Paenibacillus polymyxa

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Paenibacillus polymyxa
Scientific classification
Binomial name
Paenibacillus polymyxa
(Prazmowski 1880)
Ash et al. 1994
Type strain
ATCC 842
CCUG 1086
CFBP 4258
CIP 66.22
DSM 36
HAMBI 635 and 1897
JCM 2507
LMG 13294
NBRC 15309
NCCB 24016
NCTC 10343
NRRL B-4317
VKM B-514

Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski 1880) Macé 1889
Clostridium polymyxa Prazmowski 1880
Granulobacter polymyxa (Prazmowski 1880) Beijerinck 1893
Aerobacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski 1880) Donker 1926
Pseudomonas azotogensis Voets and Debacker

Paenibacillus polymyxa, also known as Bacillus polymyxa, is a Gram-positive bacterium capable of fixing nitrogen. It is found in soil, plant tissues, marine sediments and hot springs.[1] It may have a role in forest ecosystems[2] and potential future applications as a biofertilizer and biocontrol agent in agriculture.[3]

Growth conditions[edit]

P. polymyxa can be grown in the laboratory on trypticase soy agar medium. It can also be grown on brain heart infusion agar medium.


Agricultural use[edit]

P. polymyxa might have possible future applications as a soil inoculant in agriculture and horticulture.[4][5] Biofilms of P. polymyxa growing on plant roots have been shown to produce exopolysaccharides which protect the plants from pathogens. The interactions between this bacterial species and plant roots also cause the root hairs to undergo physical changes.[6]


Some strains of P. polymyxa produce antibiotics including fusaricidin[1] and polymyxins.[7] P. polymyxa var. colistinus produces the antibiotic colistin.[8]

Surfactant complexes isolated from P. polymyxa have been shown to be effective in disrupting biofilms of Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus bovis.[9]

Cell extraction[edit]

P. polymyxa is a source of dispase, an enzyme used to isolate cells from animal tissues.[10][11]


  1. ^ a b Mahajan GB, Balachandran L (June 2017). "Sources of antibiotics: hot springs". Biochemical Pharmacology. 134: 35–41. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2016.11.021. PMID 27890726.
  2. ^ Tang, Qian; Puri, Akshit; Padda, Kiran Preet; Chanway, Chris P. (2017-02-01). "Biological nitrogen fixation and plant growth promotion of lodgepole pine by an endophytic diazotroph Paenibacillus polymyxa and its GFP-tagged derivative". Botany. 95 (6): 611–619. doi:10.1139/cjb-2016-0300. ISSN 1916-2790.
  3. ^ Padda, Kiran Preet; Puri, Akshit; Chanway, Chris P. (2017), Meena, Vijay Singh; Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Bisht, Jaideep Kumar; Pattanayak, Arunava (eds.), "Paenibacillus polymyxa: A Prominent Biofertilizer and Biocontrol Agent for Sustainable Agriculture", Agriculturally Important Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture: Volume 2: Applications in Crop Production and Protection, Springer Singapore, pp. 165–191, doi:10.1007/978-981-10-5343-6_6, ISBN 978-981-10-5343-6
  4. ^ Puri, Akshit; Padda, Kiran Preet; Chanway, Chris P. (2016-06-01). "Seedling growth promotion and nitrogen fixation by a bacterial endophyte Paenibacillus polymyxa P2b-2R and its GFP derivative in corn in a long-term trial". Symbiosis. 69 (2): 123–129. doi:10.1007/s13199-016-0385-z. ISSN 1878-7665. S2CID 17870808.
  5. ^ Padda, Kiran Preet; Puri, Akshit; Chanway, Chris P. (2016-07-07). "Plant growth promotion and nitrogen fixation in canola (Brassica napus) by an endophytic strain of Paenibacillus polymyxa and its GFP-tagged derivative in a long-term study". Botany. 94 (12): 1209–1217. doi:10.1139/cjb-2016-0075. ISSN 1916-2790.
  6. ^ Yegorenkova, Irina V.; Tregubova, Kristina V.; Ignatov, Vladimir V. (12 January 2013). "Paenibacillus polymyxa Rhizobacteria and Their Synthesized Exoglycans in Interaction with Wheat Roots: Colonization and Root Hair Deformation". Current Microbiology. 66 (5): 481–486. doi:10.1007/s00284-012-0297-y. PMID 23314809. S2CID 2739127.
  7. ^ Shaheen, M; Li, J; Ross, AC; Vederas, JC; Jensen, SE (Dec 23, 2011). "Paenibacillus polymyxa PKB1 produces variants of polymyxin B-type antibiotics". Chemistry & Biology. 18 (12): 1640–8. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2011.09.017. PMID 22195566.
  8. ^ Voort, Peter H. J. van der; Saene, Hendrick K. F. van (2008). Selective Digestive Tract Decontamination in Intensive Care Medicine: a Practical Guide to Controlling Infection. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 82. ISBN 9788847006539.
  9. ^ Quinn, GA; Maloy, AP; McClean, S; Carney, B; Slater, JW (2012). "Lipopeptide biosurfactants from Paenibacillus polymyxa inhibit single and mixed species biofilms". Biofouling. 28 (10): 1151–66. doi:10.1080/08927014.2012.738292. PMID 23113815. S2CID 39957498.
  10. ^ ONO, JUNKO; TAKAKI, RYOSABURO; FUKUMA, MICHIO (1977). "Preparation of single cells from pancreatic islets of adult rat by the use of dispase". Endocrinologia Japonica. 24 (3): 265–270. doi:10.1507/endocrj1954.24.265. PMID 410634.
  11. ^ Stenn, Kurt S; Link, Richard; Moellmann, Gisela; Madri, Joseph; Kuklinska, Elizabeth (August 1989). "Dispase, a Neutral Protease From Bacillus Polymyxa, Is a Powerful Fibronectinase and Type IV Collagenase". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 93 (2): 287–290. doi:10.1111/1523-1747.ep12277593. PMID 2546994.

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