Heidi (god)

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Temple of the Dark Ancestor (玄祖殿 Xuánzǔdiàn) in Yibin, Sichuan.
Chùa Ông Bắc (Temple of the North Deity) of the Hoa Chinese in Long Xuyên, An Giang Province in Vietnam.

Hēidì (Chinese: 黑帝; lit.: 'Black Deity') or Hēishén (黑神; 'Black God'), who is the Běidì (北帝; 'North Deity', Cantonese: Pak Tai) or Běiyuèdàdì (北岳大帝; 'Great Deity of the Northern Peak') is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the cosmological "Five Forms of the Highest Deity" (五方上帝; Wǔfāng Shàngdì). He is also identified as Zhuānxū (颛顼), today frequently worshipped as Xuánwǔ (玄武; 'Dark Warrior') or Zhēnwǔ (真武), and is associated with the essence of water and winter. His animal form is the Black Dragon and his stellar animal is the tortoise-snake.[1] By virtue of his association with the north he has been identified and revered frequently as a representation of the supreme God of Heaven.

Taoist myths involving the Black Deity[edit]

A Taoist title of Heidi is the "Dark (or Mysterious) Heavenly Highest Deity" (玄天上帝; Xuántiān Shàngdì). According to a myth, during the fall of the Shang the Demon King ravaged the world, so that Yuanshi Tianzun ordered the Jade Emperor to appoint Heidi as the commander of twelve heavenly legions to fight this evil. Heidi defeated the Demon King and was subsequently granted the title of Mysterious Heavenly Highest Deity. In temples dedicated to him, the bronze tortoise and serpent under the feet of his image signify that the good always prevails over evil.[2]


  • The day for celebration of Heidi across China is his birthday on lunar April 21.
  • A festival is held on the island of Taipa in Macau. The celebration at the Pak Tai Temple includes an opera-styled performance
  • Annual Bun Festival in Cheung Chau Island, Hong Kong, held in front of the Pak Tai Temple.

Temples in Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, it is worshipped among other places in:

Location Notes Status References Photographs
No. 2 Lung On Street, Wan Chai

22°16′22″N 114°10′26″E / 22.272876°N 114.173823°E / 22.272876; 114.173823 (Wan Chai Pak Tai Temple)

Wan Chai Pak Tai Temple (灣仔北帝廟), also known as Yuk Hui Kung (玉虛宮) Declared
Wan Chai Pak Tai Temple 201904.jpg
A Kung Ngam, south coast of Lei Yue Mun Channel

22°17′02″N 114°14′06″E / 22.283951°N 114.235025°E / 22.283951; 114.235025 (Coastal temple, A Kung Ngam)

Pak Tai Temple Not listed [1]
Pak Tai Temple, A Kung Ngam 03.jpg
Near the southern junction of Old Main Street Aberdeen and Aberdeen Main Street, Aberdeen

22°14′50″N 114°09′23″E / 22.247261°N 114.156269°E / 22.247261; 114.156269 (Pak Tai Temple, Aberdeen)

Pak Tai Temple. Part of the "Guardians of Aberdeen" group of small temples and shrines. Not listed [2] [3]
HK temples 香港仔舊大街 Old Main Street Aberdeen Dec 2016 Lnv2 02.jpg
Facing Stanley Bay, Stanley

22°13′01″N 114°12′31″E / 22.217011°N 114.208705°E / 22.217011; 114.208705 (Pak Tai Temple, Stanley)

Pak Tai Temple Nil grade [4] [5] [6] [7]
Stanley ~ Pak Tai Temple.jpg
Hok Tsui Village (鶴咀村), D'Aguilar Peninsula

22°12′34″N 114°14′49″E / 22.209398°N 114.246872°E / 22.209398; 114.246872 (Pak Tai Temple, Hok Tsui Village)

Pak Tai Temple Not listed [8]
Hok Tsui Village - Pak Tai Temple.jpg
No. 146 Ma Tau Wai Road, Hung Hom

22°18′41″N 114°11′14″E / 22.31126°N 114.18732°E / 22.31126; 114.18732 (Pak Tai Temple, Hung Hom)

Pak Tai Temple, Hok Yuen Kok (鶴園角北帝廟). Built in 1929. Nil grade [9] [10]
HK Ma Tau Wai Road 馬頭圍道 Pak Tai Temple 北帝古廟 evening 01.jpg
Nos. 196 and 198 Yu Chau Street, Sham Shui Po

22°19′46″N 114°09′45″E / 22.329333°N 114.162494°E / 22.329333; 114.162494 (Sam Tai Tsz Temple and Pak Tai Temple)

Sam Tai Tsz Temple and Pak Tai Temple (深水埗三太子及北帝廟) Grade III [11] [12] [13] [14]
HK SamTaiTze and PakTai Temple.JPG
Lomond Road Garden, Lomond Road, Ma Tau Wai

22°19′34″N 114°11′07″E / 22.326235°N 114.18516°E / 22.326235; 114.18516 (Old Sheung Tai Temple, Lomond Road)

Sheung Tai Temple (上帝古廟; 'Temple of the Supreme Ruler'). Only the stone doorframe of the demolished temple remains.[3] Grade III [15] [16] [17]
HK LomondRoadRestGarden KwuKanWai.JPG
Mong Tseng Wai (輞井圍), Ping Shan, Yuen Long District

22°28′36″N 114°00′20″E / 22.476585°N 114.005515°E / 22.476585; 114.005515 (Yuen Kwan Tai Temple, Mong Tseng Wai)

Yuen Kwan Tai Temple, Mong Tseng Wai (玄關帝廟). Dedicated to Yuen Tai/Pak Tai and Kwan Tai. Grade I [18] [19] [20]
HK MongTsengWai YuenKwanTaiTemple.JPG
Cheung Shing Street, Yuen Long Kau Hui

22°26′54″N 114°01′59″E / 22.448276°N 114.032943°E / 22.448276; 114.032943 (Yuen Kwan Yi Tai Temple)

Yuen Kwan Yi Tai Temple (玄關二帝廟) was probably built in 1714. Commonly known as Pak Tai Temple, it is dedicated to Yuen Tai/Pak Tai and Kwan Tai (Guan Yu). The temple functions as an ancestral hall and a temple of Sai Pin Wai. Village meetings are also held there. Grade I
Yuen Kong Tsuen (元崗村), Pat Heung, Yuen Long District

22°25′32″N 114°04′40″E / 22.425563°N 114.077705°E / 22.425563; 114.077705 (Chung Shing Temple, Yuen Kong Tsuen)

Chung Shing Temple (眾聖宮, Temple of All Saints). The main deity of the temple is Pak Tai with some others including Hau Wong and the Earth God.[4] Grade III [21] [22] [23]
HK ChungShingTemple.JPG
Jockey Club Road, north of Fanling Wai

22°30′00″N 114°08′07″E / 22.499995°N 114.135405°E / 22.499995; 114.135405 (Sam Shing Temple, Fanling)

Sam Shing Temple (粉嶺三聖宮). For the worship of three deities: Pak Tai (main deity of the temple), Kwan Tai and Man Cheong (文昌). The temple was moved to So Kwun Po (掃管埔) in the late Ming dynasty (1368-1644) and moved back to the present site in 1948.[5] Grade III
Fanling SamShingKung.jpg
Sheung Yeung (上洋), Clear Water Bay

22°18′40″N 114°17′12″E / 22.311012°N 114.286771°E / 22.311012; 114.286771 (Pak Tai Temple, Clear Water Bay)

Pak Tai Temple, Clear Water Bay Not listed [24]
Pak She Street, Tung Wan, Cheung Chau

22°12′45″N 114°01′40″E / 22.212382°N 114.027852°E / 22.212382; 114.027852 (Yuk Hui Temple)

Yuk Hui Temple aka. Pak Tai Temple.

Managed by the Chinese Temples Committee.
The interior of the temple can be explored with Google Street View.

Grade I [25] [26]
HK Cheung Chau Pak Tei Temple n Stairs 1.JPG
Tai Tei Tong (大地塘), Mui Wo, Lantau Island

22°16′03″N 113°59′28″E / 22.267548°N 113.991165°E / 22.267548; 113.991165 (Pak Tai Temple, Tai Tei Tong)

Pak Tai Temple, Tai Tei Tong [27] [28]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Fowler (2005), p. 201.
  2. ^ Chinese Temples Committee website: Brief Description of Main Deities
  3. ^ "The Temple of the Supreme Ruler, near Sung Wong Toi, Kowloon" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch. 19: 202–204. 1979. ISSN 1991-7295.
  4. ^ Antiquities Advisory Board: Brief Information on Grade III Items. Item #1065 Archived 2017-03-11 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Antiquities Advisory Board: Brief information on proposed Grade III items. Item #1070 Archived 2017-03-11 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]