Pahari language

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Pahari, or Pahadi (पहाड़ी pahāṛī 'of the hills/mountains'; English: /pəˈhɑːri/)[1] is an ambiguous term that has been used for a variety of languages, dialects and language groups, most of which are found in the lower Himalayas.

Most commonly, it refers to:

Less commonly, Pahari may be:

  • a term used by Dogri speakers of the plains to refer to the Dogri varieties spoken at higher elevations, in Indian Jammu and Kashmir[3]
  • a local name for a variety of Bilaspuri spoken in a certain hilly area of Indian Punjab[2]
  • a name nowadays used only in rural areas to refer to the Nepali language[4]
  • a local name for a Bhili dialect of Eastern Gujarat.[2]

A similar term is Pahari (पहरी), which refers to a group of dialects of the Tibeto-Burman Newar language of Nepal.[5][6]

Of similar origin is the name Paharia, which is used for several languages of east-central India.


  1. ^ "Pahari". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ a b c Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-521-23420-7.
  3. ^ Brightbill, Jeremy D.; Turner, Scott D. (2007). A sociolinguistic survey of the Dogri language, Jammu and Kashmir (Report). SIL Electronic Survey Reports. p. 7.
  4. ^ Riccardi, Theodore (2003). "Nepali". In George Cardona, Dhanesh Jain (eds.) (eds.). The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge language family series. Y. London: Routledge. p. 540. ISBN 978-0-7007-1130-7.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  5. ^ van Driem, George (2001). Languages of the Himalayas. Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1. Leiden: Brill. pp. 758, 1098. ISBN 978-90-04-10390-0.
  6. ^ Shreshtha, Rudra Laxmi (2003). "Verbal morphology of the Badikhel Pahari dialect of Newar". In Kansakar, Tej Ratna; Turin, Mark (eds.). Themes in Himalayan languages and linguistics. Heidelberg ; Kathmandu: South Asia Institute ; Tribhuvan University. pp. 145–62. ISBN 978-99933-54-16-1.