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Pakol hat of the Chitral Scouts; people in Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan put plumes in their caps.

Pakol (Balti بروقپی نتینگ; Pashto: پکول‎; Urdu: پکول‎; Tajik: Паколь; Shina/Khowar language: Pakhui; Wakhi Seeked/Brushashki: Phartsun),[1][2] also known as Chitrali cap,[3] Gilgiti cap,[4] Afghan cap[5] is a soft round-topped men's hat, typically of wool and found in any of a variety of earthy colors: brown, black, grey, or ivory, or dyed red using walnut. The main source of production is Chitral in Pakistan.[5] The origins of the cap are complex but the cap is thought to originate from Nuristan region in Afghanistan.[5]

It is popular amongst the Pashtun, Tajik and Nuristani men of Afghanistan, and the KPK region in Pakistan.[5]

The Pakol hat is made from a rugged warm material with a lined interior. It is 100% wool which can be altered by rolling a thinner or thicker border by adding or removing material scrapsand. Before it is put on, it resembles a bag with a round, flat bottom. The wearer rolls up the sides nearly to the top, forming a thick band, which then rests on the head like a beret. The Swati Dress Pakol has a pleated cloth exterior band which can not be rolled up.


a boy statue from Macedonia (circa 300bc) wearing Kausia which is thought to be the source of Pakul.
Pakistani street vendors operating a Pakol shop in Gilgit-Baltistan; the cap is slightly different than Chitrali caps.

Pakol is remarkably similar to the ancient Macedonian kausia hat, worn by men in ancient Southeast Europe, which may have been its ancestor.[6][7] According to Bonnie Kingsley the kausia may have came to the Mediterranean as a campaign hat worn by Alexander and veterans of his campaigns in India.[8] According to Ernst Fredricksmeyer the kausia was already worn in Macedonia for it to have been imported from Asia to Macedonia.[9] The origins of the cap are complex but the cap is thought to originate from Nuristan region in Afghanistan.[5][citation needed] Later Pashtuns of adjoining areas like Swat and Dir adopted it.[5] In the 1980s, the pakol was worn by a special unit of the Afghan Mujahideen who fought against the Soviets. The pakol owes its global celebrity to the Tajik-majority members of the Jamiat-e Islami Afghanistan, who, following their leader Ahmad Shah Massoud, first adopted it as a standard item of their outfit. Since then this cap is famous in Afghanistan.[5][10]

The pakol came into vogue in India in the 2000s, after Afghan refugees emigrated to Delhi and opened businesses selling pakols imported from Kabul.[11] The pakol's popularity also surged after actors in various Bollywood films sported the cap.[12]

See also


  1. ^ "My Cap, My Identity: Men's caps from Gilgit-Baltistan". Pamir times.
  2. ^ Blackwood, 1968, William. Blackwood's Magazine, Volume 303.
  3. ^ y Amar Singh Chohan. A History of Kafferistan: Socio-economic and Political Conditions of the Kaffers.
  4. ^ y Rick Ridgeway. The Last Step: The American Ascent of K2 B.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Foschini, Fabrizio. "From Alexander the Great to Ahmad Shah Massoud: A Social History of the Pakol". Afghanistan Analyst Network. Afghanistan Analyst Network.
  6. ^ Ian Worthington, Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond, Ventures into Greek history, p. 135, Clarendon Press, 1994
  7. ^ Liddell & Scott, καυσία
  8. ^ Kingsley, Bonnie M (1981). ""The Cap That Survived Alexander."". American Journal of Archaeology. 85: 39.
  9. ^ Fredricksmeyer, Ernst (1986). "Alexander the Great and the Macedonian kausia". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 116: 215–227.
  10. ^
  11. ^ Saxena, Shivam (4 March 2015). "Inside Delhi's lil Afghanistan: Aroma of Kabuli pulao, murmurs in Dari". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 16 March 2018. Several shops run by Afghani refugees at Sharif Manzil now have flourishing businesses of imported carpets, pakol and karakuli caps (below), shawls and vasket (jackets). “We import these caps from Kabul. They are now becoming popular in India too,” says Sikander Khan, who runs a small garment shop in the area.
  12. ^ "And Thugs Met Nemesis". Greater Kashmir. 22 October 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2018. On my way for tuition to the Unique Academy at Zaina Kadal, one of the busiest marketplaces crowded with Tonga, I often spotted a couple of these known political goons sitting on a shopfront or the backseat of a Tonga puffing cigarettes cascading air around with cannabis aroma. One of them a hefty chariot driver donned in what has now been popularised by Bollywood films as ‘Pathani Suit’, ivory coloured ‘Pakol cap’, and golden thread Peshawari chappal known for his thoul (head fight) was evil personified.

External links

  • Willem Vogelsang, 'The Pakol: A distinctive, but apparently not so very old headgear from the Indo-Iranian borderlands'. Khil`a. Journal for Dress and Textiles of the Islamic World, Vol. 2, 2006, pp. 149–155.