Pakistan administered Kashmir

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Pakistan Occupied Kashmir)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Location of Pakistan administered Kashmir marked red in the region[1][2]
Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pakistan administered Kashmir in green[1][2]

Pakistan administered Kashmir refers to the geographical area composed of the two administrative entities of Azad Kashmir, and Gilgit-Baltistan, that are parts of Kashmir currently administered by Pakistan and disputed by India. Pakistan administered Kashmir borders the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north west, the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China to the north and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir, to the east.

Azad Kashmir comprises major portions of the three western districts of the erstwhile princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, viz., Mirpur, Poonch and Muzaffarabad. These areas broke off from the princely state via a rebellion in Poonch and an invasion by Pakistan-sponsored insurgents in 1947.

Gilgit-Baltistan comprises the former Gilgit Agency along the northern border, leased to British India between 1935 and 1947, and the Baltistan tehsil of the Ladakh district. Shortly after the Maharaja's accession to India, the Gilgit Scouts rebelled and overthrew the governor appointed by him. Then they invaded Baltistan and defeated the State Forces deployed there.

The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948 saw heavy fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces all along the line dividing these areas. After a UN-mediated ceasefire in 1949, Pakistan took direct control of Gilgit-Baltistan, whereas Azad Kashmir is governed by a nominally self-governing administration. The Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan of the Government of Pakistan looks upon affairs of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.

Background[edit]

Political map of the Kashmir region, showing the Pakistan administered Kashmir in green

British rule in the Indian subcontinent ended in 1947 with the creation of new states: the Dominion of Pakistan and the Union of India, as the successor states to British India. The British Paramountcy over the 562 Indian princely states ended. According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, "the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, and with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States".[3] States were thereafter left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir, the largest of the princely states, had a predominantly Muslim population ruled by the Hindu Maharaja Hari Singh. He decided to stay independent because he expected that the State's Muslims would be unhappy with accession to India, and the Hindus and Sikhs would become vulnerable if he joined Pakistan.[4][5] On 11 August, the Maharaja dismissed his prime minister Ram Chandra Kak, who had advocated independence. Observers and scholars interpret this action as a tilt towards accession to India.[6][5] Pakistanis decided to preempt this possibility by wresting Kashmir by force if necessary.[7]

Pakistan made various efforts to persuade the Maharaja of Kashmir to join Pakistan. In July 1947, Mohammad Ali Jinnah is believed to have written to the Maharaja promising "every sort of favourable treatment," followed by the lobbying of the State's Prime Minister by leaders of Jinnah's Muslim League party. Faced with the Maharaja's indecision on accession, the Muslim League agents clandestinely worked in Poonch to encourage the local Muslims to an armed revolt, exploiting an internal unrest regarding economic grievances. The authorities in Pakistani Punjab waged a 'private war' by obstructing supplies of fuel and essential commodities to the State. Later in September, Muslim League officials in the Northwest Frontier Province, including the Chief Minister Abdul Qayyum Khan, assisted and possibly organized a large-scale invasion of Kashmir by Pathan tribesmen.[8]:61[9] Several sources indicate that the plans were finalised on 12 September by the Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, based on proposals prepared by Colonel Akbar Khan and Sardar Shaukat Hayat Khan. One plan called for organising an armed insurgency in the western districts of the state and the other for organising a Pushtoon tribal invasion. Both were set in motion.[10][11]

The Jammu division of the state got caught up in the Partition violence. Large numbers of Hindus and Sikhs from Rawalpindi and Sialkot started arriving in March 1947, bringing "harrowing stories of Muslim atrocities." This provoked counter-violence on Jammu Muslims, which had "many parallels with that in Sialkot." According to scholar Ilyas Chattha.[12] The violence in the eastern districts of Jammu that started in September, developed into a widespread 'massacre' of Muslims around the October, organised by the Hindu Dogra troops of the State and perpetrated by the local Hindus, including members of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and the Hindus and Sikhs displaced from the neighbouring areas of West Pakistan. The Maharaja himself was implicated in some instances. A large number of Muslims were killed. Huge number of Muslims have fled to West Pakistan, some of whom made their way to the western districts of Poonch and Mirpur, which were undergoing rebellion. Many of these Muslims believed that the Maharaja ordered the killings in Jammu and instigated the Muslims in West Pakistan to join the uprising in Poonch and help in the formation of the Azad Kashmir government.[13]

The rebel forces in the western districts of Jammu got organised under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim, a Muslim Conference leader. They took control of most of the western parts of the State by 22 October. On 24 October, they formed a provisional Azad Kashmir (free Kashmir) government based in Palandri.[14]

Administration[edit]

The Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan (MKAGB) of the Government of Pakistan currently looks upon affairs of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.

Ministry of Kashmir Affairs (MKA) was first established in January 1949 with an office set up in Rawalpindi and also had Directorates in Murree.[15] In April 1949 the Ministry executed the Karachi Agreement with the-then president of Azad Kashmir Muhammad Ibrahim Khan and the leader of the Muslim Conference Chaudhry Ghulam Abbas. By the agreement, complete control over the Gilgit and Baltistan areas was handed over to the ministry. For Azad Kashmir itself, control over defence and foreign affairs was ceded to the ministry, including the negotiations with the United Nations and arrangements for the envisaged plebiscite for Kashmir.[15] However, in actual fact, the ministry had almost complete control over the Azad Kashmir government itself, because the government had few resources and it was dependent on Pakistan for all its supplies.[16]

In 1974, under the Government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Azad Kashmir region got its first constitution, which was called the Interim Constitution of 1974. The Gilgit and Baltistan areas were called Northern Areas, and the MKA was renamed the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas (MKANA).[17]

In 2009, the Northern Areas were renamed Gilgit-Baltistan and the ministry was correspondingly renamed Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan.[18]

Azad Kashmir[edit]

The region of Azad Kashmir Shown in Red[19]

Azad Jammu and Kashmir, (translation: Free Jammu and Kashmir[20]), abbreviated as AJK and commonly known as Azad Kashmir, is a nominally self-governing[21][20] polity administered by Pakistan. The territory lies west of the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir,[19] and was previously part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Azad Kashmir is part of the greater Kashmir region, which is the subject of a long-running conflict between Pakistan and India. The territory shares a border with Gilgit-Baltistan, together with which it is referred to by the United Nations and other international organisations as "Pakistan-administered Kashmir". Azad Kashmir is one-sixth of the size of Gilgit-Baltistan.[22] The territory also borders Pakistan's Punjab province to the south and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province to the west. To the east, Azad Kashmir is separated from the state of Jammu and Kashmir by the Line of Control, the de facto border between India and Pakistan. Azad Kashmir has a total area of 13,297 square kilometres (5,134 sq mi), and a total population of 4,045,366 as per the 2017 Census.

The territory has a parliamentary form of government modeled after the Westminster system, with its capital located at Muzaffarabad. The President is the constitutional head of state, while the Prime Minister, supported by a Council of Ministers, is the chief executive. The unicameral Azad Kashmir Legislative Assembly elects both the Prime Minister and President. The state has its own Supreme Court and a High Court, while the Government of Pakistan's Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan serves as a link with Azad Kashmir's government, although Azad Kashmir is not represented in the Parliament of Pakistan.

Azad Kashmir's economy largely depends on agriculture, services, tourism, and remittances sent by members of the British Mirpuri community. Nearly 87% of the households own farms in Azad Kashmir,[23] while the region has a literacy rate of approximately 72% and has the highest school enrollment in Pakistan.[24]

Gilgit-Baltistan[edit]

The region of Gilgit-Baltistan shown in Red

Gilgit-Baltistan , formerly known as the Northern Areas,[25] is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.[26] It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, the Xinjiang region of China, to the east and northeast, and the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast. According to UNSC Resolution of 1947 the territory is part of the disputed Kashmir region along with Azad Kashmir, Aksai Chin, the Shaksgam Valley, and Jammu, Ladakh, and the Valley of Kashmir.[26][27][28]

The territory of present-day Gilgit-Baltistan became a separate administrative unit in 1970 under the name "Northern Areas". It was formed by the amalgamation of the former Gilgit Agency, the Baltistan district and several small former princely states, the larger of which being Hunza and Nagar.[29] In 2009, it was granted limited autonomy and renamed to Gilgit-Baltistan via the Self-Governance Order signed by Pakistan president Asif Ali Zardari, which also aimed to empower the people of Gilgit-Baltistan. However, scholars state that the real power rests with the governor and not with chief minister or elected assembly.[30][31] The Pakistani government has rejected Gilgit-Baltistani calls for integration with Pakistan on the grounds that it would jeopardise its demands for the whole Kashmir issue to be resolved according to UN resolutions.[32]

Gilgit-Baltistan covers an area of over 72,971 km² (28,174 sq mi)[33] and is highly mountainous. It had an estimated population of 1,800,000 in 2015.[29] Its capital city is Gilgit (population 216,760 est). Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the "eight-thousanders" and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Three of the world's longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan. Tourism is mostly in trekking and mountaineering, and this industry is growing in importance.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Kashmir territories profile". BBC. 3 October 2017. Archived from the original on 2015-07-24. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Kashmir Fast Facts". CNN. 25 March 2018. Archived from the original on 2018-07-10. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  3. ^ "Indian Independence Act 1947". UK Legislation. The National Archives. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
  4. ^ Ankit, Rakesh (April 2010), "Pandit Ramchandra Kak: The Forgotten Premier of Kashmir", Epilogue, Epilogue -Jammu Kashmir, 4 (4): 36–39
  5. ^ a b Rakesh Ankit (May 2010). "Henry Scott: The forgotten soldier of Kashmir". Epilogue. 4 (5): 44–49. Archived from the original on 10 May 2017. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  6. ^ Raghavan, War and Peace in Modern India 2010, p. 106.
  7. ^ Raghavan, War and Peace in Modern India 2010, pp. 31,\ 34, 105.
  8. ^ Copland, Ian (Feb 1991), "The Princely States, the Muslim League, and the Partition of India in 1947", The International History Review, 13 (1): 38–69, doi:10.1080/07075332.1991.9640572, JSTOR 40106322
  9. ^ Copland, State, Community and Neighbourhood in Princely India 2005, p. 143.
  10. ^ Raghavan, War and Peace in Modern India 2010, pp. 105–106.
  11. ^ Nawaz, The First Kashmir War Revisited 2008, pp. 120–121.
  12. ^ Chattha, Partition and its Aftermath 2009, pp. 179–180.
  13. ^ Snedden, Kashmir The Unwritten History 2013, pp. 48–57.
  14. ^ Snedden, Kashmir The Unwritten History 2013, p. 45.
  15. ^ a b Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History 2013, p. 89.
  16. ^ Snedden, Kashmir: The Unwritten History 2013, p. 90.
  17. ^ Mahmud, Ershad (1 September 2006), "Status of AJK in Political Milieu", Policy Perspectives, Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies, 3 (2): 105–123
  18. ^ "Ministry officials". Archived from the original on 2016-02-04.
  19. ^ a b "Map of Azad Kashmir". tourism.gov.pk. Government of Pakistan. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  20. ^ a b Bose, Tapan K. (2004). Raṇabīra Samāddāra, ed. Peace Studies: An Introduction To the Concept, Scope, and Themes. Sage. p. 324. ISBN 978-0-7619-9660-6. Archived from the original on 2017-02-10. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  21. ^ Richard M. Bird; François Vaillancourt (December 4, 2008). Fiscal Decentralization in Developing Countries. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-10158-5.
  22. ^ "Gilgit-Baltistan: Story of how region 6 times the size of PoK passed on to Pakistan". Archived from the original on 2018-01-03. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  23. ^ "Underdevelopment in AJK". www.thenews.com.pk. Archived from the original on 2016-09-16. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  24. ^ "Education emergency: AJK leading in enrolment, lagging in quality – The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune. March 26, 2013. Archived from the original on 2016-08-07. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
  25. ^ Hinman, Bonnie (15 September 2011), We Visit Pakistan, Mitchell Lane Publishers, Inc., p. 41, ISBN 978-1-61228-103-2
  26. ^ a b Weightman, Barbara A. (2 December 2005). Dragons and Tigers: A Geography of South, East, and Southeast Asia (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-471-63084-5.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-02-22. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  28. ^ "The Myth of Gilgit-Baltistan's Linkage with Jammu & Kashmir". Archived from the original on 2018-04-13. Retrieved 2018-12-07.
  29. ^ a b Shahid Javed Burki 2015.
  30. ^ In Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, residents see experiment with autonomy as 'illusion' Archived 2017-09-20 at the Wayback Machine., Christian Science Monitor, 28 November 2011
  31. ^ Sering, Senge H., "Constitutional Impasse in Gilgit-Baltistan (Jammu and Kashmir): The Fallout", Strategic Analysis, 34 (3): 354–358, doi:10.1080/09700161003658998, (Subscription required (help)), Instead of the chief minister, the order rests all administrative, political and judicial authority with the governor, which makes him the supreme authority and portrays the assembly as a toothless tiger. At best, the order legitimises Pakistan's occupation and claims political rights for the locals without changing the power equation.
  32. ^ Victoria Schofield (2000). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. I.B.Tauris. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-1-86064-898-4.
  33. ^ "UNPO: Gilgit Baltistan: Impact Of Climate Change On Biodiversity". unpo.org. Archived from the original on 2016-08-12. Retrieved 20 June 2016.