Meitei, Oinam Bedajit (2013). "Influence of Cross Cultural Flows on National Integration through Bollywood musicals: An Analytical Study". Tezpur University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2017. 
  46. ^ "Top 10 Vijayakanth movies - 06". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  47. ^ "Senthoora Poove". The Hindu. 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  48. ^ Jeshi, K. (13 June 2013). "Music to his ears". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  49. ^ "16 வயதினிலே (1977)" [At age 16 (1977)]. Cinema Express (in Tamil). Archived from the original on 14 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  50. ^ Sharadhaa, A. (23 October 2013). "Yesterday, once more". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  51. ^ "Love Reels". South Scope. February 2010. p. 57. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  52. ^ "We've slowed down: Kamal Haasan on competition with Rajinikanth". Daily News and Analysis. Indo-Asian News Service. 4 October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  53. ^ a b Rajpal, Roktim (21 May 2016). "Happy Birthday Sridevi: 10 performances that make her the 'Last Empress' of Indian cinema". CNN-News18. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. 
  54. ^ Khorana 2013, chpt. Bollywood and its Malaysian Affiliation.
  55. ^ Srinidhi, Sharadha (23 October 2009). "I want to return to big screen: Ganesh". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
  56. ^ a b c d Srinivas, Saraswathy (21 May 2007). "Rajnikath, the villain". Rediff. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  57. ^ Surendran, Anusha; Venkatraman, Janane; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi (21 July 2016). "Rajini: the actor before the hero". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  58. ^ "ஆனந்த விகடன் விமர்சனக் குழுவின் இரண்டாவது அதிகபட்ச மதிப்பெண்கள் 'விசாரணை'க்கு!" [Visaranai is the Ananda Vikatan review board's second highest rated film!]. Ananda Vikatan (in Tamil). 9 February 2016. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 27 June 2016. 
  59. ^ Ramachandran, T. M. (1978). Film World. 14. p. 130. 
  60. ^ Tribune, Volume 27, Issues 15-33. Ceylon News Service. 1983. p. 53. Retrieved 31 May 2017. 
  61. ^ Srinivasan, Pavithra; Suganth, M. (17 October 2008). "Kamal-Rajini 3-in-1 Double Dhamaka". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 21 May 2016. 
  62. ^ Narayanan, Sujatha (8 March 2017). "International Women's Day 2017: Scoping the dearth of realistic female characters in Tamil films". Firstpost. Archived from the original on 10 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2017. 
  63. ^ a b "25th National Film Awards" (PDF). Directorate of Film Festivals. 1978. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2017. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 
  64. ^ a b The Times of India Directory and Year Book Including Who's who. Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd. 1984. p. 234. 
  65. ^ a b Pillai, Sreedhar (26 April 2007). "Mother-son sentiment". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  66. ^ Swaminathan 2003, p. 22.
  67. ^ Raghavan, Nikhil (21 May 2016). "Return of the counter". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016. 
  68. ^ Shiva Kumar, S. (27 August 2009). "'I'm a limelight moth'". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  69. ^ "Rajinikanth's punchnama". The Hindu. IANS. 13 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  70. ^ Lakhe, Manisha (27 September 2010). "Why Rajinikanth Rocks". Forbes India. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2016. 
  71. ^ Kandavel, Sangeetha; Vijayakumar, Sanjay (5 October 2013). "Rajinikanth, Kamal Haasan bring back 35-year-old 'Ninaithale Inikkum'". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  72. ^ Ramesh, Neeraja (14 July 2016). "With '16 Vayathinile' slated for re-release, we look at Bharathiraja's failed heroes". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016. 
  73. ^ a b Ashok Kumar, S. R. (13 July 2007). "Filmmakers' favourites". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  74. ^ Shiva Kumar, S. (31 December 2010). "Immortality ode". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 20 January 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  75. ^ "100 Years of Indian Cinema: The 100 greatest Indian films of all time". CNN-News18. 17 April 2013. p. 77. Archived from the original on 26 December 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2013. 
  76. ^ "Top 12 Rajinikanth movies". The Times of India. 11 December 2014. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  77. ^ "Birthday special: Films you must watch to grasp the breadth of Kamal Haasan's repertoire". Daily News and Analysis. 7 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016. 
  78. ^ Kamath, Sudhish (19 September 2013). "Full of pizzazz!". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  79. ^ "Why I like ... Pathinaaru Vayathinile". The Hindu. 15 February 2008. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  80. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (22 April 2010). "Another avatar". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  81. ^ Mannath, Malini (17 June 2012). "'Murattu Kaalai' (Tamil)". The New Indian Express. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 14 December 2013. 
  82. ^ Rangarajan, Malathi (16 June 2012). "Murattu Kaalai – Not as raging .." The Hindu. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  83. ^ Saimohan, M. K. (director) (1990). Aatha Naan Paasayiten (motion picture). India: Anita Pictures. 
  84. ^ Shankar, S. (director) (2007). Sivaji (motion picture). India: AVM Productions. 
  85. ^ "Mayilu Movie Review". The Times of India. 28 October 2012. Archived from the original on 20 May 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  86. ^ Mishra, Nivedita (20 March 2015). "36 Vayathinile: Watch Jyothika's emotional journey to self discovery". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  87. ^ Suganth, M (17 September 2016). "Nayaki Movie Review". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]