Pahari language

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Pahari, or Pahadi (पहाड़ी پہاڑی pahāṛī 'of the hills/mountains'; English: /pəˈhɑːri/)[1] is an ambiguous term that has been used for a variety of languages, dialects and language groups, most of which are found in the lower Himalayas.

Most commonly, it refers to:

  • Pahari-Pothwari, the predominant language of Pakistani-administered Azad Kashmir and neighbouring areas of Punjab and Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir
  • individual Western Pahari languages spoken primarily in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh,[2] with some languages in the south-eastern parts of Indian Jammu and Kashmir,[3] and the western parts of Uttarakhand[4]
  • Northern Indo-Aryan languages, in the linguistics literature often referred to as "Pahari languages", a proposed group that includes the Indo-Aryan languages of Nepal and the Indian states of Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh.

Less commonly, Pahari may be:

  • a term used by Dogri speakers of the plains to refer to the Dogri varieties spoken at higher elevations, in Indian Jammu and Kashmir[5]
  • a local name for a variety of Bilaspuri spoken in a certain hilly area of Indian Punjab[2]
  • a name nowadays used only in rural areas to refer to the Nepali language[6]
  • a local name for a Bhili dialect of Eastern Gujarat.[2]

A similar term is Pahari (पहरी), which refers to a group of dialects of the Tibeto-Burman Newar language of Nepal.[7][8]

Of similar origin is the name Paharia, which is used for several languages of east-central India.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Pahari". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  2. ^ a b c Masica, Colin P. (1991). The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-521-23420-7.
  3. ^ Kaul, Pritam Krishen (2006). Pahāṛi and Other Tribal Dialects of Jammu. 1. Delhi: Eastern Book Linkers. ISBN 8178541017.
  4. ^ "Glottolog 4.3 - Jaunsari". glottolog.org. Retrieved 2021-02-08.
  5. ^ Brightbill, Jeremy D.; Turner, Scott D. (2007). A sociolinguistic survey of the Dogri language, Jammu and Kashmir (Report). SIL Electronic Survey Reports. p. 7.
  6. ^ Riccardi, Theodore (2003). "Nepali". In George Cardona; Dhanesh Jain (eds.). The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge language family series. Y. London: Routledge. p. 540. ISBN 978-0-7007-1130-7.
  7. ^ van Driem, George (2001). Languages of the Himalayas. Handbuch der Orientalistik. 1. Leiden: Brill. pp. 758, 1098. ISBN 978-90-04-10390-0.
  8. ^ Shreshtha, Rudra Laxmi (2003). "Verbal morphology of the Badikhel Pahari dialect of Newar". In Kansakar, Tej Ratna; Turin, Mark (eds.). Themes in Himalayan languages and linguistics. Heidelberg ; Kathmandu: South Asia Institute ; Tribhuvan University. pp. 145–62. ISBN 978-99933-54-16-1.