|Glottolog||mang1377 (partial match)|
The Pakanic languages, also known as Palyu and often including Mangic, are a tentative, recently identified branch of Austroasiatic languages. They are spoken in southern China (Yunnan Province) and northern Vietnam.
In 1990, Paul K. Benedict had argued for the Mangic languages to be a separate Mon-Khmer branch. However, Gérard Diffloth later suggested an affinity with Palaungic. Nguyen Van Loi also classified Mangic within the Samtau group of Waic with Palaungic, although he later classified Mangic as a sister of Waic (Sidwell 2009:133). Peiros (2004) includes Mang within Pakanic. However, Paul Sidwell questions whether and how many of the languages will prove to be a new branch of Austroasiatic, since many languages classified as Mangic may in fact be Palaungic and Khmuic.
However, Li Yunbing (2005) separates these languages into a Pakanic branch and Mangic branch (Li 2005:307). According to Li (2005), Mangic is sometimes merged into Palaungic.
- Mang 莽语 – spoken in Lai Châu Province, Vietnam and Jinping County, Yunnan, China
- Buxing (Buxin, Bit) 布兴语 – spoken in Mengla County, Yunnan, China as well as Luang Namtha Province and Phongsaly Province in Laos
- Khang 抗语 – spoken in Sơn La and Lai Châu provinces, Vietnam
- Kemie 克蔑语 – spoken in Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China
- Kuan 宽语 (Damai) – spoken in Jinghong County, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China
- Xinh Mun 欣门语 (Puoc, Vietnam)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Mangic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- 李云兵 / Li Yunbing. 2005. 布赓语研究 / Bugeng yu yan jiu (A Study of Bugeng [Bugan]). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
- Sidwell, Paul (2009). Classifying the Austroasiatic languages: history and state of the art. LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics, 76. Munich: Lincom Europa.
- Edmondson, Jerold A. 1995. "English-Bolyu glossary." Mon–Khmer Studies 24: 133-159.
- Edmondson, Jerold A. and Kenneth J. Gregerson. 1996. "Bolyu tone in Vietic perspective." Mon–Khmer Studies 26: 117-33.
- Sidwell, Paul. 1995. "Bolyu is a Mon–Khmer language: even if Benedict says so!" La Trobe working papers in linguistics. Volume 8 (1995). Bundoora, Victoria: Linguistics Program, La Trobe University.
- Li Jinfang. 1996. "Bugan — A New Mon–Khmer Language of Yunnan Province, China." Mon–Khmer Studies 26:135-160.
- Tan Sijie, et al. 2007. "Y-chromosome polymorphisms define the origin of the Mang, an isolated population in China." In Annals of Human Biology, Vol. 34, No. 5, Pages 573-581.
- Dao Jie 刀洁. 2007. Bumang yu yanjiu 布芒语研究 [A study of Bumang]. Beijing: 民族出版社 [Nationalities Publishing House].
- 李旭练 / Li Xulian. 1999. 倈语硏究 / Lai yu yan jiu. Beijing: 中央民族大学出版社 / Zhong yang min zu da xue chu ban she.
- 高永奇 / Gao Yongqi. 2003. 莽语硏究 / Mang yu yan jiu (A Study of Mang). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
- 高永奇 / Gao Yongqi. 2004. 布兴语研究 / Buxing yu yan jiu (A Study of Buxing). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
- 陈国庆 / Chen Guoqing. 2005. 克蔑语研究 / Kemie yu yan jiu (A Study of Kemie). Beijing: 民族出版社 / Min zu chu ban she.
- Liang Min [梁敏]. 1984. A sketch of Bolyu [俫语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 1984:4.
- Li Jinfang [李錦芳]. 1996. A sketch of Bugan [布干语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 1996:6.
- Gao Yongqi [高永奇]. 2001. A sketch of Mang [莽语概况]. Minzu Yuwen 2001:4.
- Mang vocabulary from SEAlang
- Bolyu vocabulary from SEAlang
- http://projekt.ht.lu.se/rwaai RWAAI (Repository and Workspace for Austroasiatic Intangible Heritage)
- http://hdl.handle.net/10050/00-0000-0000-0003-66B0-B@view Pakanic languages in RWAAI Digital Archive