Palaeonisciformes

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Palaeonisciformes
Temporal range: Late Silurian–Late Cretaceous
Platysomus gibbosus.jpg
Platysomus gibbosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclass: Osteichthyes
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Chondrostei[1]
Order: Palaeonisciformes
Hay 1902
Families

The Palaeonisciformes are an extinct order of early ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii) which began in the Late Silurian and ended in the Late Cretaceous. The name of the order is derived from the Greek words paleo (ancient) and ὀνίσκος (oniskos or woodlouse), probably pertaining to the organization of the fishes' scales, similar to the exoskeletal plating of woodlice.

Classification[edit]

Acropholis stensioei fossil at the Geological Museum in Copenhagen

It is not a natural group, but is instead a paraphyletic assemblage of the early members of several ray-finned fish lineages. It has traditionally encompassed most Paleozoic actinopterygians, except those that exhibit strange body forms (such as the deep-bodied Platysomoidea, or those assigned definitively to any of the living groups of ray-finned fishes.

Andreolepis hedei has proven so far to be the earliest-known actinopterygiian, living around 420 million years ago (Late Silurian in Russia, Sweden, Estonia, and Latvia. Actinopterygians underwent an extensive diversification during the Carboniferous, after the end-Devonian Hangenberg extinction.

Taxonomy[edit]

  • OrderPalaeonisciformes Hay 1902 sensu stricto [Palaeoniscida Moy-Thomas & Miles 1971][2][3][4]
    • FamilyPalaeoniscidae Vogt 1852
      • Genera ?†Agecephalichthys Wade 1935
      • Genera ?†Cryphaeiolepis Traquair 1881
      • Genera ?†Cteniolepidotrichia Poplin & Su 1992
      • Genera ?†Duwaichthys Liu et al. 1990
      • Genera ?†Ferganiscus Sytchevskaya & Yakolev 1999
      • Genera ?†Shuniscus Su 1983
      • Genera ?†Suchonichthys Minich 2001
      • Genera ?†Trachelacanthus Fischer De Waldheim 1850
      • Genera ?†Triassodus Su 1984
      • Genera ?†Turfania Liu & Martínez 1973
        • Species †T. taoshuyuanensis Liu & Martínez 1973
        • Species †T. varta Wang 1979
      • Genera ?†Turgoniscus Jakovlev 1968
      • Genera ?†Xingshikous Liu 1988
      • Genera ?†Yaomoshania Poplin et al. 1991
      • Genera †Gyrolepis Agassiz 1833 non Kade 1858
        • Species †G. albertii Agassiz 1833
        • Species †G. gigantea Agassiz 1833
        • Species †G. maxima Agassiz 1833
        • Species †G. quenstedti Dames 1888
        • Species †G. tenuistriata Agassiz 1833
      • Genera †Gyrolepidoides Cabrera 1944
        • Species †G. creyanus Schaeffer 1955
        • Species †G. cuyanus Cabrera 1944
        • Species †G. multistriatus Rusconi 1948
      • Genera †Palaeothrissum Blainville 1818
        • Species †P. elegans Sedgwick 1829
        • Species †P. macrocephalum de Blainville 1818
        • Species †P. magnum de Blainville 1818
      • Genera †Westollia White & MoyThomas 1940 [Lepidopterus Pohlig 1892 non Agassiz 1846]
      • Genera †Palaeoniscum de Blainville 1818 [Palaeoniscus Agassiz 1833 non Von Meyer 1858; Palaeoniscas Rzchak 1881; Eupalaeoniscus Rzchak 1881; Palaeomyzon Weigelt 1930; Geomichthys Sauvage 1888]
        • Species †P. angustum (Rzehak 1881) [Palaeoniscas angustus Rzehak 1881]
        • Species †P. antipodeum (Egerton 1864) [Palaeoniscus antipodeus Egerton 1864]
        • Species †P. antiquum Williams 1886
        • Species †P. arenaceum Berger 1832
        • Species †P. capense (Bloom 1913) [Palaeoniscus capensis Bloom 1913]
        • Species †P. comtum (Agassiz 1833) [Palaeoniscus comtus Agassiz 1833]
        • Species †P. daedalium Yankevich & Minich 1998
        • Species †P. devonicum Clarke 1885
        • Species †P. elegans (Sedgwick 1829) [Palaeoniscus elegans Sedgwick 1829]
        • Species †P. freieslebeni Blainville 1818 [Eupalaeoniscus freieslebeni (de Brainville 1818); Palaeoniscus freieslebeni (de Brainville 1818)]
        • Species †P. hassiae (Jaekel 1898) [Galeocerdo contortus hassiae Jaekel 1898; Palaeomyzon hassiae (Jaekel 1898)]
        • Species †P. kasanense Geinitz & Vetter 1880
        • Species †P. katholitzkianum (Rzehak 1881) [Palaeoniscas katholitzkianus Rzehak 1881]
        • Species †P. landrioti (le Sauvage 1890) [Palaeoniscus landrioti le Sauvage 1890]
        • Species †P. longissimum (Agassiz 1833) [Palaeoniscus longissimus Agassiz 1833]
        • Species †P. macrophthalmum (McCoy 1855) [Palaeoniscus macrophthalmus McCoy 1855]
        • Species †P. magnum (Woodward 1937) [Palaeoniscus magnus Woodward 1937]
        • Species †P. moravicum (Rzehak 1881) [Palaeoniscas moravicus Rzehak 1881]
        • Species †P. promtu (Rzehak 1881) [Palaeoniscas promtus Rzehak 1881]
        • Species †P. reticulatum Williams 1886
        • Species †P. scutigerum Newberry 1868
        • Species †P. vratislavensis (Agassiz 1833) [Palaeoniscus vratislavensis Agassiz 1833]

Incertae sedis[edit]

Families that at one time or another were placed in Palaeonisciformes:

Timeline of genera[edit]

Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic Middle Jurassic Early Jurassic Late Triassic Middle Triassic Early Triassic Late Permian Middle Permian Early Permian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Late Devonian Middle Devonian Early Devonian Pridoli Ludlow Wenlock Llandovery Late Ordovician Middle Ordovician Early Ordovician Late Cambrian Middle Cambrian Early Cambrian Asarotus Psilichthys Songanella Hulettia Gyrosteus Strongylosteus Coccolepis Chondrosteus Centrolepis Plesiococcolepis Cosmolepis Browneichthys Fukangichthys Scanilepis Aegicephalichthys Gyrolepidoides Caruichthys Dorsolepis Gyrolepis Birgeria Boreosomus Atopocephala Broovalia Daedalichthys Dictyopype Evenkia Helichthys Pteronisculus Sakamenichthys Stichopterus Urosthenes Amblypterina Amblypterus Chichia Eurynotoides Gardinerichthys Inichthys Korutichthys Neuburgella Paralogoniscus Rhabdolepis Sinoniscus Tienshaniscus Trachelacanthus Boreolepis Palaeoniscum Aedulla Burbonella Decazella Igornella Westollia Eigilia Palaeothrissum Uydenia Charleuxia Haplolepis Illiniichthys Nozamichthys Coccocephalichthys Paramblypterus Cyranorhis Wendyichths Borichthys Dwykia Willomorichthys Cycloptychius Rhadinichthys Aetheretmon Bendenius Canobius Kentuckia Phanerosteon Strepeoschema Sundayichthys Acrolepis Brachypareion Cheirodopsis Cornuboniscus Cosmoptychius Drydenius Elonichthys Gonatodus Mesolepis Nematoptychius Paradrydenius Paragonatodus Paramesolepis Platysomus Protamblyptera Styracopterus Wardichthys Watsonichthyes Whiteichthys Tegeolepis Mimia Moythomasia Orvikuina Stegotrachelus Osorioichthys Dialiipina Ligulalepis Lophosteus Naxilepis Andreolepis Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Carboniferous Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Late Cretaceous Early Cretaceous Late Jurassic Middle Jurassic Early Jurassic Late Triassic Middle Triassic Early Triassic Late Permian Middle Permian Early Permian Pennsylvanian Mississippian Late Devonian Middle Devonian Early Devonian Pridoli Ludlow Wenlock Llandovery Late Ordovician Middle Ordovician Early Ordovician Late Cambrian Middle Cambrian Early Cambrian

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Palaeonisciformes". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved November 17, 2012. 
  2. ^ Haaramo, Mikko (2007). "Actinopterygii - Ray-finned Fishes". Mikko's Phylogeny Archive. Retrieved 30 December 2016. 
  3. ^ Nelson, Joseph S.; Grande, Terry C.; Wilson, Mark V. H. (2016). Fishes of the World (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781118342336. 
  4. ^ van der Laan, Richard (2016). "Family-group names of fossil fishes". 

External links[edit]