Paharganj

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Paharganj
Paharganj hotels and restaurants, across New Delhi Railway Station
Paharganj hotels and restaurants, across New Delhi Railway Station
Paharganj is located in Delhi
Paharganj
Paharganj
Location in Delhi, India
Coordinates: 28°38′42″N 77°12′47″E / 28.64500°N 77.21306°E / 28.64500; 77.21306Coordinates: 28°38′42″N 77°12′47″E / 28.64500°N 77.21306°E / 28.64500; 77.21306
Country India
StateDelhi
DistrictCentral Delhi
Government
 • BodyMunicipal Corporation of Delhi
Languages
 • OfficialHindi, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Lok Sabha constituencyNew Delhi
Vidhan Sabha constituencyPaharganj
Civic agencyMCD

Paharganj (literally 'hilly neighbourhood') is a neighbourhood of Central Delhi, located just west of the New Delhi Railway Station. Known as Shahganj or King's ganj or market place during Mughal era,[1] it is one of the three administrative subdivisions, of the Central Delhi district, of the National Capital Territory of Delhi, with the other two being, Darya Ganj and Karol Bagh.

The area is popular with low-budget travellers for the cheap lodgings,[2] however, Paharganj has a poor record regarding safety for women, both domestic and international tourists, with Indian authorities encouraging tourists to refrain from the area, since it is an epicenter of the city's drug crime, sexual assaults and sex trade. Instead, the more modern South Delhi, particularly the neighbourhood of Hauz Khas within South Delhi,[3] is now becoming the main center for backpackers.[4][5] The proliferation of illegal bars and illegal activities like drug peddling,[6] Paharganj has also become a hotspot for crime, and a criminal hideout.[7] Many hotels and lodging in Paharganj are engaged in sex trade, gambling and other illicit activity, resulting in death of tourists.[8] The area is also known for engaging in sex trade with minor girls with large number of sex parlours and brothels involved with it.[8][9][10]

History[edit]

Ajmeri Gate, once Paharganj's access to the walled city
Historic map of Delhi (Shahjahanabad), 1863, showing Paharganj outside the city walls (top left corner)
Main Bazaar of Paharganj, Delhi

Mughal era[edit]

In the years after its establishment in 1638, Shahjahanabad, the capital of the Mughal Empire under Shah Jahan, was no longer contained within the walled city, it soon spilled into surrounding areas, stretching into miles at each end, where half of its population stayed.[11] By 1739, the suburbs covered 1800 acres and included areas like Mughalpura, Sabzimandi, Paharganj, and Jaisingh Pura. One of the largest and most important suburban mohalla of the Walled City of Delhi, and located just outside the Ajmeri Gate of the Walled city, Paharganj was one of five main markets of Delhi, and the only one outside the walled city. Also, it was the principal grain market of the city in the 18th century, where grain was ferried, across Yamuna River, from wholesale markets and warehouses in Patparganj and Shahdara.[12] Just outside the Ajmeri Gate was the custom house of the emperor, for collecting taxes.[13] Between Paharganj and Akbarabadi gate of the walled city was Shahganj, another wholesale market, while on the other side towards Jantar Mantar was Raja Bazar.[12] In fact, Paharganj was also referred as Shahganj or King's ganj or market place during Mughal era,[1] it gets its present name 'Paharganj', literally meaning Hilly neighbourhood, owing to its proximity to the Raisina Hill, where the Rashtrapati Bhavan stand today. Till 1857, neighbourhoods like Paharganj, Kishenganj, and Pahari Dhiraj, were separate pockets which in the following years grew and merged, for example Pahari Dhiraj merged into Sadar Bazaar.[14]

In the 1690s, Ghaziuddin Khan, a general of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, a leading Deccan commander and the father of Asaf Jah I, the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty of Hyderabad, through religious endowment founded a madarsa, Madrasa Ghaziuddin Khan after him. It eventually paved way for the present Zakir Hussain College, which is 1986, shifted to a new building outside Turkman Gate, the old structure in the Madrasa Ghaziuddin complex, still houses a hostel for the college and also has Ghaziuddin's mausoleum.[15]

British era[edit]

Cheh Tuti Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, Main Bazar, Paharganj, with historic Qazi Wali Masjid in the background.

When the Lutyens' Delhi was being built in the 1920s, the area also saw major development, and the old 'Imperial theatre', built-in 1930, stands as a legacy to that era. Though its neighboring area of Jaisinghpura,[1] where Gurudwara Bangla Sahib stands today, along with Madhoganj and Raja ka Bazaar were demolished to make way for the Connaught Place, shopping district.[16] Indeed, the "Delhi Town Planning Committee on the planning of new Imperial capital" with George Swinton as chairman and John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted its report on 13 June 1912, it proposed a plan to include Paharganj and Sadar Bazaar into the developing new imperial city, as they were only areas of Old Delhi, spilling into the planned New Delhi area. However, it was rejected by the Viceroy, when the cost of compensation while acquiring the properties, was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was previously meant to be a North-South axis, linking Viceroy's House with Paharganj, as the end of the axis.[17][18][19]

Gradually, Chai-Tuti-Chowk or Six Tuti Chowk, named after six water taps originally place here for the public, developed as an important market square, and a shopping area of Paharganj, within shops of cloth merchants coming up around it.[20] Prior to the inauguration of New Delhi in 1931, the New Delhi Railway Station was opened with a single platform near Ajmeri Gate in 1926, till then the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city. This changed Paharganj landscape indelibly, with an influx of travelers, small eateries started coming up in the area, and also temporary residential facilities.[21]

The famous Shri Nand Lal Sharma dhaba was set up here in 1928, over time, his son built a three-storey hotel on spot, and now his grandson manages the Metropolis, known for its rooftop restaurant, which still has many Russian dishes on its menu.[22] "Shiela Cinema" at Paharganj was Delhi's first 70mm screen, second being "Odeon" in Connaught Place.[23] "Imperial" and "Khanna" were other talkies in the area.[20] Gradually, the entire area was catering to the tourism industry, though the grain bazaars of Mughal era were long gone, in early 20th century, Paharganj still had principal markets in Delhi for building materials, cement, timber and steel, but by 1947 they had mostly shifted to other locations in the city, while Paharganj had become primarily a densely populated residential and commercial area, replete with cheap hotels and restaurants for domestic and foreign tourists.[24]

Popular with backpackers, since the 1970s.
Street in Pahar Ganj, Delhi, 2009
DB Gupta Road in Paharganj, a morning view

Paharganj witnessed upheavals during the prolonged Indian independence struggle, like during the Quit India Movement of August 1942, the British barracks near Paharganj were attacked and the soldiers' were thrown out, who then sought refuge in an Indian's bungalow, later the Paharganj Post office and five terminal tax posts were also raided by the mob and burnt down.[25][26]

Hindu Jat and Muslim riots of 1924[edit]

During the British Raj, Muslims had built a slaughterhouse closer to the Jhandewalan temple. In May 1924 on the day of Bakri Eid the Muslims of Pahari Dhiraj of Paharganj slaughtered the cow - which is revered by the Hindus as sacred Kamadhenu - in the slaughterhouse closer to the Jhandewala temple. This angered the Hindu Jats of Sadar Bazaar, which led to the riots among the Jats and Muslims from 11 to 18 July, resulting in loss of life and property. Muhammad Ali Jinnah repeatedly requested Mahatma Gandhi and Indian National Congress (INC) to stop the rioting Jats, but Gandhi and INC were unable to control the situation. Riots were eventually stopped by the police.[27]

Post-independence[edit]

Subsequently, during the Partition of India in 1947 it again saw extensive rioting,[28] thereafter the area saw a vast influx of Hindu refugees from Pakistan, when several shops and small establishments were allotted to them, since then the area has seen vast development, and seen it the burgeoning marketplace that it is today.

With the arrival of the Hippie movement in the 70s at India's shores, the area became a regular part of the Hippie trail, for hippies, backpackers, and college students looking for budget accommodations near Connaught Place, New Delhi and New Delhi Railway Station. Gradually the hotels and guest houses spread till neighboring Ram Nagar and an area along Deshbandhu Gupta Road.[17] This legacy which continues even today, with its streams of budget hotels, cafes and restaurants, specializing in global cuisines, and hordes of cybercafes.[29] Apart from that Paharganj also has a Chabad House as it is frequented by the large number of Jewish and Israeli tourists, and bakeries like 'German Bakery', named 'Ajay Cafe' 19 years ago.[30]

The area is known for its concentration of affordable hotels, lodges, restaurants, dhabas and a wide variety of shops catering to both domestic travellers and foreign tourists, especially backpackers and low-budget travellers, it has become particularly popular as a haunt for international cuisine.[31][32] Over the years, Paharganj has become the biggest hotel hub for low-budget foreign tourists in Delhi,[2] though with rising congestion, the proliferation of illegal bars and illegal activities like drug peddling,[6] Paharganj has also become a hotspot for crime, and a criminal hideout.[7] The area has shelters and homes, run by Salaam Baalak Trust, an NGO, for street and working children, established in 1988. The trust has run the Salaam Baalak City Walk - New Delhi, a guided tour through Paharganj and New Delhi Railway Station area. The guides are former street children from the trust. The walk aims to sensitize about street life, street children and Indian society problems. During the walk, the guides share their personal story of survival with the participants and show them the contact points and shelter homes SBT provides.[33][34][35]

In 2005, during 29 October 2005 Delhi serial bombings, the first blast took place in the main bazaar of Paharganj, during busy shopping period, two days before festival of Diwali.[2]

Ahead of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, a massive Rs. 800 million ($17 million) facelift program for Paharganj was implemented by Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) in 2009, it included 56 roads and lanes in Paharganj, where over 500 hotels and lodges were expecting to host visitors for the games. Some shops were demolished in areas like Main Bazar, Ram Nagar market and Amrit Kaur market, markets were given uniform design, all road was relaid, sidewalks and pavements were also added, to decongest the area by September 2010.[36][37] However, a number of hotels and guest houses have been violating building and hygiene codes, so tourists are advised to avoid the area.[38]

Historic monuments[edit]

Imperial Cinema in Paharganj

Paharganj is also home to the historic Qadam Sharif dargah, dedicated to the footprint of Prophet Mohammed, originally built by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, a 14th-century Sultan of Delhi.[39][40] Qazi Wali Masjid, known for its intricate engravings, and arched doorways.[41] The grave of poet laureate of Mughal court, Zauq, who lived nearby Nabi Karim and died in 1854, lies in the bylanes of Paharganj. It was restored in early 2000s, after the Supreme Court orders, but his house was never identified.[42]

Administration and politics[edit]

Today Sadar-Paharganj constitutes one of the 12 administrative zones of Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD).[43]

Paharganj was a Delhi Metropolitan Council segment, within the Chandni Chowk, Lok Sabha constituency, 1966–93. Thereafter it remained the Delhi State Assembly constituency, under Chandni Chowk, Lok Sabha constituency, from 1993–2008,[44] Subsequently, following the delimitation of the parliamentary constituencies, in 2008, it became of the New Delhi Lok Sabha constituency.[45]

Sex trade and Safety[edit]

Paharganj has been a hub for backpackers and hippies starting from the 1970s. However, the area now is noted for having high amount of crime, poverty, drugs, sexual assaults and scams.[5] The tourism authorities are encouraging tourists, both local and international, to stay in the newer part of the city, particularly South Delhi, and the neighborhood of South Delhi known as Hauz Khas.[4][3] Paharganj has seen a rise in sexual assaults of women, both Indian tourists and especially international tourists. Although, the area still remains popular by many foreign tourists for cheap hostels and restaurants, most domestic Indian tourists are moving to South Delhi for a safer and cleaner environment, including upscale modern amenities. But, South Delhi is also seeing many foreign tourists, who move away from Paharganj, since Paharganj is witnessing spike in sexual assaults on international travelers.[4][5]

Many hotels and lodging in Paharganj are engaged in sex trade, gambling and other illicit activity, resulting in death of tourists. These hotels and lodgings are popular with some Western tourists seeking easy access to cheap and widely available drugs, and the large number of sex parlours and brothels involved in the sex trade. The area is also known for engaging in sex trade with minor girls and the large number of these sex parlours and brothels are involved with it. Minor girls from the neighboring nation of Nepal and some from the neighboring states, such as Bihar, are trafficked in. There are about 500 sex parlours in the region, charging around 2,000 Indian rupees for sex and message, with the pimps taking 60% of the money given by the customer, the remaining goes to the sex worker.[8][9][10]

The neighbourhood of Paharganj is around GB Road. It has several hundred multi-storey brothels and there are estimated to be over 1000 sex workers.[46] GB road is a dangerous place for the uninitiated. Mugging, snatching of wallets, watches, phones and other crimes happen frequently. A policeman on duty was stabbed to death by muggers just after midnight in September 2012 when a posse of policemen tried to save a man from a gang of criminals who had waylaid him on the road and stabbed him while he was going home from work.[47][48]

In popular culture[edit]

The tourist culture of Paharganj has been a theme for many films, including Kate Winslet starrer, Holy Smoke! (1999), parts of which were shot when she stayed at a Paharganj hotel, in September 1998.[49] In 2008, parts of the Hindi film, Dev.D (2009) directed by Anurag Kashyap were shot in Paharganj area, depicting the seedy side of hotel industry, from prostitution to drug peddling.[50]

Further reading[edit]

  • Delhi Between Two Empires, 1803–1931: Society, Government and Urban Growth, by Narayani Gupta. Published by Oxford University Press, 1981.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Great Britain, Parliament. House of Commons (1859). House of Commons papers, Volume 18. HMSO. p. 8.
  2. ^ a b c "CCTVs: Capital's blind eyes". Hindustan Times. 9 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  3. ^ a b Benroider, Lucie (2015). "Dynamics of social change in South Delhi's Hauz Khas Village" (PDF). www.soas.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  4. ^ a b c "Backpacker haven Paharganj losing out to safer, hip hostels in south Delhi | Delhi News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  5. ^ a b c "Paharganj: Trap or haven for tourists?". Deccan Herald. 23 May 2012.
  6. ^ a b Drug danger and social behaviour: new challenges, by Bhim Sain. Sharada Prakashan, 1988. ISBN 81-85320-00-4. p. 138.
  7. ^ a b "Scare after blast: Cartridges found near Paharganj hotel". The Times of India. 14 September 2011.
  8. ^ a b c "Paharganj: A den of vice? | Delhi News - Times of India". The Times of India.
  9. ^ a b Service, Tribune News. "Four minor sex workers rescued from Paharganj hotel in raid". Tribuneindia News Service.
  10. ^ a b "Move over GB Road, massage parlours are a new favourite". Deccan Herald. 13 July 2014.
  11. ^ Blake, p. 57
  12. ^ a b Blake, p. 58
  13. ^ Blake, p. 117
  14. ^ Narayani Gupta (1981). Delhi between two empires, 1803–1930: society, government and urban growth. Oxford University Press. p. 61.
  15. ^ Fanshawe, p. 64
  16. ^ "A tale of two cities". Hindustan Times. 1 September 2011. Archived from the original on 2 July 2015.
  17. ^ a b Mohan, p. 109
  18. ^ P. C. Kapoor (1960). Civic affairs, Volume 8, Issues 1–6. Citizen Press. p. 72.
  19. ^ M. Anees Chishti (2001). "Delhi Town Planning Committee". Committees and commissions in pre-independence India 1836–1947, Vol. 4. Mittal Publications. p. 220. ISBN 81-7099-804-2.
  20. ^ a b Mohan, p. 107
  21. ^ "A fine balance of luxury and care". Hindustan Times. 21 July 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2014.
  22. ^ "100 years of Dilli Khana". Business Line. 2011.
  23. ^ "The famous four". Hindustan Times. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 October 2012.
  24. ^ Viswambhar Nath (2007). "Delhi Before 1947". Urbanization, urban development, and metropolitan cities in India. Concept Publishing Company. p. 244. ISBN 978-81-8069-412-7.
  25. ^ A. Moin Zaidi (1973). The way out to freedom: an inquiry into the Quit India Movement conducted by participants. Orientalia (India). p. 85.
  26. ^ Pran Nath Chopra; Shri Ram Bakshi (1986). Quit India Movement: British secret documents, Vol. 1. Interprint. p. 17. ISBN 81-85017-32-8.
  27. ^ BIRESH CHAUDHUR, NATIONALIST MOVEMENT IN DELHI 1911-1932, Page 78.
  28. ^ Mushirul Hasan (1997). Legacy of a divided nation: India's Muslims since independence. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 172. ISBN 1-85065-304-6.
  29. ^ Paharganj turns Delhi's Cyberia, businessmen find fortune on Net The Indian Express, 30 April 1999.
  30. ^ "City's own German Bakery and Chabad House given security cover". The Times of India. 17 February 2010.
  31. ^ Manali in Paharganj! Archived 25 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu, 26 June 2006.
  32. ^ Paharganj: A Traveler’s Delight Archived 13 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine www.delhilive.com, 11 January 2008.
  33. ^ Indian Street Kids Offer Glimpse Into Their Lives With Guided Tours Archived 18 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine South Asian Women's Forum, 22 May 2006.
  34. ^ Runaway guides Archived 16 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine The Hindu, Businessline, 6 April 2007.
  35. ^ Discover a Delhi underbelly you never knew, through the eyes of child guides The Telegraph, 12 March 2007.
  36. ^ "Paharganj in for a spruce-up". The Hindu. 23 October 2009.
  37. ^ "New-look Paharganj ready for Games visitors". Sify.com News. 22 September 2010.
  38. ^ Hindu, The (31 December 2010). "Several Paharganj guest houses facing sealing threat". The Hindu.
  39. ^ "Aurangzeb and the thieves". The Hindu. 19 September 2011.
  40. ^ James L. Wescoat; Joachim Wolschke-Bulmahn (1996). Mughal gardens: sources, places, representations, and prospects. Dumbarton Oaks. p. 89. ISBN 0-88402-235-8.
  41. ^ Qazi Wali Masjid in Paharganj[permanent dead link] The Hindu, 1 May 2003.
  42. ^ "In the lanes of Zauq and Ghalib". The Indian Express. 15 March 2009. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012.
  43. ^ Zones Archived 9 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Municipal Corporation of Delhi.
  44. ^ "List of Parliamentary & Assembly Constituencies, General Election to the Lok Sabha, 2004" (PDF). Government of Delhi website. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2011.
  45. ^ "Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies Order, 2008" (PDF). The Election Commission of India. p. 556.
  46. ^ "During GB Road inspection, DCW finds hidden cellars inside brothels". indianexpress.com. 28 December 2016.
  47. ^ "Cop stabbed to death while saving youth on GB Road". Deccan Herald. 12 September 2012.
  48. ^ "Cop killed on GB Road, another hurt". The Times Of India. 12 September 2012.
  49. ^ "Titanic Rose fails to bloom in Paharganj". The Indian Express. 23 September 1998.[permanent dead link]
  50. ^ 'Dev D' is not like Sudhir Mishra's 'Aur Devdas' The Hindu, Wednesday, 10 December 2008.

Sources[edit]