Pakistan Zindabad

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Pakistan Zindabad (Urdu: پاکستان زِنده باد‎ — Pākistān Zindah bād, Urdu pronunciation: [ˌpaːkɪsˈt̪aːn ˈzɪnˌd̪aːˈbaːd̪]; lit. Long Live Pakistan) is a slogan used by Pakistanis as an expression of victory or patriotism, often used in political speeches.[1][2] Its use started even before the creation of Pakistan, during the later phase of the Pakistan Movement.[3] The slogan became a battle cry and greeting for the Muslim League, which was struggling for an independent country for the Muslims of South Asia, when World War II ended and the independence movement geared up.[4] During the struggle for independence the slogan was shouted when trains transporting Muslims entered Pakistan.[5] Pakistan Zindabad is also the National slogan of Pakistan.[6]

Etymology[edit]

The slogan is a use of the standard Urdu and Persian suffix Zindabad (Long Live) that is placed after a person or a country name. It is used to express victory, patriotism or as a prayer.[2][7][not in citation given] In literal translation, Pakistan Zindabad means "Long Live Pakistan"; it also is rendered as "Victory to Pakistan".[4][8]

History[edit]

The Pakistan Zindabad slogan was first raised during the Pakistan Movement. Muslims at that time often wrote the slogan on handkerchiefs or pillowcases.[9][better source needed] The slogan was equally heard as Jai Hind during a visit by a British parliamentary delegation led by Robert Richards to Delhi, after the British government decided to leave India.[10] On 23 December 1940, the Bihar Muslim Student Federation passed a resolution to adopt Pakistan Zindabad as their national slogan at every meeting, conference or gathering.[11] In 1941, during the days of the Pakistan Movement, Muhammad Ali Jinnah on a visit to Ootacamund was received by a crowd of Muslims chanting Pakistan Zindabad; among them was a young boy of about 10 years age, who was scantily clothed. Jinnah called him and asked, "You were shouting Pakistan Zindabad, what do you know about Pakistan?" The boy replied, "I do not know very much about Pakistan. I only know that Pakistan means Muslim rule where many Muslims live, and Hindu rule where Hindus live," to which Jinnah observed that his message had reached the people and remarked that now the struggle for Pakistan was unstoppable.[12]

During the fight for an independent Pakistan the cry of Pakistan Zindabad was raised by the locals to welcome the refugees coming to Pakistan.[13] The refugees also raised the cry in jubilation when they crossed the border.[14][15] The slogans of Pakistan Zindabad and its counterpart, Hindustan Zindabad, notably found negative usage in communal riots associated with the fight for independence.[16][17]

On 14 August 1947, Muhammad Ali Jinnah's motorcade was welcomed by shouts of Pakistan Zindabad, Quaid-e-Azam Zindabad and flower petals all along his way from the Governor General's residence to the Constituent Assembly building and back, where he attended the Proclamation of Independence and a hoisting ceremony of the Pakistan flag.[18]

Battle cry[edit]

In 1947, during the First Kashmir War, an outpost of the Jammu and Kashmir State force that were under the operational control of Indian Army[19] reported cries of Pakistan Zindabad coming from Haji Pir Pass. Assuming that the pass was invaded and occupied by Pakistanis, the Jammu and Kashmir State forces withdrew from the area and burnt a strategically important bridge. They later discovered it was a false alarm; the men were friendly forces of the Indian Army occupying the pass, who were cut off from Poonch after the bridge was blown away.[20]

Notable usage[edit]

Political[edit]

The Saudi King Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz in a meeting with Chief of Army Staff Ashfaq Pervez Kayani repeatedly raised the slogan to show his friendship with Pakistan, during his visit to the country in 2009.[21]

Use in India[edit]

A Brass merchant shop at Moradabad was raided by Indian Police on 6 July 1948, upon getting information that the shop had utensils with "Pakistan Zindabad" markings on them.[22] During the Muharram Processions in 1956, following communal discord Muslim youths raised the slogan; later in the same year it was heard during a procession organized by students of the Aligarh Muslim University, in protest against a book Religious Leaders published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan; however, raising of any anti-nationalism slogan was denied by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad in the Indian parliament.[23][24]

The slogan has also been raised in Jammu and Kashmir (or Indian-administered Kashmir.[25][26][27][28]).[29] In 1985, a Kashmiri was detained by the local police on a number of charges including raising of the slogan "Pakistan Zindabad", which was called an anti-national and provocative slogan.[30] On 13 October 1983, during a limited over cricket match between West Indies and India at Sher-i-Kashmir Stadium, Srinagar, spectators, including a group of spectators consisting of members of the Jamait-Tuleba, the student wing of the Jamaat-e-Islami, cheered India's defeat with cries of Pakistan Zindabad.[31][32]

Use in episodes of violence[edit]

The slogan Pakistan Zindabad was used during the partition of India in episodes of sexual violence against women: the slogans were often tattooed on the bodies of victims of collective rapes.[16]

National days[edit]

  • Independence Day slogans – closely related to independence.[33] The slogan is used in speeches and rallies carried out on this day across the world, where Pakistanis celebrate the day.[34]

Sports[edit]

Media[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Henna Rakheja May 15, 2012, DHNS (2012-05-14). "Manto brought to life". Deccanherald.com. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  2. ^ a b "Pakistan, India have no option but to promote peace: Shahbaz". Thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  3. ^ Wolpert, Stanley (3 September 2009). Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India. Oxford University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-19-539394-1. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  4. ^ a b Stanley Wolpert (12 October 1999). India. University of California Press. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-0520221727. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  5. ^ Marian Aguiar (4 March 2011). Tracking Modernity: India's Railway and the Culture of Mobility. University Of Minnesota Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0816665600. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  6. ^ Aqeel Abbas Jafari (2010). Pakistan Chronicle (in Urdu) (First ed.). 94/1, 26th St., Ph. 6, D.H.A., Karachi, Pakistan: Wirsa Publishers. p. 880. ISBN 9789699454004. 
  7. ^ a b "International XI v Asia XI, Toronto: Fans' enthusiasm shields farcical organisation of Toronto T20 | Canada Cricket Features". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  8. ^ Haider K. Nizamani (2000). The Roots of Rhetoric: Politics of Nuclear Weapons in India and Pakistan. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 81. ISBN 9780275968779. 
  9. ^ Debadutta Chakravarty (2003). Muslim Separatism and the Partition of India. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. p. 115. ISBN 978-8126902385. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  10. ^ Stanley Wolpert (28 November 2002). Gandhi's Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi. USA: Oxford University Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0195156348. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  11. ^ "Bihar's Muslim Students' Slogan: Pakistan Zindabad". The Indian Express. Patna. 27 December 1940. p. 8. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  12. ^ Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1992). Waheed Ahmad, ed. The nation's voice, towards consolidation : speeches and statements / Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. 1. Karachi: Quaid-i-Azam Academy. pp. 255–256. ISBN 9694780004. 
  13. ^ Gyanendra Pandey (14 January 2002). Remembering Partition: Violence, Nationalism and History in India. Cambridge University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0521002509. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  14. ^ M. Zahir (4 November 2009). 1947: A Memoir of Indian Independence. Trafford Publishing. p. 93. ISBN 978-1426915017. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  15. ^ S. Akhtar Ehtisham (1 October 2008). A Medical Doctor Examines Life on Three Continents, A Pakistani View. Algora Publishing. p. 40. ISBN 978-0875866338. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  16. ^ a b Ritu Menon; Kamla Bhasin (1998). Borders & Boundaries: Women in India's Partition. Rutgers University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780813525525. 
  17. ^ Ritu Menon; Kamla Bhasin (1998). Borders & Boundaries: Women in India's Partition. Rutgers University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780813525525. 
  18. ^ Mian Atta Rabbani (2006). My Years in Blue Uniform. Karachi: PAF Book Club. pp. 79–81. 
  19. ^ K. C. Praval (August 2009). Indian Army After Independence. Lancer Publishers. p. 129. ISBN 978-1935501107. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  20. ^ L. P. Sen (1 January 1994). Slender Was the Thread. Orient Longman. p. 123. ISBN 978-0861316922. Retrieved 25 June 2012. 
  21. ^ "Saudi king assures full support to Pakistan". Daily Times. Islamabad. 13 April 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  22. ^ "Brass Engraved Slogans". The Indian Express. Moradabad. 8 July 1948. p. 1. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  23. ^ Qamar Hassan (February 1988). Muslims in India: Attitudes Adjustments and Reactions. Northern Book Centre. p. 77. ISBN 978-8185119267. Retrieved 21 June 2012. 
  24. ^ Paul R. Brass (15 May 2011). The Production Of Hindu-Muslim Violence In Contemporary India. University of Washington Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-0295985060. Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  25. ^ "General strike hits Indian-administered Kashmir". Press TV.Ir. 2012-04-07. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  26. ^ "BURIED EVIDENCE:". Kashmir Process.Org. 2009-12-02. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  27. ^ "Indian-administered Kashmir on strike after US sentences Fai". Daily Dawn.Com. 2012-04-17. Retrieved 2012-07-23. 
  28. ^ GreaterKashmir.com (Greater Service) (2012-05-29). "Please read the report is all I can say Lastupdate:- Tue, 29 May 2012 18:30:00 GMT". Greaterkashmir.com. Retrieved 2012-06-06. 
  29. ^ Jagmohan (January 2006). My Frozen Turbulence in Kashmir. Allied Publisher. p. 2. ISBN 978-8177642858. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  30. ^ Kashmir Under Siege. Human Rights Watch. 31 December 1991. p. 119. ISBN 978-0300056143. Retrieved 6 June 2012. 
  31. ^ K.R. Wadhwaney (1 December 2005). Indian Cricket Controversies. Ajanta Books International. p. 332. ISBN 978-8128801136. Retrieved 23 June 2012. 
  32. ^ Victoria Schofield (18 January 2003). Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War. I. B. Tauris. p. 132. ISBN 978-1860648984. Retrieved 15 July 2012. 
  33. ^ Literature & nation: Britain and India, 1800–1990 – Harish Trivedi, Richard Allen – Google Books. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved 2012-02-29. 
  34. ^ Maham Khan (12 August 2011). "Pakistan Independence Day: What should Pakistani-Americans feel?". Chicago Public Media. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  35. ^ "Five killed in Pakistan cricket celebrations". Stabroek News. Karachi. 27 March 1992. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  36. ^ "Pakistan celebrate T20 World Cup win". Geo News. 22 June 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  37. ^ A history of Radio Pakistan – Nihal Ahmad – Google Books. Books.google.com.pk. p. 20. Retrieved 2012-06-17. 
  38. ^ "Pakistan Zindabad". Documentary Film. Sveriges Television. 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2012.