|Awarded by||Government of India|
|Previous name(s)||Pahela Varg|
|First awardee(s)||Satyendra Nath Bose, Nand Lal Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, V. K. Krishna Menon|
|Last awardee(s)||K. G. Subramanyan, Mario Miranda, Bhupen Hazarika, Kantilal Hastimal Sancheti, T. V. Rajeswar|
The Padma Vibhushan is the second highest civilian award in the Republic of India. It consists of a medal and a citation and is awarded by the President of India. It was established on 2 January 1954. It ranks behind the Bharat Ratna and comes before the Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri. It is awarded to recognize exceptional and distinguished service to the nation in any field, including government service. The first recipients of this award were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nand Lal Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, and V. K. Krishna Menon in the year 1954.
The award was established by Presidential decree on 2 January 1954. The Padma Vibhushan was originally established as the Pahela Varg (First Class) of a three-class "Padma Vibhushan" awards. However the structure was changed in 1955 and there is no record of the award being presented to recipients in the original structure. The award was suspended between 1977 and 1980 and between 1992 and 1998.
As of 2015, there are 105 living recipients. The oldest living recipient as of 2015 is S. I. Padmavati (age 97-98); the youngest living recipient is Sachin Tendulkar (age 41).
First medallion (1954–1956)
The initial medal was a circular gold medal, 1-3/8 inches in diameter, with an embossed lotus flower in the center and the legend "Padma Vibhushan" above and a floral wreath below. The obverse side had the Indian state emblem with the legend Desh Seva (National Service) above and a lotus wreath below. No record exists to show whether this design was used to present a medal to the awardees.
Second medallion (1955–1956)
In 1955, the badge design was altered to be a "mainly circular" 1-3/16-inch toned bronze badge with geometrical patterns. The center had a lotus flower with four major petals embossed in white gold. Above and below this flower, the name of the decoration Padma Vibhushan was embossed in silver-gilt.
Current medallion (1957–current)
In 1957, the badge design was retained but the material changed from toned bronze to burnished bronze.
Although the Padma awards, including the Padma Vibhushan are the highest civilian awards in India and those selected for the award are famous for their contribution to Indian social, cultural, economic, political or other speheres of life, several noted public figures have refused the award on various grounds. In The eminent jurist and former Chief Justice of India J. S. Verma was awarded the Padma Bhushan posthumously in 2014. His family refused to accept the award as they believed Justice Verma in principle "was never a man to yearn or lobby for any acclaim, reward or favour."."
Several artists including musicians and writers including S Janaki, Ustad Vilayat Khan, Romila Thapar, Sitara Devi and Phanishwarnath Renu have also refused various Padma awards due to various reasons, including personal pride and what has been described as 'national interest'.
List of awardees
- "Precedence Of Medals". http://indianarmy.nic.in/. Indian Army. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
- "Padma Vibhushan Awardees". Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- "This Year's Padma Awards announced" (Press release). Ministry of Home Affairs. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- "Padma Awards 2015". Press Information Bureau. Retrieved 2015-01-25.
- JS Verma's family refuses Padma Award
- Modi calls for Yoga Day in US General Assembly
- People Who Have Refused Padma Awards
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Padma Vibhushan.|
- "2015 Padma Vibhushan Awards List". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
- "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2013)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. (archived)
- "2014 Padma Awards". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. (archived)