|Founded||1 April 2008|
|Dissolved||16 June 2015 (disputed)|
|Preceded by||Barisan Alternatif (BA)|
|Succeeded by||Pakatan Harapan (PH) and Third Front|
|Headquarters||Petaling Jaya, Malaysia (PKR)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (DAP & PAS)
Kuching, Malaysia (SNAP)
|Membership||People's Justice Party (PKR)
Democratic Action Party (DAP)
Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS)
Sarawak National Party (SNAP) April 2010 - May 2011
|Colours||Orange and white|
|Slogan||Berpadu, Berubah, Berkat|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Pakatan Rakyat or PR (People's Pact / People's Alliance) was an informal Malaysian political coalition and successor to Barisan Alternatif (BA). The political coalition was formed by the People's Justice Party (PKR), Democratic Action Party (DAP), and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) on 1 April 2008, after the 12th Malaysian general election, having previously formed the Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) in the 10th general election. On 20 April 2010, the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) officially joined as a member of the Pakatan Rakyat after being expelled from Barisan Nasional, but quit the coalition on 6 May 2011. The existence of this coalition is disputed, with DAP declared it "dead" on 16 June 2015, citing the inability of the rest of the alliance to work with PAS, after PAS's congress passed the motion to sever ties with DAP without debate.PAS, however insists the coalition is still alive. It was succeeded by Pakatan Harapan.
The Pakatan Rakyat is a maturing development of the concept, of Barisan Alternatif (English: Alternative Front), that was created during the election campaign of the 10th Malaysian General Election in 1999. Barisan Alternative was the banner and policy position document which a group of Malaysian opposition political parties (DAP, KeADILan, PAS and PRM) endorsed and coalesced around for that election.
In the 2008 general election (12th Malaysian General Election), PKR, DAP, and PAS had also won 41, 73, and 86 seats, respectively, in various state assemblies.
As of 2009, Pakatan Rakyat remains an informal coalition yet unregistered with the Malaysian Registrar of Societies (ROS). They claim that Malaysian law only allows the registration of a coalition comprising seven parties or more.
In October 2009, the ROS stated that Pakatan Rakyat could formally register as a coalition, as "The condition does not apply to political parties as they enjoy a national status. Only [a] state-level organisation aspiring to become a national entity needs to have seven members from the states". On 9 October 2009, Lim Kit Siang announced that Pakatan would seek to register itself as a formal coalition in light of this clarification. On 4 November 2009, Pakatan Rakyat officials told the press that they had submitted a formal application to the ROS, naming Zaid as the chairman of the alliance. PKR MP and Information Chief Tian Chua publicly denied this, saying the coalition had not yet decided on a constitution, logo, or leadership structure. In February 2010, Pakatan Rakyat claimed it had made a fresh application to ROS as "Pakatan Rakyat Malaysia" because the name "Pakatan Rakyat" is still being registered and processed under Zaid Ibrahim's name as the pro-tem chairman.
By law, the ROS cannot consider any other application that has the same phrase in it, and has asked Pakatan Rakyat to file a fresh application. In November 2011, Pakatan Rakyat appointed PAS central committee member Kamarudin Jaffar to make a fresh application, but RoS director-general Abdul Rahman Othman claimed Kamaruddin had never approached his department. Abdul Rahman said that the ROS has no problem in approving Pakatan's registration and that he could not refuse a request made by any MP.
Zaid had issued a statement on Pakatan Rakyat's ideology, stating that in government, it would introduce anti-discrimination laws, set up a social safety net, establish a new education policy aimed at producing competitive graduates, especially among the Malays and Bumiputra, repeal the Internal Security Act and Printing Presses and Publications Act, amend the Official Secrets Act and Sedition Act to limit the government's power, and reform law enforcement institutions like the courts, the Royal Malaysian Police, and the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission. Zaid also said that the proposed anti-discrimination law would not require the repeal or amendment of Article 153 of the Constitution. Zaid has also request Dato' Nik Aziz to become the chairman of Pakatan Rakyat instead of Anwar Ibrahim (PKR) or Hadi Awang (PAS). In November 2010, after a six-month leave from PKR over undisclosed reasons, Zaid Ibrahim quit PKR, causing the People's Coalition to remain as an informal coalition.
In the 2013 general election (13th Malaysian General Election), the still unregistered Pakatan Rakyat won a popular majority nationwide, but due to large variations in the number of electors in different parliamentary seats, lost to the Barisan Nasional, which won 133 of the 222 federal seats and 275 of the 505 state seats.
On 16 June 2015 DAP secretary-general Lim Guan Eng in a statement to the media announced that Pakatan Rakyat ceased to exist. DAP adviser Lim Kit Siang said the party's action was to recognise the current political reality. He added there was a need for a new political coalition based on principles, and not sheer power.PAS, on the other hand, insists the coalition is still alive till this day.
Pakatan Rakyat basic framework policies are:
- Transparent and genuine democracy
- Constitutional nation and rule of law
- Separation of power
- Free, clean, and fair election system
- Driving a high performance, sustainable, and equitable economy
- High-skill economy
- Decentralisation and empowerment of the states' economic management
- Affirmative policy based on requirements
- Social protection network
- Infrastructure and public facilities
- Social justice and human development
- Solidarity and social justice
- Women and family institutions
- Federal–State relationship and foreign policy
Pakatan Rakyat further their policy through the introduction of "Orange Book", also known as Buku Jingga, which outlining the policies together with Pakatan.
- By year (Malay version)
- By year (English version)
- People's Justice Party (Parti Keadilan Rakyat, KeADILan/PKR)
- Democratic Action Party (Parti Tindakan Demokratik, DAP)
- Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (Parti Islam Se-Malaysia, PAS)
- Sarawak National Party (Parti Kebangsaan Sarawak, SNAP)
- Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 12th Malaysian Parliament
- List of Malaysian State Assembly Representatives (2008–13)
- Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 13th Malaysian Parliament
- List of Malaysian State Assembly Representatives (2013–)
List of Pakatan Rakyat leaders
Prevention of Terrorism Act (POTA) 2015
Prevention of Terrorism Act 2015 (POTA) is a law to prevent the spreading of terrorist ideologies to Malaysia.However, it has been criticised by groups such as the Malaysian Bar as a repressive legislation, likened to the repealed Internal Security Act (ISA).DAP parliamentary leader Lim Kit Siang have been noted to have told off Home Minister Datuk Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi for failing to consult Pakatan Rakyat (PR) and civil society regarding POTA.
On 7 April 2015, after 12 hours of debating, POTA were passed by the Parliament without any amendment. The law were passed with 79 votes in favour and 60 against at 2.25 am. However, the absent of 26 Pakatan Rakyat lawmakers were heavily condemned by PR supporters, civil society activists and demonstrators. Many PR supporters who felt let down by their MPs vented their anger through the social media and news portals questioning their commitment in standing walking the talk against what they claimed to be an oppressive law. Leading the critics were a victim of 2014 Malaysian sedition dragnet, Dr. Azmi Sharom. He, sarcastically "thanked" those who absent for making POTA bill a reality. P Ramakrishnan,an Aliran executive committee member comment that them have acted irresponsibly and have betrayed the expectations of Malaysians. Mohamed Fudzail for The Malaysian Insider demand them to stop making dramas and this only prove the perceptions that lawmakers from either side will always take their position for granted. Ishmael Lim for Free Malaysia Today wrote that those lawmakers have failed to be an example for Malaysian will of change. Fa Abdul urged the PR leaders to publish those who absent. Amiran Ruslan, a journalist for The Rakyat Post called those who absent as ignorant. Khairie Hisyam Aliman, a columnist for The Malay Mail Online said that them were elected to be in the Parliament but not the other way around. Amirul Ruslan, a journalist criticise even though with vigorous and repeated criticism of the bill, it was Pakatan lawmakers who failed to muster the numbers. Solidariti Anak Muda Malaysia,a pro-Opposition NGO,slams PR lawmakers who play truant while passing important bills. The absent of a third of PR lawmakers were also being noted when the Kampung Baru Development Bill and Prevention of Crime Act were proved in the last term.
Director of Merdeka Centre Ibrahim Suffian say that could disenchant Pakatan backers and "shameful". Among those who were absent include PKR parliamentary whip, Datuk Johari Abdul, PAS parliamentary whip, Datuk Seri Mahfuz Omar and PKR's Secretary General, Rafizi Ramli. DAP parliamentary whip Anthony Loke demand clarifies that only two of their members were absent, which include DAP secretary general, Lim Guan Eng. Other than two DAP lawmakers, each PAS and PKR have eleven lawmakers absent.Them however, claims that them have their own valid reasons for skipping POTA's bill, such as long-drawn debate.
General election results
|Election||Total seats won||Total votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election||Election leader|
82 / 222
|3,796,464||46.75%||61 seats; Opposition coalition||Wan Azizah Wan Ismail|
89 / 222
|5,623,984||50.87%||7 seats; Opposition coalition||Anwar Ibrahim|
State election results
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