|City of Paducah|
Location of Paducah within Kentucky.
|Named for||the Comanche Indians|
|• Mayor||Gayle Kaler|
|• City Manager||Jeffrey Pederson|
|• City||20.0 sq mi (51.8 km2)|
|• Land||19.9 sq mi (51.5 km2)|
|• Water||0.1 sq mi (0.3 km2)|
|Elevation||341 ft (104 m)|
|• Metro||98,765 (2,000)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC-5)|
|Area code(s)||270 & 364|
|GNIS feature ID||0500106|
Paducah (//) is a city in and the county seat of McCracken County, Kentucky, United States. The largest city in the Jackson Purchase region, it is located at the confluence of the Tennessee and the Ohio Rivers, halfway between St. Louis, Missouri, to the northwest and Nashville, Tennessee, to the southeast. The population was 25,024 during the 2010 U.S. Census. Twenty blocks of the city's downtown have been designated as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Contemporary Paducah
- 4 Music
- 5 Media
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transportation
- 9 Education
- 10 Notable people
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Paducah was first settled as Pekin by James and William Pore c. 1821. The community – favorably located at the confluence of several waterways – occupied a site previously noted as a Chickasaw trading center.
The town was laid out by William Clark (of the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition) in 1827 and renamed Paducah. Although local lore long connected this to an eponymous Chickasaw chief "Paduke" and his tribe of "Paducahs," authorities on the Chickasaw have since made clear that there was never any chief or tribe of that name, or anything like it, nor any words like them in the Chickasaw tongue. Instead, it is probable that Clark named the town for the Comanches (known at the time as the Padoucas, from a Spanish transcription of the Kaw Pádoka or Omaha Pádoⁿka).
Incorporation, steamboats, and railroads
Paducah was formally established as a town in 1830 and incorporated as a city by the state legislature in 1838. By this time, steam boats traversed the river system and its port facilities were important to trade and transportation. In addition, railroads began to be developed that entered the region. A factory for making red bricks, and a foundry for making rail and locomotive components became the nucleus of a thriving "River and Rail" economy. It became the site of dry dock facilities for steamboats and towboats, and thus headquarters for many barge companies. Because of its proximity to coalfields further to the east in Kentucky and north in Illinois, Paducah also became an important railway hub for the Illinois Central Railroad. This was the primary north-south railway connecting the industrial cities of Chicago and East St. Louis to the Gulf of Mexico at Gulfport, Mississippi and New Orleans, Louisiana. The Illinois Central system also provided east-west links to the Burlington Northern and the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railways (which later merged to become the BNSF Railway).
The Illinois Central Railroad began construction of their largest locomotive workshop at Paducah in 1924. Over a period of 190 days, a large ravine between Washington and Jones Streets was filled with 44,560 carloads of dirt to enlarge the site to include 23 buildings. The eleven million dollar project was completed in 1927 as the fourth largest industrial plant in Kentucky. It became the largest employer in Paducah with 1,075 employees in 1938. The Paducah shops were converted to maintain diesel locomotives as steam locomotives were replaced through the 1940s and 1950s; and a nationally-known rebuilding program for aging diesel locomotives from Illinois Central and other railroads began in 1967. The shops became part of the Paducah and Louisville Railway in 1986; and are operated by VMV Paducahbilt.
At the outset of the Civil War, Kentucky attempted to take a neutral position. However, when a Confederate force occupied Columbus, a Union force under General Ulysses S. Grant responded by occupying Paducah. Throughout most of the war, Col. Stephen G. Hicks was in charge of Paducah, and the town served as a massive supply depot for Federal forces along the Ohio, Mississippi and Tennessee river systems.
On December 17, 1862, under the terms of General Order No. 11, US forces required thirty Jewish families to leave their long-established homes. Grant was trying to break up a black market in cotton, in which he suspected Jewish traders were involved. Cesar Kaskel, a prominent local Jewish businessman, dispatched a telegram of complaint to Pres. Lincoln and met with him; together with similar actions by other Jewish businessmen and loud complaints by Congress, he succeeded in seeing the order revoked within a few weeks.
On March 25, 1864, Confederate Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest raided Paducah as part of his campaign northward from Mississippi into Western Tennessee and Kentucky. He intended to re-supply the Confederate forces in the region with recruits, ammunition, medical supplies, horses and mules and especially to disrupt the Union domination of the regions south of the Ohio River. Known as the Battle of Paducah, the raid was successful in terms of the re-supply effort and in intimidating the Union, but Forrest returned south. According to his report, "I drove the enemy to their gunboats and fort; and held the city for ten hours, captured many stores and horses; burned sixty bales of cotton, one steamer, and a drydock, bringing out fifty prisoners." Much of the fighting took place around Fort Anderson on the city's west side, in the present-day Lower Town neighborhood; most buildings in the neighborhood postdate the war, as most of the neighborhood was demolished soon after the battle in order to deny any future raids the advantage of surprise that they had enjoyed during the battle. Among the few houses that were not destroyed is the David Yeiser House, a single-story Greek Revival structure.
Later having read in the newspapers that 140 fine horses had escaped the raid, Forrest sent Brigadier General Abraham Buford back to Paducah, to get the horses and to keep Union forces busy there while he attacked Fort Pillow in Tennessee. His forces were charged with a massacre of United States Colored Troops who they defeated at the fort. On April 14, 1864, Buford's men found the horses hidden in a Paducah foundry, as reported by the newspapers. Buford rejoined Forrest with the spoils, leaving the Union in control of Paducah until the end of the War.
On January 21, 1937, the Ohio River at Paducah rose above its 50-foot flood stage, cresting at 60.8 feet on February 2 and receding again to 50-feet on February 15. For nearly three weeks, 27,000 residents were forced to flee or to stay with friends and relatives in higher ground in McCracken or other counties. The American Red Cross and local churches provided some shelters. Buildings in downtown Paducah still bear plaques that define the high water marks.
Driven by 18 inches of rainfall in 16 days, along with sheets of swiftly moving ice, the '37 flood was the worst natural disaster in Paducah's history. The earthen levee was ineffective against this flood, and as a result, Congress authorized the United States Army Corps of Engineers to build the flood wall that now protects the city.
In 1950, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission selected Paducah as the site for a new uranium enrichment plant. Construction began in 1951 and the plant opened for operations in 1952. Originally operated by Union Carbide, the plant has changed hands several times. Martin Marietta, its successor company Lockheed-Martin, and now the United States Enrichment Corporation have operated the plant in turn. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), successor to the AEC, remains the owner.
On April 25, 1991, the National Quilt Museum opened in downtown Paducah. The museum is a cultural destination that annually attracts an international collection of more than 40,000 quilters and art enthusiasts to the Paducah area. The museum features professional quilt and fiber art exhibits that are rotated throughout the year. It is the largest single tourist attraction in the city.
For over 30 years, Paducah has been host to one of the largest Quilt Shows in North America, QuiltWeek Paducah. On November 21, 2013, UNESCO designated Paducah the world's seventh City of Crafts and Folk Art.
Paducah is located at (37.072226, −88.627436).
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20.0 square miles (52 km2), of which 19.9 square miles (52 km2) is land and 0.10 square miles (0.26 km2) (0.52%) is water.
Paducah has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with four distinct seasons and is located in USDA hardiness zone 7a. Spring-like conditions typically begin in mid-to-late March, summer from mid-to-late-May to late September, with fall in the October–November period. Seasonal extremes in both temperature and precipitation are common during early spring and late fall; severe weather is also common, with occasional tornado outbreaks in the region. Winter typically brings a mix of rain, sleet, and snow, with occasional heavy snowfall and icing. The city has a normal January mean temperature of 34.6 °F (1.4 °C) and averages 13 days annually with temperatures staying at or below freezing; the first and last freezes of the season on average fall on October 25 and April 8, respectively. Summer is typically hazy, hot, and humid with a July daily average of 78.9 °F (26.1 °C) and drought conditions at times. Paducah averages 48 days a year with high temperatures at or above 90 °F (32 °C). Snowfall averages 9.1 inches (23 cm) per season, contributing to the annual precipitation of 49.1 inches (1,250 mm). Extremes in temperature range from 108 °F (42 °C) on July 17, 1942 and June 29, 2012, down to −15 °F (−26 °C) on January 20, 1985.
|Climate data for Paducah, Kentucky (Barkley Regional Airport), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1937–present|
|Record high °F (°C)||77
|Average high °F (°C)||43.4
|Average low °F (°C)||25.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−15
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.68
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||3.0
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||9.6||8.7||10.4||10.8||11.3||9.1||8.5||6.9||6.8||7.8||9.9||10.4||110.2|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||2.4||2.3||0.7||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.1||1.6||7.2|
In 1996, the Paducah Wall to Wall mural program was begun by the Louisiana mural artist Robert Dafford and his team on the floodwall in downtown Paducah. They have painted more than 50 murals addressing numerous subjects, including Native American history, industries such as river barges and hospitals, local African-American heritage, the historic Carnegie Library on Broadway Street, steamboats, and local labor unions.
In May 2003 photographer Jim Roshan documented the painting of the Lewis and Clark Expedition mural during the America 24/7 project. One of the images was used in the book Kentucky24/7, published in 2004.
By 2008 the mural project was completed and being maintained. Muralist Herb Roe returned to the city each year to repaint and refurbish the panels. Roe is the only muralist associated with the project to have worked on all of the panels. Roe added a new mural to the project in the summer of 2010. It shows the 100-year history of the local Boy Scout troop, Troop 1. Troop 1 is one of only a handful of troops who share their centennial with that of the national scouting organization itself. The dedication for the mural was held on National Scout Sunday, February 6, 2011.
In August 2000, Paducah's Artist Relocation Program was started to offer incentives for artists to relocate to its historic downtown and Lowertown areas. The program has become a national model for using the arts for economic development. It has received the Governors Award in the Arts, the Distinguished Planning Award from the Kentucky Chapter of the American Planning Association, the American Planning Association's National Planning Award, and most recently, the Kentucky League of Cities' Enterprise Cities Award.
Lowertown, home of the Artist Relocation Program, is the oldest neighborhood in Paducah. As retail commerce moved toward the outskirts of the city, efforts were made to preserve the architectural character, and historic Victorian structures were restored in the older parts of the city. The artists' housing program contributed to that effort and became a catalyst for revitalizing the downtown area. The Luther F. Carson Center for the Performing Arts was completed in downtown Paducah in 2004.
In September 2004 plans jelled to highlight Paducah's musical roots through the redevelopment of the southern side of downtown. The centerpiece of the effort is the renovation of Maggie Steed's Hotel Metropolitan. Prominent African-American musicians such as Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Chick Webb's orchestra, B.B. King, Bobby "Blue" Bland, Ike and Tina Turner and other R & B and blues legends have performed here as part of what has become known as the "Chitlin' circuit." Supporters want to promote Paducah's role in the history of American music.
Another regional attraction is the annual OMGcon, an anime and gaming convention held in Paducah since 2006. It attracts attendees from across the United States, though it moved to the city of Owensboro, Kentucky in 2014.
Paducah is the birthplace and residence of musicians in various genres. Rockabilly Hall of Fame artists Ray Smith, whose recording of "Rockin' Little Angel" was a hit in 1960, and Stanley Walker, who played guitar for Ray Smith and others, grew up in Paducah. Terry Mike Jeffrey, an Emmy-nominated songwriter, is a resident of Paducah. Nashville, TN based composer/violinist, Mark Evitts, is also from Paducah. The most prominent mainstream artist is Steven Curtis Chapman, the top-selling Christian artist of all time.
The local community boasts an "underground" musical environment, with acts finding some success due to the recent promotion of musical growth in the city with the new Middletown project. Similar to the Lowertown Artist District, the project proposes redevelopment of historic spaces for musicians' residences and performance space. Its focal point will be the Metropolitan Hotel, where many blues and jazz musicians played during the mid-20th century.
The city most notably promotes local music during its annual Summer Festival and the Rock The Vote-sponsored Paducahpalooza festival. The Luther F. Carson Four Rivers Center hosts various musical artists, theater productions, and local musical acts.
Paducah is one of only two cities named in the world-famous song "Hooray for Hollywood," which is used as the opening number for the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences Awards (the Oscars). The 1937 song, with music by Richard Whiting and lyrics by Johnny Mercer, contains in the second verse: "Hooray for Hollywood! That phony, super Coney, Hollywood. They come from Chilicothes and Padukahs..."
Both cities were misspelled in the original published lyrics, though that may have been the fault of the publishers rather than Mercer. He was noted for his sophistication and the attention to detail he put into his lyrics. The correct spellings are "Chillicothe" and "Paducah".
Local media in Paducah includes NBC affiliate WPSD-TV, MyNetworkTV affiliate WDKA, Fox affiliate KBSI, and the regional daily newspaper The Paducah Sun; the latter two are both owned by Paxton Media Group. Six radio stations are located here; half of the stations are owned by Bristol Broadcasting Company. The weekly newspapers, the West Kentucky News and The Good Neighbor, enjoy significant readership.
A bi-monthly magazine by the name of Paducah Life debuted in 1994 and continues publication today. The magazine features articles about life and residents in and around Paducah. Purchase Area Family Magazine, a monthly publication distributed throughout Western Kentucky and Metropolis, Illinois, debuted in 2003. The magazine features a comprehensive calendar of events for the Purchase Area as well as unique articles about events, organizations and activities for families in the region. In 2009 PaducahLIVE.com became the first video-based online presence to offer features, entertainment, and information about the area.
As of the census of 2010, there were 25,024 people, 11,462 households, and 6,071 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,251.0 people per square mile (483.0/km²). There were 12,851 housing units at an average density of 642.5 per square mile (248.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 70.99% White, 23.67% African American, 0.22% Native American, 1.02% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.07% from other races, and 3.01% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 2.68% of the population.
There were 11,462 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.5% were married couples living together, 16.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, and 47.0% were non-families. 41.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.84.
In the city, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 27.7% from 45 to 64, and 18.2% who were 65 or older. The median age was 41.4 years. For every 100 females there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $31,220, and the median income for a family was $42,645. Males had a median income of $36,778 versus $27,597 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,430. About 18.1% of families and 22.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.3% of those under age 18 and 12.8% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2000, there were 26,307 people, 11,825 households, and 6,645 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,350.2 people per square mile (521.4/km²). There were 13,221 housing units at an average density of 678.6/sq mi (262.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 72.78% White, 24.15% African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 0.55% from other races, and 1.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.38% of the population.
There were 11,825 households out of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.8% were married couples living together, 16.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.8% were non-families. 39.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.84.
In the city the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 26.2% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 83.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $26,137, and the median income for a family was $34,092. Males had a median income of $32,783 versus $21,901 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,417. About 18.0% of families and 22.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.8% of those under age 18 and 16.8% of those age 65 or over.
|This section requires expansion. (March 2010)|
Dippin' Dots, the Paducah & Louisville Railway, and the Paxton Media Group have their headquarters in Paducah. A federal National Weather Service Forecast Office is based in Paducah, providing weather information to western Kentucky, southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois, and southwestern Indiana.
According to Paducah's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city were entities in health care, education and government:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Baptist Health Paducah||1,864|
|3||Paducah Public Schools||1,679|
|5||West Kentucky Community and Technical College||510|
|6||City of Paducah||370|
|7||Commonwealth of Kentucky||370|
|8||Paxton Media Group||225|
- Barkley Regional Airport serves the area offering jet service to Chicago-O'Hare with two round trips daily connecting Paducah to 150 domestic and 19 international destinations.
- Interstate 24 is a four-lane remote freeway that routes west to St. Louis and east to Nashville. The highway has a business loop that runs through downtown Paducah.
- Interstate 66 is planned to enter the city from the south and follow I-24 east to Eddyville, where I-66 will then follow the existing Western Kentucky Parkway.
- Interstate 69 will follow the route of the existing Purchase Parkway to the south and east of Paducah, joining I-24/66 about 15 minutes east of Paducah. Once completed, it will connect the city north to Indianapolis and south to Memphis.
- US 60 is a major east-west highway that runs through the Paducah business district.
- US 45 enters the city from the north via the Irvin S. Cobb Bridge from Brookport, Illinois and runs south down to Mayfield.
- US 62
Paducah Public Schools operates public schools serving most of the City of Paducah. Three K-5 elementary schools, Clark Elementary School, McNabb Elementary School, and Morgan Elementary School, serve the city. All district residents are zoned to Paducah Middle School and Paducah Tilghman High School.
Parts of the city and surrounding county are instead served by the McCracken County Public Schools. Concord Elementary School and Reidland Elementary/Intermediate serve students through the 5th grade; Lone Oak Elementary School and Hendron–Lone Oak Elementary School end at the third grade, with 4th and 5th grade students in those schools' attendance zones attending Lone Oak Intermediate School. Middle school students in those areas may be zoned into Heath, Lone Oak, or Reidland Middle School. The county district began operating a single, consolidated McCracken County High School on August 9, 2013. The Paducah city district did not participate in this consolidation and Paducah Tilghman High School remains separate.
West Kentucky Community and Technical College (WKCTC) is a member of the Kentucky Community and Technical College System and is a public, two-year, degree-granting institution serving the Western Region of Kentucky. There are 7,000 - 9,000 students enrolled at the college. There is a University of Kentucky College of Engineering Paducah campus located on the WKCTC campus. The college is also the site for the Challenger Learning Center at Paducah and the Emerging Technology Center. Murray State University-Paducah offers approximately 20 bachelor's and master's degree programs. A new 43,000 square foot facility located on a 23-acre campus adjacent to WKCTC was opened in 2014.
- Charles "Speedy" Atkins, an African-American pauper whose body was mummified and occasionally put on display at a local funeral home until finally being buried 66 years later in 1994
- Alben W. Barkley, 35th vice-president of the United States (during the presidency of Harry S. Truman)
- Isaac Wolfe Bernheim, distiller and philanthropist, founder of the I. W. Harper brand of bourbon whiskey and the Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest
- Julian Carroll, governor of Kentucky, member of the Kentucky House of Representatives and the Kentucky Senate
- Sam Champion, television weatherman and managing editor of The Weather Channel
- Steven Curtis Chapman, Christian music singer-songwriter, record producer, actor, author, and social activist
- Joseph "'Jumpin' Joe" Clifton, United States Navy officer who served in World War II and later rose to the rank of Rear Admiral
- Irvin S. Cobb, author, screenwriter and humorist, anti-Prohibition campaigner
- Russ Cochran, professional golfer, player on the Champions Tour, previously a member on the PGA Tour and the Nationwide Tour
- Jerry Crutchfield, country and pop music producer and songwriter
- Monroe E. Dodd, Southern Baptist clergyman and pioneering radio preacher
- Pierre DuMaine, Roman Catholic Bishop
- Mark Evitts, Composer, string-arranger, producer and multi-instrumentalist
- Steve Finley, baseball player, two-time All-Star, World Series champion, and five-time Gold Glove Award winner
- Clarence "Big House" Gaines, Hall of Fame basketball coach, with a 47-year coaching career at Winston-Salem State University in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
- J. D. Grey, Southern Baptist clergyman influential in the Southern Baptist Convention
- Robert H. Grubbs, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry for work on the organic reaction olefin metathesis
- Eddie Haas, Major League Baseball outfielder, coach, manager and scout
- Tim Jaeger, artist
- Callie Khouri, screenwriter, producer and director, won an Academy Award for Best Screenplay Written Directly for the Screen for the film Thelma and Louise
- Kelley Lovelace, country music songwriter known primarily for his work with country music artist Brad Paisley
- Fate Marable, jazz pianist, bandleader, and player of a steam calliope
- Jeffrey L. McWaters,CEO/Founder Amerigroup Corp., Fortune 220 company, VA State Senator
- Matty Matlock, Dixieland clarinettist, saxophonist, and arranger, replaced Benny Goodman in the Ben Pollack band doing arrangements and performing on clarinet
- Kenny Perry, golfer on the PGA Tour and the Champions Tour
- Boots Randolph, saxophonist who was a major part of the "Nashville Sound" for most of his professional career, best known for his hit "Yakety Sax", which became Benny Hill's signature tune
- Trevor "Ricochet" Mann, professional wrestler in the Japanese promotion Dragon Gate and its American branch Dragon Gate USA
- Phil Roof, Major League Baseball player as a catcher for the Kansas City/Oakland Athletics and the Minnesota Twins, bullpen coach for several MLB teams, and minor league team manager
- Jeri Ryan, actress known for work on the television series Star Trek: Voyager and Boston Public
- John Scopes, teacher accused for teaching the theory evolution in the Scopes Trial
- Terry Shumpert, Major League Baseball utility player for the Kansas City Royals
- Roy Skinner, Vanderbilt basketball coach
- Josh Stewart, Major League Baseball pitcher for the Chicago White Sox, also played in the Japanese Pacific League for the Orix Buffaloes
- Larry Stewart, country music singer best known for his role as lead singer of the country pop band Restless Heart
- Lloyd Tilghman, Confederate general who commanded a brigade in the Vicksburg campaign and was killed at the Battle of Champion Hill
- Emma Talley, amateur golfer playing for the University of Alabama
- Paul Twitchell, founder of the religious movement known as Eckankar
- Marcy Walker (also known as Marcy Smith) minister and former actress known for television appearances on daytime soap operas
- Robert McDaniel Webb (known as Danny) Major League Pitcher currently with the Chicago White Sox.
- J.D. Wilkes, visual artist, musician, author, and amateur filmmaker
- Rumer Willis, actress and daughter of Bruce Willis and Demi Moore, born in Paducah while her parents were visiting for the filming of the movie In Country
- George Wilson, football safety for the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League
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- Molly Harper (2005-01-22). "Six panels to conclude 10-year painting project". The Paducah Sun.
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- "Paducah Wall to Wall-Paducah's History On Floodwall Murals". Retrieved 2010-03-31.
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- Byrne, Shelley (2010-07-03). "Muralist to paint 100 years of Paducah Scouts". The Paducah Sun.
- Vick, Michael (2010-07-12). "Painting begins for mural honoring local boy scouts". WPSD-TV. Retrieved 2010-10-08.
- "Troop 1 Celebrates 100 Years Today". West Kentucky Star. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
- "Luther F Carson Center for the Performing Arts | History". thecarsoncenter.org. Retrieved 2015-12-24.
- "Hotel Metropolitan, Women's History Month 2003 - A National Register of Historic Places Feature". Cr.nps.gov. 2003-03-01. Retrieved 2012-05-15.
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