Pahari, or Pahadi (पहाड़ी پہاڑی pahāṛī 'of the hills/mountains'; English: //) is an ambiguous term that has been used for a variety of languages, dialects and language groups, most of which are found in the lower Himalayas.
Most commonly, it refers to:
- Pahari-Pothwari, the predominant language of Pakistani-administered Azad Kashmir and neighbouring areas of Punjab and Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir
- individual Western Pahari languages spoken primarily in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh, with some languages in the south-eastern parts of Indian Jammu and Kashmir, and the western parts of Uttarakhand
- Northern Indo-Aryan languages, in the linguistics literature often referred to as "Pahari languages", a proposed group that includes the Indo-Aryan languages of Nepal and the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.
Less commonly, Pahari may be:
- a term used by Dogri speakers of the plains to refer to the Dogri varieties spoken at higher elevations, in Indian Jammu and Kashmir
- a local name for a variety of Bilaspuri spoken in a certain hilly area of Indian Punjab
- a name nowadays used only in rural areas to refer to the Nepali language
- a local name for a Bhili dialect of Eastern Gujarat.
Of similar origin is the name Paharia, which is used for several languages of east-central India.
- "Pahari". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
- Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-521-23420-7.
- Kaul, Pritam Krishen (2006). Pahāṛi and Other Tribal Dialects of Jammu. 1. Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers. ISBN 8178541017.
- "Glottolog 4.3 - Jaunsari". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2021-02-08.
- Brightbill, Jeremy D.; Turner, Scott D. (2007). A sociolinguistic survey of the Dogri language, Jammu and Kashmir (Report). SIL Electronic Survey Reports. p. 7.
- Riccardi, Theodore (2003). "Nepali". In George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain (eds.). The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge language family series. Y. London: Routledge. p. 540. ISBN 978-0-7007-1130-7.
- van Driem, George (2001). Languages of the Himalayas. Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1. Leiden: Brill. pp. 758, 1098. ISBN 978-90-04-10390-0.
- Shreshtha, Rudra Laxmi (2003). "Verbal morphology of the Badikhel Pahari dialect of Newar". In Kansakar, Tej Ratna; Turin, Mark (eds.). Themes in Himalayan languages and linguistics. Heidelberg ; Kathmandu: South Asia Institute ; Tribhuvan University. pp. 145–62. ISBN 978-99933-54-16-1.