Paenibacillus polymyxa

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Paenibacillus polymyxa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Bacillales
Family: Paenibacillaceae
Genus: Paenibacillus
(Prazmowski 1880)
Ash et al. 1994
Binomial name
Paenibacillus polymyxa
Type strain
ATCC 842
CCUG 1086
CFBP 4258
CIP 66.22
DSM 36
HAMBI 635 and 1897
JCM 2507
LMG 13294
NBRC 15309
NCCB 24016
NCTC 10343
NRRL B-4317
VKM B-514
Synonyms

Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski 1880) Macé 1889
Clostridium polymyxa Prazmowski 1880
Granulobacter polymyxa (Prazmowski 1880) Beijerinck 1893
Aerobacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski 1880) Donker 1926
Pseudomonas azotogensis Voets and Debacker

Paenibacillus polymyxa, also known as Bacillus polymyxa, is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. It is found in soil, plant roots, and marine sediments.[1] Strains of this species were also isolated from cod intestines by students at the University of Tromsø in February 2009.

Growth conditions[edit]

P. polymyxa can be grown in the laboratory on TSAg-medium.

Applications[edit]

Agricultural use[edit]

P. polymyxa is used as a soil inoculant in agriculture and horticulture. Biofilms of P. polymyxa growing on plant roots have been shown to produce exopolysaccharides which protect the plants from pathogens. The interactions between this bacterial species and plant roots also cause the root hairs to undergo physical changes.[2]

Antibiotics[edit]

Some strains of P. polymyxa produce polymyxin antibiotic compounds.[3] Surfactant complexes isolated from P. polymyxa have been shown to be effective in disrupting biofilms of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis.[4]

Cell extraction[edit]

P. polymyxa is the source of dispase, an enzyme used to isolate cells from animal tissues.[5][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lal, Sadhana; Tabacchioni, Silvia (21 April 2009). "Ecology and biotechnological potential of Paenibacillus polymyxa: a minireview". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 49 (1): 2–10. doi:10.1007/s12088-009-0008-y. 
  2. ^ Yegorenkova, Irina V.; Tregubova, Kristina V.; Ignatov, Vladimir V. (12 January 2013). "Paenibacillus polymyxa Rhizobacteria and Their Synthesized Exoglycans in Interaction with Wheat Roots: Colonization and Root Hair Deformation". Current Microbiology. 66 (5): 481–486. doi:10.1007/s00284-012-0297-y. 
  3. ^ Shaheen, M; Li, J; Ross, AC; Vederas, JC; Jensen, SE (Dec 23, 2011). "Paenibacillus polymyxa PKB1 produces variants of polymyxin B-type antibiotics.". Chemistry & Biology. 18 (12): 1640–8. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2011.09.017. PMID 22195566. 
  4. ^ Quinn, GA; Maloy, AP; McClean, S; Carney, B; Slater, JW (2012). "Lipopeptide biosurfactants from Paenibacillus polymyxa inhibit single and mixed species biofilms.". Biofouling. 28 (10): 1151–66. doi:10.1080/08927014.2012.738292. PMID 23113815. 
  5. ^ ONO, JUNKO; TAKAKI, RYOSABURO; FUKUMA, MICHIO (1977). "Preparation of single cells from pancreatic islets of adult rat by the use of dispase.". Endocrinologia Japonica. 24 (3): 265–270. doi:10.1507/endocrj1954.24.265. 
  6. ^ Stenn, Kurt S; Link, Richard; Moellmann, Gisela; Madri, Joseph; Kuklinska, Elizabeth (August 1989). "Dispase, a Neutral Protease From Bacillus Polymyxa, Is a Powerful Fibronectinase and Type IV Collagenase". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 93 (2): 287–290. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12277593. 

External links[edit]