Palaeonisciformes

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Palaeonisciformes
Temporal range: Late Silurian–Late Cretaceous
Platysomus gibbosus.jpg
Platysomus gibbosus
Scientific classification
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Palaeonisciformes

Hay 1902
Families

The Palaeonisciformes are an extinct order of early ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) which began in the Late Silurian and ended in the Late Cretaceous. The name of the order is derived from the Greek words paleo (ancient) and ὀνίσκος (oniskos or woodlouse), probably pertaining to the organization of the fishes' scales, similar to the exoskeletal plating of woodlice.

Classification[edit]

Acropholis stensioei fossil at the Geological Museum in Copenhagen

It is not a natural group, but is instead a paraphyletic assemblage of the early members of several ray-finned fish lineages. It has traditionally encompassed most Paleozoic actinopterygians, except those that exhibit strange body forms (such as the deep-bodied Platysomoidea, or those assigned definitively to any of the living groups of ray-finned fishes.

Andreolepis hedei has proven so far to be the earliest-known actinopterygiian, living around 420 million years ago (Late Silurian in Russia, Sweden, Estonia, and Latvia. Actinopterygians underwent an extensive diversification during the Carboniferous, after the end-Devonian Hangenberg extinction.

Taxonomy[edit]

  • OrderPalaeonisciformes Hay, 1902 sensu stricto [Palaeoniscida Moy-Thomas & Miles, 1971][2][3][4]
    • FamilyPalaeoniscidae Vogt, 1852
      • Genera ?†Agecephalichthys Wade, 1935
      • Genera ?†Cryphaeiolepis Traquair, 1881
      • Genera ?†Cteniolepidotrichia Poplin & Su, 1992
      • Genera ?†Duwaichthys Liu et al., 1990
      • Genera ?†Ferganiscus Sytchevskaya & Yakolev, 1999
      • Genera ?†Shuniscus Su, 1983
      • Genera ?†Suchonichthys Minich, 2001
      • Genera ?†Trachelacanthus Fischer De Waldheim, 1850
      • Genera ?†Triassodus Su, 1984
      • Genera ?†Turfania Liu & Martínez, 1973
        • Species †T. taoshuyuanensis Liu & Martínez, 1973
        • Species †T. varta Wang, 1979
      • Genera ?†Turgoniscus Jakovlev, 1968
      • Genera ?†Xingshikous Liu, 1988
      • Genera ?†Yaomoshania Poplin et al., 1991
      • Genera †Gyrolepis Agassiz, 1833 non Kade, 1858
        • Species †G. albertii Agassiz, 1833
        • Species †G. gigantea Agassiz, 1833
        • Species †G. maxima Agassiz, 1833
        • Species †G. quenstedti Dames, 1888
        • Species †G. tenuistriata Agassiz, 1833
      • Genera †Gyrolepidoides Cabrera, 1944
        • Species †G. creyanus Schaeffer, 1955
        • Species †G. cuyanus Cabrera, 1944
        • Species †G. multistriatus Rusconi, 1948
      • Genera †Palaeothrissum de Blainville, 1818
        • Species †P. elegans Sedgwick, 1829
        • Species †P. macrocephalum de Blainville, 1818
        • Species †P. magnum de Blainville, 1818
      • Genera †Westollia White & MoyThomas, 1940 [Lepidopterus Pohlig, 1892 non Agassiz, 1846]
      • Genera †Palaeoniscum de Blainville, 1818 [Palaeoniscus Agassiz, 1833 non Von Meyer, 1858; Palaeoniscas Rzchak, 1881; Eupalaeoniscus Rzchak, 1881; Palaeomyzon Weigelt, 1930; Geomichthys Sauvage, 1888]
        • Species †P. angustum (Rzehak, 1881) [Palaeoniscas angustus Rzehak, 1881]
        • Species †P. antipodeum (Egerton, 1864) [Palaeoniscus antipodeus Egerton, 1864]
        • Species †P. antiquum Williams, 1886
        • Species †P. arenaceum Berger, 1832
        • Species †P. capense (Bloom, 1913) [Palaeoniscus capensis Bloom, 1913]
        • Species †P. comtum (Agassiz, 1833) [Palaeoniscus comtus Agassiz, 1833]
        • Species †P. daedalium Yankevich & Minich, 1998
        • Species †P. devonicum Clarke, 1885
        • Species †P. elegans (Sedgwick, 1829) [Palaeoniscus elegans Sedgwick, 1829]
        • Species †P. freieslebeni de Blainville, 1818 [Eupalaeoniscus freieslebeni (de Brainville, 1818); Palaeoniscus freieslebeni (de Brainville, 1818)]
        • Species †P. hassiae (Jaekel, 1898) [Galeocerdo contortus hassiae Jaekel, 1898; Palaeomyzon hassiae (Jaekel, 1898)]
        • Species †P. kasanense Geinitz & Vetter, 1880
        • Species †P. katholitzkianum (Rzehak, 1881) [Palaeoniscas katholitzkianus Rzehak, 1881]
        • Species †P. landrioti (le Sauvage, 1890) [Palaeoniscus landrioti le Sauvage, 1890]
        • Species †P. longissimum (Agassiz, 1833) [Palaeoniscus longissimus Agassiz, 1833]
        • Species †P. macrophthalmum (McCoy, 1855) [Palaeoniscus macrophthalmus McCoy, 1855]
        • Species †P. magnum (Woodward, 1937) [Palaeoniscus magnus Woodward, 1937]
        • Species †P. moravicum (Rzehak, 1881) [Palaeoniscas moravicus Rzehak, 1881]
        • Species †P. promtu (Rzehak, 1881) [Palaeoniscas promtus Rzehak, 1881]
        • Species †P. reticulatum Williams, 1886
        • Species †P. scutigerum Newberry, 1868
        • Species †P. vratislavensis (Agassiz, 1833) [Palaeoniscus vratislavensis Agassiz, 1833]

Incertae sedis[edit]

Families that at one time or another were placed in Palaeonisciformes:

Timeline of genera[edit]

CretaceousJurassicTriassicPermianCarboniferousDevonianSilurianOrdovicianCambrianLate CretaceousEarly CretaceousLate JurassicMiddle JurassicEarly JurassicLate TriassicMiddle TriassicEarly TriassicLate PermianMiddle PermianEarly PermianPennsylvanianMississippianLate DevonianMiddle DevonianEarly DevonianPridoliLudlowWenlockLlandoveryLate OrdovicianMiddle OrdovicianEarly OrdovicianLate CambrianMiddle CambrianEarly CambrianAsarotusPsilichthysSonganellaHulettiaGyrosteusStrongylosteusCoccolepisChondrosteusCentrolepisPlesiococcolepisCosmolepisBrowneichthysFukangichthysScanilepisAegicephalichthysGyrolepidoidesCaruichthysDorsolepisGyrolepisBirgeriaBoreosomusAtopocephalaBroovaliaDaedalichthysDictyopypeEvenkiaHelichthysPteronisculusSakamenichthysStichopterusUrosthenesAmblypterinaAmblypterusChichiaEurynotoidesGardinerichthysInichthysKorutichthysNeuburgellaParalogoniscusRhabdolepisSinoniscusTienshaniscusTrachelacanthusBoreolepisPalaeoniscumAedullaBurbonellaDecazellaIgornellaWestolliaEigiliaPalaeothrissumUydeniaCharleuxiaHaplolepisIlliniichthysNozamichthysCoccocephalichthysParamblypterusCyranorhisWendyichthsBorichthysDwykiaWillomorichthysCycloptychiusRhadinichthysAetheretmonBendeniusCanobiusKentuckiaPhanerosteonStrepeoschemaSundayichthysAcrolepisBrachypareionCheirodopsisCornuboniscusCosmoptychiusDrydeniusElonichthysGonatodusMesolepisNematoptychiusParadrydeniusParagonatodusParamesolepisPlatysomusProtamblypteraStyracopterusWardichthysWatsonichthyesWhiteichthysTegeolepisMimiaMoythomasiaOrvikuinaStegotrachelusOsorioichthysDialiipinaLigulalepisLophosteusNaxilepisAndreolepisCretaceousJurassicTriassicPermianCarboniferousDevonianSilurianOrdovicianCambrianLate CretaceousEarly CretaceousLate JurassicMiddle JurassicEarly JurassicLate TriassicMiddle TriassicEarly TriassicLate PermianMiddle PermianEarly PermianPennsylvanianMississippianLate DevonianMiddle DevonianEarly DevonianPridoliLudlowWenlockLlandoveryLate OrdovicianMiddle OrdovicianEarly OrdovicianLate CambrianMiddle CambrianEarly Cambrian

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Palaeonisciformes". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
  2. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Actinopterygii - Ray-finned Fishes". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 30 December 2016.
  3. ^ Nelson, Joseph S.; Grande, Terry C.; Wilson, Mark V. H. (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336.
  4. ^ van der Laan, Richard (2016). "Family-group names of fossil fishes".

External links[edit]