Pakistan Meteorological Department
Meteorological Department Lahore is visible in this image
|Formed||August 14, 1947|
|Jurisdiction||Government of Pakistan|
|Annual budget||2014 Budget|
|Parent department||Aviation Division, Cabinet Secretariat|
The Pakistan Meteorological Department (reporting name: PMD; unofficially known as Pakistan Met Office ), is an autonomous and independent institution tasked with providing forecasts, public warnings, and purposes of protection, safety, and general information.
Apart from meteorology, it is also involved in monitoring as well as investigating weather phenomenons, astronomical events, hydrology, and research in astrophysics, climate changes, and studies on aeronautical engineering, renewable energy resources across various parts of the country.
Headquartered in Islamabad, it has offices and research facilities in all over the four provinces of the country. As of current, Dr. Ghulam Rasul is the current Director-General of the Pakistan Meteorological Department.
In 1875, the British government established the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) in India. Sir Charles Normand later became the IMD's chief scientist and director. Under the guidance of Dr. Kedareswar Banerjee and Dr. Charles Normand, the IMD expanded its facilities all over the rest of the Indian Empire to engage in collecting the meteorological data.
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) was created in the newly born country. Since its establishment, the PMD has become one of the leading governmental scientific institution in guiding the government in environmental and space policy formation. In 1948, the PMD started providing basic weather forecast to country's print media. In 1965, the first televised weather forecast was broadcast by the state-controlled news channel, the PTV.
In the 1950s, the PMD became one of the leading scientific institution leading the research in space and atmospheric sciences, and worked in close coordination with the Ministry of Defence (MoD) and the Ministry of Environment (MoEn) for the accurate weather information for aviation and hydrography. However in the 1960s, the PMD split with services to the Pakistan Navy being provided by its own forecasting department. Nation's most notable scientists and scholars have been affiliated with the PMD since its established. The PMD also assisted the government in establishing the nation's space agency, Space Research Commission (SRC) in 1961 when many of its atmospheric scientists and technical staff joined the Space Research Commission. The PMD has also been assisting and leading the geomagnetic studies section of the Geomagnetic monitoring programme of the SRC.
Due to its resourcefulness and capable scientific staff, the PMD has become a reliable government agency for providing accurate data and forecast in the country. Since 1974, the Meteorological department has introduced a seismic detection system to scientific data acquire on the nuclear explosion and natural earthquake activities. Furthermore, its modern flood forecasting system has assisted the other government agencies and related organizations to improve radar, satellite, computer technology, flight safety, consultancy services in seismic design of dams, buildings and other development and disaster relief schemes.
The Pakistan Meteorological Department is headed by the Director General. The Department is further divided into several Directorates as follows ;
- Institute of Meteorology & Geophysics or IMG (Training Center of PMD) Karachi,
- Tropical Cyclone Warning Center (TCWC), Karachi,
- National Seismic Monitoring Center-NSMC (Backup Station) Karachi,
- National Seismic Monitoring and Tsunami Early Warning Center (NSMC) Islamabad,
- Directorate of Maintenance Karachi,
- Directorate of Forecasting and Climatology (F&C) Karachi,
- Climate Data Processing Center (CDPC) Karachi,
- Regional Met. Centres (RMC) in :- Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta and Gilgit.
- Remote sensing, Islamabad,
- Drought, Environmental monitoring & early warning Center Islamabad,
- Flood Forecasting Division (FFD) Lahore,
- Wind mapping project for Wind Energy,
- Geophysical Centre Quetta,
- Research & Development (R&D) Islamabad,
- National Weather Forecasting Centre (NWFC) Islamabad,
- Main Analysis Centre (MAC) Karachi,
- Meteorological Offices at Airports (mainly for Aviation purposes) Karachi, Islamabad, Lahore, Peshawar, Quetta.
- Chief Administrative Officer (CAO).
Pakistan Meteorological Department was established in 1947 with only 15 meteorological observatories operating in the whole country. Since then the facilities have been significantly improved with the establishment of modern flood forecasting system, earthquake and nuclear explosion detection system, nuclear meteorology, radar, satellite, computer technology, flight safety consultancy services in seismic design of dams, buildings and other development and disaster relief schemes.
Observatories and weather stations
At the time of its establishment, the PMD inherited 15 meteorological observatories from the British Met Office who managed its observational operations in the subcontinent. Since, the PMD's continuous efforts has improved weather forecasting capabilities by expanding the network of meteorological observatories, developing methods of observation, improving telecommunication facilities and forecasting techniques.
The PMD's facilities and stations have also played vital role in research work and its scientists have made valuable contribution. The PMD's has successfully established and expanded its system of meteorological observatories in all over the country. As of current, there are numbers of meteorological, airborne, and astronomical observatories that are established in rural and urbanized areas of the country as listed below.
- 41 observatories in Punjab, including Islamabad.
- 11 in Gilgit Baltistan and Azad Kashmir
- 17 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
- 16 in Sindh
- 16 in Balochistan
Major weather stations
Some weather stations have limited reporting times, while other report continuously, mainly PAF and Army Aviation Corps stations where a manned met office is provided for military operations. Reports (observations) from weather stations vary considerably and it is because there are different types of weather in different regions. There is list of weather stations below:
- Karachi, Sindh— The Met office in Karachi International Terminal working in close coordination with the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Additional, weather station situated in PAF Base Masroor.
- Lahore, Punjab— A weather station and met office in the Allama Iqbal International Terminal; and the airborne Observatory located in Lahore, Shahi Qilla, Misri Shah, Upper Mall and Lahore Shahdara.
- Islamabad— A weather station, met office, and numbers of observatories situated in Islamabad's Zero Point in the center of the city, Saidpur in the NE under the Margallah Hills, and Golra Sharif in the west.
- Rawalpindi, Punjab— A weather station in Benazir International Airport, usually used to report the weather of the city. A met office and observatory in Dhamial Army Airbase. A complete manned weather station is also in Shamasabad (North Rawalpindi), and in Bokra on the border of the twin cities in the west.
- List of extreme weather records in Pakistan
- Geological Survey of Pakistan
- National Institute of Oceanography
- SUPARCO (Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission)
- News desk cast (26 August 2013). "MET office forecast rain for upper parts". GEO News. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
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- Gupta, edited by Uma Das (2010). Science and modern India : an institutional history, c. 1784-1947. Delhi: Longman Pearson Education. ISBN 8131728188.
- Russell, Jesse (2012). Pakistan Meteorological Department. N.A.: Booksviko publications. p. 140. ISBN 9785511582375.
- staff. "History of Suparco". Govt. Pakistan. SUPARCO. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Staff. "Geomagnetic Study". Govt. Pakistna. SUPARCO Geomagnetic program. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Staff. "Met Observatories". Met Observatories. Met Observatories. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Staff. "Met office in Jinnah Terminal" (PDF). Federal Aviation Authority. Federal Aviation Authority. Retrieved 12 January 2014.