Pakistan Military Academy

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Pakistan Military Academy
پاکستان ملٹری اکیڈمی
Motto in English
Men at their Best
TypePakistan Army's initial officer training academy
EstablishedOctober 14, 1947; 76 years ago (October 14, 1947)[1]
CommandantMaj Gen Iftikhar Hassan Chaudhary
Academic staff
3,000–4,000 (both civilian and military)
Location, ,
Colours   Green and red

Pakistan Military Academy, also referred to by its acronym PMA, is an officers training centre located near Kakol village in the city and district of Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Established in October 1947,[2][3][4] it is the sole service academy in Pakistan tasked with training cadets to serve as army officers. For educational training, the institution is accredited by NUST.[5][6][7]

To become an officer, cadets undergo a demanding two-year military training program. The Pakistan Military Academy (PMA) plays a crucial role in providing training to Gentlemen Cadets (Officer Cadets) from the Pakistan Army as well as from Allied countries. The academy consists of four training battalions and 16 companies.

PMA holds great significance internationally, as it hosts approximately 2,000 invited guests from more than 34 countries each year. Several close allies of Pakistan choose to send their own cadets and officers to PMA to receive top-notch training in modern military doctrine. This reflects the academy's reputation as a premier institution for military education and training.

Former COAS General Raheel Shareef, inaugurated 4th Pakistan Battalion in PMA on October 10, 2016.[8][9]


Before the dissolution of British India in 1947, the location had initially been used as the premises of a Physical Training and Mountaineering School of the British Indian Army, on the site of a vacant POW camp set up in 1902 for just a few months for prisoners from the Boer War,[10] and later it became a dwelling-operating space of the Royal Indian Army Service Corps. After the division of the old Indian Army between India and Pakistan in 1947, Brigadier Francis Ingall, an officer of the British Indian Army, was selected by the C-in-C India, Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, as first commandant of the Pakistan Military Academy. He selected the vacant location at Kakul for a military academy. He determined that the PMA would be organized based upon the model established by Sandhurst and requested a regimental sergeant major from the Brigade of Guards to help with training. He was fortunate to have the support of a number of old Indian Army officers who were transferred to the Pakistan Army, among them Lieutenant-Colonel Attiqur Rahman, Major S.G. Mehdi M.C., the first PMA adjutant and founder of Qasim company, who later went on to command the SSG (Special Service Group) of the Pakistan Army. In spite of facilities which were comparably sparse to those of the Indian Military Academy at Dehra Dun, Ingall won the confidence of his cadets and instructors. When, late in 1947, the dispute over the accession of Jammu and Kashmir led to armed conflict between India and Pakistan, Ingall was able to structure the Academy’s training to enable newly-commissioned officers to be immediately effective when they joined units on active service.[citation needed] Ingall was appointed OBE after completing his term as commandant in 1950. What probably gave him more satisfaction was the decision to name Kakul’s central lecture theatre Ingall Hall - though this was not built until many years after he had left.[11] He kept in touch with the academy for the rest of his life, making his last visit in November, 1997 where he said:

I have given many addresses from this position here and from 1948 to 1951 I was very keen on the question of Pakistan and believed in it. I believed what the Quaid-e-Azam preached. I believe in Islam.[12]

A total of sixty-seven cadets (66 Muslims and 1 Christian cadet) arrived from IMA on 15 October 1947[13] and new cadets for Ist PMA Long Course (78) and Ist Graduates Course (63) were selected in Pakistan and training started officially in January 1948. Two hundred and eight cadets started their training in January 1948. On January 25, 1948, "The First Pakistan Battalion" was instituted. This battalion has four companies which were "named after the luminaries of Muslim military history" (e.g., Khalid, Tariq, Qasim, and Salahuddin).[citation needed] In March 1948, the First Battalion "was bestowed with Quaid-e-Azam’s patronage as Colonel-in-Chief, and the most coveted claim “The Quaid-e-Azam’s Own".

Khawaja Nazimuddin gave the Quaid-e-Azam banner to the Pakistan Military Academy on behalf of Quaid-e-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah. The Quaid-e-Azam banner is held aloft by the champion company at every passing out parade. "Regimental colours presented in 1950 by Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan and the National Standard in 1961 by General Muhammad Musa, the then-Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, have been some of the honours showered on the Academy, which it has always zealously guarded and kept high in letter and spirit."[7]

The 1965 war led to expansion of the Academy, and the second battalion of the Academy was created in December 1965. This battalion consisted of four companies, called Ghaznavi, Babur, Aurangzeb, and Tipu. In early 1989, the third battalion of the Academy was founded. The third battalion's four companies are Haider, Ubaida, Saad, and Hamza.

Educational philosophy[edit]

The academy offers a two-year undergraduate program leading to the Bachelors in Military Art and Science (BMAS) including some common subjects as English, Military Geography, National and International Affairs, Islamic Studies, Military and General Science or Social Science. The long course cadets study two years for the degree before commissioning and completing their degree in their units. Every Gentleman Cadet passing out of the academy has a minimum graduation (from MCE, CEME, MCS, AM College or civil institutes) except for Long Course cadets who complete their degree after graduation.

The academy believes in proper discipline of a cadet and proper induced discipline. It is based on the principles of Discipline, Honor, Patriotism and the qualities are strictly monitored.[14] Cadets are made to look at current world affairs and ammunition, with subjects being taught in relation to or from the perspective of military operations and history. Cadets are also strongly encouraged to uphold/exalt officer traditional code of conduct in order to mold cadets into being exemplary Army Officers by the end of their term. Communication skills are given great importance and courteousness and consistency are kept a record of and stressed upon. Cadets are provided with modern educational facilities and are equipped with modern labs to bolster learning. A cadet is also trained to react during stress situations and his overall mental capability is worked on.

War tactics are presented to cadets and are part of the curriculum.[15] These include discussion of previous war models and ones to anticipate. Cadets are also given navigation training in equipped map rooms and then overall judged in the tactical exercises without troops and professionalism are judged in weapon training areas.[16]

Physical requirements[edit]

GCs (Gentlemen Cadets) are required to pass various physical tests. The academy has very high physical standards, which all cadets have to achieve in order to pass. The physical requirements increase with promotion to the next term. The basic requirement for cadets of first term is to be able to complete one mile run (1.6 kilometers) in six minutes and thirty seconds. In second term, cadets are required to complete one mile run in six minutes and fifteen seconds. For third term cadets one mile time is six minutes and most fourth term cadets are required to run one mile within six minutes. Other tests includes push ups, sit ups, chin up, rope test, five mile running, assault course, and the acid test. These tests generally test the stamina and strength of a cadet.[17]

In the "acid test," cadets begin by traversing a mountain while carrying logs on their shoulders. This is followed by a 14.5 km run in full gear to an obstacle course. Those completing the course are given five rounds with which to hit a target at a distance of 22m.[18]

Lady Cadets are also required to pass physical efficiency tests like GCs, but the standards are bit less keeping in view to their physique. The basic requirement for all lady cadets is to run one mile (1.6 km) within ten minutes. Other tests includes push ups, sit ups, bar hanging, assault course and also undergoes an exercise Qiyadat with GCs.

There are a number of training exercises for cadets, which include:

  • First term: Kick Off, Saluting Tests, Cross Country, Sang e Bunyad, Yarmuk, Path Finder and the GCs are required to spend three minutes in the Boxing Ring with another opponent following a lengthy training period.
  • Second term: T.M Raiders, Panipat and Assault Course is also added as a part of PT Tests. Qiyadat and the Acid Test.[citation needed]


For the sake of training, the Gentlemen Cadets are organized in battalions and then further into companies. There are 16 companies in Pakistan Military Academy, all of them are named after famous Muslim warriors and commanders.

1st Pakistan Battalion (Quaid-i-Azam's own)[edit]

1st Pakistan Battalion consists of four companies:

2nd Pakistan Battalion (Quaid-i-Azam's own)[edit]

2nd Pakistan Battalion consists of four companies:

3rd Pakistan Battalion (Quaid-i-Azam's own)[edit]

3rd Pakistan Battalion consists of four companies:

4th Pakistan Battalion (Quaid-i-Azam's own)[edit]

4th Pakistan Battalion consists of four companies:


There are five types courses (or curricular plans) running parallel to each other. The types of courses are:

PMA Long Course[edit]

The PMA Long Course is for regular commission officers of combat and combat support arms & services. The Long Course has a duration of two years, which is further divided into four terms of six months each. After the 2-year training period Cadets pass out as Lieutenants.

Technical Cadet Course (TCC)[edit]

Candidates who wish to join the army as an engineer apply for this course. It is necessary that candidates have attained 12 years of academic education with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics courses. Candidates who are successful in all tests conducted for selection are then sent to a NUST institution for a Bachelor of Engineering degree, depending on the field they choose:

Degree Institution
B.E Civil Engineering Military College of Engineering
B.E Electrical Engineering College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
B.E Mechanical Engineering College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
B.E Mechatronics Engineering College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
B.E Computer Engineering College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
B.E Electrical Engineering (Telecom) Military College of Signals
B.E Software Engineering Military College of Signals
B.E Aeronautical Engineering College of Aeronautical Engineering

After completing their Bachelor of Engineering degree from one of these courses of study, the E-Cadets, as they are called,[19] are sent to Pakistan Military Academy, Kakul for military training of one year after which they directly attain the rank of captain in their respective units.

Integrated Course (IC)[edit]

To be eligible for this course, a candidate must have attained 16-18 years of academic education with coursework in Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Candidates who pass initial and GHQ Selection Board tests conducted by the army are sent to Army Medical College for MBBS or for Bachelor of Dental Surgery after which they go through a Basic Military Training at Pakistan Military Academy, Kakul for 22 weeks. Apart from GCs of AM College, IC accepts cadets who will to join EME, Signals, RVFC and Army Education Corps with minimum masters in different fields. The IC has a duration of six months. Cadets graduate as Captains. This course includes all the essential components required for commissioning as an officer apart from the boxing and acid test.

PMA Lady Cadet's Course (LCC)[edit]

The PMA Lady Cadet's Course was first started in November 2006. The course is taken by masters and bachelors-qualified ladies who are sound professionals in their fields. The lady cadets undergo a training period of six months and pass out as Captains in supporting arms of the Pakistan Army.

Mujahid Course (MC)[edit]

The Mujahid course was first started in 2011. This course is taken by those candidates who are twice-declared low merit from PMA long course. The Mujahid Course cadets go under the training of one year at PMA, Kakul and pass out 2nd Lieutenants. They mostly serve in Kashmir area near LOC, and the area near the border with India.[20] The headquarter of Mujahid Regiment is in Bhimber, Kashmir.

List of Commandants[edit]

S.N Name Start of tenure End of tenure Ref.
1 Brig F.H.B Ingall, DSO 4 Nov 1947 31 Dec 1950
2 Brig. G.H Tarvar, DSO 7 Jun 1951 20 Feb 1953
3 Brig. G. Pigot, MC 21 Feb 1953 18 Nov 1955
4 Brig J. H Souter, MC 19 Nov 1955 7 Apr 1957
5 Maj Gen Shoukat Ali Shah 8 Apr 1957 2 May 1959
6 Brig Fazal Muqeem Khan, SQA 3 May 1959 17 Oct 1959
7 Brig Mohammad Rafi 18 Oct 1959 29 Feb 1964
8 Brig Sultan Mohammad 30 Mar 1964 14 Nov 1966
9 Brig Abubakar Osman Mitha 15 Nov 1966 23 Nov 1968
10 Maj Gen Syed Abid Ali 6 Feb 1969 1 Dec 1969
11 Maj Gen Ijaz Ahmed, SK 2 Dec 1969 29 Apr 1970
12 Maj Gen Riaz Azim, TPk 30 Apr 1970 10 Feb 1972
13 Brig (Later Major General) Abdullah Saeed 11 Feb 1972 20 Nov 1974
14 Brig Zamir Ahmed Khan 21 Nov 1974 4 Jun 1976
15 Brig (Later Lieutenant General) Ahmad Kamal Khan 5 Jun 1976 15 Feb 1978
16 Brig (Later Lieutenant General) Imranuallah Khan 16 Feb 1978 11 Jul 1982
17 Maj Gen Rahat Latif 17 Jul 1982 4 Oct 1985
18 Maj Gen (Later General & Chief of Army Staff) Asif Nawaz 5 Oct 1985 14 May 1988
19 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Ghulam Muhammad Malik 15 May 1988 2 Jul 1990
20 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Lehrasab Khan, SJ 3 Jul 1990 17 April 1992
21 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Muhammad Maqbool 18 Apr 1992 1 Jul 1993
22 Maj Gen Malik Saleem Khan 19 Jul 1993 22 Aug 1995
23 Maj Gen Rizwan Qureshi 23 Aug 1995 22 Apr 1997
24 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Jamshed Gulzar 23 Apr 1997 22 Nov 1998
25 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Imtiaz Shaheen 3 Dec 1998 3 Mar 2000
26 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Shahid Hamid 3 Mar 2000 4 Nov 2001
27 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Hamid Rabnawaz 5 Nov 2001 14 Oct 2004
28 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Ahsan Azhar Hayat 1 Nov 2004 30 Apr 2006 [21]
29 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Nadeem Taj 1 May 2006 3 Oct 2007 [22]
30 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Zahid Hussain Khan 4 Oct 2007 12 Oct 2008 [23]
31 Maj Gen (Later General & Chief of Army Staff) Raheel Sharif 13 Oct 2008 14 Oct 2010 [24]
32 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Mazhar Jamil 15 Oct 2010 15 May 2012 [25]
33 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Sadiq Ali 16 May 2012 29 Jul 2013 [26]
34 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Nazir Ahmed Butt 30 Jul 2013 28 Oct 2014 [27]
35 Maj Gen (later General & Chairman Joint Chief of Staff Committee) Nadeem Raza 29 Oct 2014 10 Dec 2016 [28]
35 Maj Gen (Later Lieutenant General) Abdullah Dogar 15 Dec 2016 Oct 2017 [29]
36 Maj Gen (Now Lieutenant General) Akhtar Nawaz Oct 2017 25 Nov 2019 [30]
37 Maj Gen (Now Lieutenant General) Muhammad Ali 25 Nov 2019 25 Nov 2020 [31]
38 Maj Gen Omer Ahmed Bokhari 25 Nov 2020 Dec 2022
39 Maj Gen Iftikhar Hassan Chaudhary Jan 2023 Till date [32]

Notable alumni[edit]


Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff[edit]

Chief of Army Staff[edit]


Alumni who opted for Bangladesh Army in 1971[edit]

International Alumni[edit]



  • "PMA Passing Out Parade 29 April 2023". YouTube. Retrieved 11 Oct 2023.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Partition of the IMA". The Tribune. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  2. ^ Pakistan Military Academy (a profile). Rowman & Littlefield. 19 March 2015. ISBN 9781442241480. Retrieved 24 May 2021 – via Google Books website.
  3. ^ "PAKISTAN ARMY". Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  4. ^ "Partition of the IMA". The Tribune. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  5. ^ "The Affiliation of NUST with PMA". Archived from the original on 2019-06-20. Retrieved 2020-04-26.
  6. ^ Govt. Pakistan. "HEC Recognized Universities and Degree Awarding Institutions". Govt. Pakistan. Higher Education Commission. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Pakistan Military Academy – Cadets Training". January 25, 1948. Archived from the original on May 7, 2011. Retrieved May 3, 2011.
  8. ^ "COAS inaugurates 4th Pakistan Battalion in PMA". Times of Islamabad. 2016-10-10. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  9. ^ "General Sharif inaugurates fourth Pakistan Battalion at military academy". Dunya News. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  10. ^ Parret, C. (2011) 'Boer Prisoners in Abbottabad', in Journal of Military Historical Society UK, No 1, Spring issue, pp.3–4; and also History of the 5th Gorkha Rifles, 1858-1928 UK, 1929, p.16
  11. ^ "History of Brigadier Ingall". Defence Journal. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2011-12-15.
  12. ^ "Ingall's speech at 1:35 min". Pakistan Army. Archived from the original on 2021-12-21. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
  13. ^ "Partition of the IMA". The Tribune. Retrieved February 12, 2023.
  14. ^ By whom?
  15. ^ All curricula or courses? Terminology needs to be consistent throughout an article body.
  16. ^ "Historical Background of Pakistan Military Academy". Pakistan Army website. Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  17. ^ Anthony Spaeth (22 July 2008). "Pakistan Military Academy". Pakistan Armed Forces (Magazine). Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  18. ^ Anthony Spaeth (22 July 2002). "Dangerous Ground (Pakistan Military Academy)". TIME (Magazine). Retrieved 24 May 2021.
  19. ^ by whom?
  20. ^ "Pakistan Mujahid Force Jobs 2021 Training Course as Sipahi". 19 June 2021.
  21. ^ "National security strategy being pursued: Shaukat". Brecorder. 2006-04-16. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  22. ^ "Convocation of 115th PMA long course held". DAWN.COM. 2007-04-08. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  23. ^ "KARACHI: Mausoleum centre of Quaid's birth anniversary celebrations". DAWN.COM. 2007-12-26. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
  24. ^ "General Raheel Sharif officially assumes army command". The Express Tribune. 2013-11-29. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  25. ^ "Inside the Pakistan Army: Moves on the Chessboard". South Asian Voices. 2015-06-05. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  26. ^ Agencies (2012-12-25). "Ceremony at the Quaid's mausoleum". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  27. ^ Khan, Iftikhar A. (2018-09-30). "ISI chief among five generals retiring". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  28. ^ "Lt Gen Nadeem Raza appointed CJCSC". Dunya News. Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  29. ^ "Passing out parade held at PMA Kakul". Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  30. ^ "Pakistan Military Academy Kakul cadets take guard duty at Quaid's mausoleum". Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  31. ^ "145th birth anniversary of Quaid-i-Azam celebrated". Retrieved 2022-05-04.
  32. ^ "Passing-out parade of 145th PMA Long Course held at Kakul". Retrieved 2022-05-04.