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Padma Vibhushan

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Padma Vibhushan
Awarded by
Emblem of India.svg
Government of India
Type Civilian
Category National
Description
Obverse A centrally located lotus flower is embossed and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Vibhushan" is placed below the lotus.
Reverse A platinum Emblem of India placed in the centre with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs) in Devanagari Script
Ribbon IND Padma Vibhushan BAR.png
Statistics
Instituted 1954
First awarded 1954
Last awarded 2016
Total awarded 294
Previous name(s) Padma Vibhushan "Pahela Warg" (Class I)
First awardee(s)
Recent awardee(s)
Award rank
Bharat Ratna Ribbon.svg
← Bharat Ratna
IND Padma Bhushan BAR.png
Padma Bhushan →
Padma Vibhushan award recipients[1][2][3]
Year Number of recipients
1954–59
17
1960–69
27
1970–79
53
1980–89
20
1990–99
42
2000–09
86
2010–16
49

The Padma Vibhushan is the second-highest civilian award of the Republic of India, preceded by Bharat Ratna and followed by Padma Bhushan. Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for "exceptional and distinguished service", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The award criteria include "service in any field including service rendered by Government servants" including doctors and scientists, but excludes those working with the public sector undertakings. As of 2016, the award has been bestowed on 294 individuals, including 6 posthumous and 19 non-citizen recipients.

During 1 May and 15 September of every year, the recommendations for the award are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, constituted by the Prime Minister of India. The recommendations are received from all the state and the union territory governments, the Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and previous Padma Vibhushan award recipients, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers and the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament including private individuals. The committee later submits their recommendations to the Prime Minister and the President of India for the further approval. The award recipients are announced on Republic Day.

The first recipients of the award were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nand Lal Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, and V. K. Krishna Menon, who were honoured in 1954. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute. The "Padma Vibhushan", along with other personal civil honours, was briefly suspended twice, from July 1977 to January 1980 and from August 1992 to December 1995. Some of the recipients have refused or returned their conferments. Vilayat Khan, Swami Ranganathananda, and Manikonda Chalapathi Rau refused the award, Lakshmi Chand Jain's family declined the 2011 posthumous conferment, and Baba Amte returned his 1986 conferment in 1991. On 25 January 2016, the award was conferred upon ten recipients, including one non-citizen recipient: V. K. Aatre, Girija Devi, Avinash Dixit, Jagmohan, Yamini Krishnamurthy, Rajinikanth, Ramoji Rao, V. Shanta, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, and posthumously to Dhirubhai Ambani.

History[edit]

On 2 January 1954, a press release was published from the office of the secretary to the President of India announcing the creation of two civilian awards—Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award, and the three-tier Padma Vibhushan, classified into "Pahela Warg" (Class I), "Dusra Warg" (Class II), and "Tisra Warg" (Class III), which rank below the Bharat Ratna.[4] On 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards: the Padma Vibhushan, the highest of the three, followed by the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri.[5]

The award, along with other personal civilian honours, was briefly suspended twice in its history;[6] for the first time in July 1977 when Morarji Desai was sworn in as the fourth Prime Minister of India, for being "worthless and politicized".[7][8][9] The suspension was rescinded on 25 January 1980 after Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister.[10] The civilian awards were suspended again in mid-1992, when two Public-Interest Litigations were filed in the High Courts of India, one in the Kerala High Court on 13 February 1992 by Balaji Raghavan and another in the Madhya Pradesh High Court (Indore Bench) on 24 August 1992 by Satya Pal Anand. Both petitioners questioned the civilian awards being "titles" per an interpretation of Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India.[9][a] On 25 August 1992, the Madhya Pradesh High Court issued a notice temporarily suspending all civilian awards.[9] A Special Division Bench of the Supreme Court of India was formed comprising five judges: A. M. Ahmadi C. J., Kuldip Singh, B. P. Jeevan Reddy, N. P. Singh, and S. Saghir Ahmad. On 15 December 1995, the Special Division Bench restored the awards and delivered a judgment that the "Bharat Ratna and Padma awards are not titles under Article 18 of the Constitution of India".[12]

Regulations[edit]

The award is conferred for "exceptional and distinguished service", without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The criteria include "service in any field including service rendered by Government servants", but excludes those working with the public sector undertakings, with the exception of doctors and scientists.[13] The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards,[4] but this was subsequently modified in the January 1955 statute;[5] Vikram Sarabhai became the first recipient to be honoured posthumously in 1972.[1]

The recommendations are received from all state and union territory governments, the Ministries of the Government of India, the Bharat Ratna and previous Padma Vibhushan award recipients, the Institutes of Excellence, the Ministers, the Chief Ministers, the Governors of State, and the Members of Parliament, including private individuals. The recommendations received during 1 May and 15 September of every year are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, convened by the Prime Minister of India. The Awards Committee later submits its recommendations to the Prime Minister and the President of India for further approval.[13]

The Padma Vibhushan award recipients are announced every year on Republic Day of India and registered in The Gazette of India—a publication released weekly by the Department of Publication, Ministry of Urban Development used for official government notices.[13] The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette. Recipients whose awards have been revoked or restored, both of which actions require the authority of the President, are also registered in the Gazette and are required to surrender their medals when their names are struck from the register.[5]

Specifications[edit]

The original 1954 specifications of the award called for a circle made of gold gilt 1 38 inches (35 mm) in diameter, with rims on both sides. A centrally located lotus flower was embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma Vibhushan" written in Devanagari script was inscribed above the lotus along the upper edge of the medal. A floral wreath was embossed along the lower edge and a lotus wreath at the top along the upper edge. The Emblem of India was placed in the centre of the reverse side with the text "Desh Seva" in Devanagari Script on the lower edge. The medal was suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width divided into two equal segments by a white vertical line.[4]

A year later, the design was modified. The current decoration is a circular-shaped bronze toned medallion 1 34 inches (44 mm) in diameter and 18 inch (3.2 mm) thick. The centrally placed pattern made of outer lines of a square of 1 316 inches (30 mm) side is embossed with a knob carved within each of the outer angles of the pattern. A raised circular space of 1 116 inches (27 mm) in diameter is placed at the centre of the decoration. A centrally located lotus flower is embossed on the obverse side of the medal and the text "Padma" written in Devanagari script is placed above and the text "Vibhushan" is placed below the lotus. The Emblem of India is placed in the centre of the reverse side with the national motto of India, "Satyameva Jayate" (Truth alone triumphs), in Devanagari Script, inscribed on the lower edge. The rim, the edges. and all embossing on either side is of white gold with the text "Padma Vibhushan" of silver gilt. The medal is suspended by a pink riband 1 14 inches (32 mm) in width.[5]

The medal is ranked fourth in the order of precedence of wearing of medals and decorations.[14] The medals are produced at Alipore Mint, Kolkata along with the other civilian and military awards like Bharat Ratna, Padma Bhushan, Padma Shri, and Param Veer Chakra.[15]

Recipients[edit]

The first recipients of the Padma Vibhushan were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nandalal Bose, Zakir Husain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, V. K. Krishna Menon, and Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, who were honoured in 1954. As of 2016, the award has been bestowed on 294 individuals, including 6 posthumous and 19 non-citizen recipients.[1][3]

Some of the conferments have been refused or returned by the recipients; Vilayat Khan,[b] Swami Ranganathananda,[c] and Manikonda Chalapathi Rau refused the award;[19] Lakshmi Chand Jain's family declined the 2011 posthumous conferment,[d] and Baba Amte returned his 1986 conferment in 1991.[e]

On 25 January 2016, the award was conferred upon ten recipients including one non-citizen recipient; V. K. Aatre, Girija Devi, Avinash Dixit, Jagmohan, Yamini Krishnamurthy, Rajinikanth, Ramoji Rao, V. Shanta, Sri Sri Ravi Shankar,[f] and posthumously to Dhirubhai Ambani.[3]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ Per Article 18 (1) of the Constitution of India: Abolition of titles, "no title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State".[11]
  2. ^ Vilayat Khan refused Padma Shri (1964), Padma Bhushan (1968), and Padma Vibhushan (2000) and stated that "the selection committees were incompetent to judge his music".[16][17]
  3. ^ Swami Ranganathananda declined the award in 2000 as it was conferred to him as an individual and not to the Ramakrishna Mission.[17][18]
  4. ^ Lakshmi Chand Jain's family refused to accept the posthumous honour as Jain was against accepting state honours.[20]
  5. ^ In 1991, Baba Amte returned the award, along with the Padma Shri conferred in 1971, to protest against the treatment given to the tribals during the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam.[21]
  6. ^ Sri Sri Ravi Shankar declined the award in 2015 and requested that "someone else should be given the honour".[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Padma Awards: Year wise list of recipients (1954–2014)" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 21 May 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  2. ^ "Padma Awards: 2015" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2015. p. 1. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c "Padma Awards: 2016" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 25 January 2016. p. 1. Retrieved 25 January 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c Lal, Shavax A. (1954). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India (The President's Secretariat, published 2 January 1954): 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015. The President is pleased to institute an award to be designated 'Padma Vibhushan' in three classes, namely: 'Pahela Varg', 'Dusra Varg' and 'Tisra Varg' 
  5. ^ a b c d Ayyar, N. M. (1955). "The Gazette of India—Extraordinary—Part I" (PDF). The Gazette of India (The President's Secretariat, published 15 January 1955): 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 May 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015. All persons upon whom the decoration of Padma Vibhushan (Pahela Warg) was conferred under the Regulations issued with Notification No. 2-Pres./54, dated the 2nd January, 1954, shall, for all purposes of these regulations, be deemed to be persons on whom the decoration of Padma Vibhushan has been conferred by the President. 
  6. ^ Hoiberg & Ramchandani 2000, p. 96.
  7. ^ Mukul, Akshaya (20 January 2008). "The great Bharat Ratna race". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2014. 
  8. ^ Bhattacherje 2009, p. A248.
  9. ^ a b c Edgar 2011, p. C-105.
  10. ^ Bhattacherje 2009, p. A253.
  11. ^ "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Ministry of Law and Justice (India). p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014. Retrieved 19 May 2014. 
  12. ^ "Balaji Raghavan S. P. Anand Vs. Union of India: Transfer Case (civil) 9 of 1994". Supreme Court of India. 4 August 1997. Archived from the original on 19 May 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c "Padma Awards Scheme" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). Retrieved 28 September 2015. 
  14. ^ "Wearing of Medals: Precedence Of Medals". Indian Army. Retrieved 22 November 2015. 
  15. ^ "Crafting Bharat Ratna, Padma Medals at Kolkata Mint". Press Information Bureau. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  16. ^ Kaminsky, Arnold P.; Long, Roger D. (2011). India Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic. ABC-CLIO. p. 411. ISBN 978-0-313-37462-3. 
  17. ^ a b Venkatesan, V. (5 February 2000). "Spotlight: Republic Day honours" 17 (3). Frontline. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  18. ^ "Ranganathananda, kept alive spirit of Vivekananda's legacy". The Hindu. 31 May 2005. Retrieved 21 November 2015. 
  19. ^ Kumar, A. Prasanna (1983). "The Privilege of Knowing M. C.". Triveni: Journal of Indian Renaissance 52. Triveni Publishers. 
  20. ^ "Gandhian's family declines Padma Vibhushan". Mumbai Mirror (The Times of India). 25 March 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  21. ^ D'Monte, Darryl (2011). Dharker, Anil, ed. Icons: Men and Women Who Shaped India's Today. Roli Books Private Limited. p. 52. ISBN 978-81-7436-944-4. 
    • Deshpande, Neeta (11 February 2008). "The Good Life". Outlook. Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  22. ^ Sharma, Aman (12 May 2015). "Baba Ramdev not among those who declined Padma Award: MHA". The Economic Times (New Delhi). Retrieved 16 March 2016. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

  • "Awards & Medals". Ministry of Home Affairs (India). 14 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2015.