Paleobiota of the Posidonia Shale

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18x6 m fossilized floating wood (Agathoxylon), with Crinoids attached (Pentacrinites & Seirocrinus). It is one of the most emblematic fossils of the formation, where the anoxic seas of the lower toarcian lead to an exquisite preservation.

The Sachrang Formation or "Posidonienschiefer" Formation (Whose Vulgar name is "Posidonia Shale") is a geological formation of southwestern Germany, northern Switzerland, northwestern Austria, southeast Luxembourg and the Netherlands, that spans about 3 million years during the Early Jurassic period (early Toarcian stage). It is known for its detailed fossils, especially sea fauna, listed below.[1] Composed mostly by black shale, the formation is a Lagerstätte, where fossils show exceptional preservation (Including exquisite soft tissues), with a thickness that varies from about 1 m to about 40 m on the Rhine level, being on the main quarry at Holzmaden between 5 and 14 m.[1] Some of the preserved material has been transformed into fossil hydrocarbon Jet, specially wood remains, used for jewelry.[2] The exceptional preservation seen on the Posidonia Shale has been studied since the late 1800s, finding that a cocktail of chemical and environmental factors let to such an impressive conservation of the marine fauna.[2] The most common theory is the changes on the oxygen level, where the different anoxic events of the Toarcian left oxygen-depleted bottom waters, with the biota dying and falling to the bottom without any predator able to eat the dead bodies.[3]

Microbial activity[edit]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.
Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Stromatolites[4]

  • Non assignable Species
  • Teufelsgraben, Hetzles

Traces of Microbial Activity

Non-fenestrate stromatolite crusts formed in Aphotic deep-water environments during intervals of very low sedimentation.[4] Abundant on the Precambrian, but after it, and concretely on the Jurassic-Cretaceous, the appearance of the Corallinaceae algae and related biota forced the stromatolite-forming microbes to withdraw to extreme habitats such as hypersaline lagoons and possibly to deep-water settings. On the Sachrang Formation are related with plankton, mainly coccoliths and the problematic Schizosphaerella (A Haptophytan Alga), but also typical deep-sea forms including various groups of cephalopods, and articulated skeletons of fishes and reptiles.[4] The Stromatolites of this region have evidence of live on a deeper shelf environment with a quietwater deposit which suffered repeated phases of stagnant bottom waters, where a depth water habitat developed, probably at more than 100 meters depth.[4] There is a thin, southern widespread Stromatolite crust on the Top of the Sachrang Formation, called "Wittelshofener Bank", that has made rethink the depth of the major southern basin of the formation, where with the absence of phototrophic calcareous benthic organisms (probably due to the lack of light), shows the deph character of the Basin.[4] On the "Wittelshofener Bank" there is also the only occurrence of Ooids, presumably formed in the same deep-water environment.[4]

Example of Stromatolites fossil trace, done probably by Cyanobacteria

Frutexites[4]

  • Frutexites arboriformis
  • Teufelsgraben, Hetzles

Possible traces of Microbial Activity

Probably related with Archaea activity.[4] Although Frutexites is a cryptic microfossil and an important element of many deep water stromatolites, with an Inorganic origin proposed, where are interpreted as dendritic shrubs to purely inorganic growth of Aragonitic crystals, but also resemble shrubs of the cyanobacteria Angulocellularia.[4] On the Posidonia a cryptoendopelitic mode of life is assumed, being only possible for Heterotrophic bacteria or Fungi.[4] As seen on the Stromatolites of the Posidonia, Frutexites acted mainly as a dweller or secondary binder of the deep-water stromatolites, not as their major constructor.[4]

Cyanobacteria[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes

Girvanella[5]

  • Girvanella staminea
  • Girvanella cf.tucci
  • Girvanella minuta
  • Girvanella sp.
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange

Crypt laminites

A Cyanobacteria, member of the family Oscillatoriales. The only difference compared to the Paleozoic forms is the much thinner celular wall of the specimens described, which otherwise seems to be always thicker, and the more irregular shape of the individual tubes. Girvanella is almost rock-forming in the Lower and Upper levels, and is very common, but can only rarely be detected in the bituminous clay marl slate due to conservation reasons.[5] The Girvanella specimens recovered on the Posidonienschiefer can come from Diatomeas rather than Cyanobacteria, but its assignation is rather controversial.[5]

Rhizaria[edit]

Foraminifera[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Astacolus[6]

  • Astacolus bochardi
  • Astacolus primus
  • Buttenheim
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Vaginulinidae inside the family Vaginulinida (Lagenina). An extant genus. Its shell resemble a mixture between an ammonite conch, due to having a lower spiral, and a mussel.

Drawing of an Astacolus shell

Flabellinella[6]

  • Flabellinella sp.
  • Buttenheim
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Vaginulinidae inside the family Vaginulinida (Lagenina). Its conch has a Myriapod-like segmented built.

Lenticulina[6][7]

  • Lenticulina acutiangulata
  • Lenticulina gottingensis
  • Lenticulina sp.
  • Buttenheim
  • Unterstürmig
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Vaginulinidae inside the family Vaginulinida (Lagenina).

Vaginulina[6][7]

  • Vaginulina simplex
  • Vaginulina sp.
  • Buttenheim
  • Unterstürmig
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, type member of Vaginulinidae inside the family Vaginulinida (Lagenina).

Palmula[6]

  • Palmula cuneiformis
  • Buttenheim
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Vaginulinidae inside the family Vaginulinida (Lagenina).

Marginulina[7]

  • Marginulina oolithica
  • Marginulina prima
  • Unterstürmig
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Marginulininae inside the family Vaginulinida (Lagenina).

Saracenaria[7]

  • Saracenaria aragonensis
  • Unterstürmig
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Lenticulininae inside the family Vaginulinida (Lagenina).

Cornuspira[6]

  • Cornuspira involvens
  • Buttenheim
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, type member of Cornuspiridae inside the family Cornuspirida (Lagenina). Round-spiral shell morphology

Dentalina[6][7]

  • Dentalina terquiemi
  • Dentalina matutina
  • Dentalina vetusta
  • Dentalina sp.
  • Buttenheim
  • Unterstürmig
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Nodosariidae inside the family Nodosariacea (Lagenina). Dentalina is an extant genus, with an elongated shell, that resemble a small worm.

Pseudonodosaria[7]

  • Pseudonodosaria melo
  • Pseudonodosaria quinquecostata
  • Unterstürmig
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Nodosariidae inside the family Nodosariacea (Lagenina).

Ichthyolaria[6]

  • Ichthyolaria squamosa
  • Ichthyolaria sp.
  • Buttenheim
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, type member of Ichthyolariidae inside the family Lagenina. Another genus with a Myriapod-like segmented built.

Lingulina[7]

  • Lingulina pupa
  • Lingulina tenera
  • Unterstürmig
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, type member of Lingulininae inside the family Nodosariidae (Lagenina). Dentalina is an extant genus, with an elongated shell, that resemble a small worm.

Reinholdella[6]

  • Reinholdella sp.
  • Buttenheim
  • All the levels

Shells

A benthonic Foraminiferan, member of Ceratobuliminidae inside the family Robertinida. It resembles a small ammonite.

Dinoflagellata[edit]

Dinoflagellate cysts[edit]

The evolutionary burst of the Toarcian Dinoflajellates led the first appearance and rapid radiation of the Phallocystaceae (Susainium, Parvocysta, Phallocysta, Moesiodinium and related forms).[8] This occurred at the time of a widespread Lower Toarcian bituminous anoxia-derived shale of the Posidonienschiefer Formation. Is recovered on the Posidonienschiefer, Pozzale, Italy, Asturias, Spain, Bornholm, Denmark, the Lusitanian Basin of Portugal, the Jet Rock Formation in Yorkshire and to the "Schistes Carton" in northern France. Whether there is a causal connection in this co-occurrence of Phallocystaceae and bituminous facies is a problem still to be resolved. This family has its acme in diversity and quantity in the latest Toarcian and became less important in the Aalenian.[8]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Nannoceratopsis[9][10]

  • Nannoceratopsis gracilis
  • Nannoceratopsis senex
  • Nannoceratopsis ridingii
  • Nannoceratopsis tricornuta[11]
  • Nannoceratopsis deflandrei
  • Nannoceratopsis triceras
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst, member of Dinophyceae of the family Nannoceratopsiaceae. On the Lias Epsylon Interval (Lowermost Toarcian), most of the assemblages are dominated by Nannoceratopsis gracilis. Nannoceratopsis senex becomes highly abundant until the uppermost Tenuicostatum.[9]

Comparodinium[11]

  • Comparodinium koessenium
  • Comparodinium lineatum
  • Comparodinium punctatum
  • Comparodinium scalatum
  • Comparodinium stipulatum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Comparodiniaceae.

Valvaeodinium[9][10]

  • Valvaeodinium punctatum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Comparodiniaceae.

Apodinium[12]

  • Apodinium fioccosum
  • Apodinium glabrum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Apodiniaceae. An Ectoparasitic dinoflagellate, whose hosts are normally Tunicates

Eyachia[12]

  • Eyachia priscus
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Scriniocassiaceae.

Argentiella[12]

  • Argentiella bifuminosa
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Scriniocassiaceae.

Scriniocassis[12]

  • Scriniocassis weberi
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Scriniocassiaceae.

Balechiodinium[12]

  • Balechiodinium concicum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Scriniocassiaceae.

Moesiodinium[12]

  • Moesiodinium cingulatum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Heterocapsaceae.

Morgenrothia[12]

  • Morgenrothia junior
  • Morgenrothia tenera
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Heterocapsaceae.

Susadinium[12]

  • Susadinium cristatum
  • Susadinium flaccum
  • Susadinium saetosum
  • Susadinium scrofoides
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Heterocapsaceae.

Parvocysta[12]

  • Parvocysta nasuta
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Heterocapsaceae.

Surculosphaeridium[13][14]

  • Surculosphaeridium longifurcatum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Gonyaulacaceae.

Phallocysta[13][14]

  • Phallocysta minuta
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Phallocysteae.

Weiachia[15]

  • Weiachia fenestrata
  • Weiach corehole
  • Bifrons

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst from the family Phallocysteae. The specific epithet, fenestrata, refers to the openings, or fenestrae, in the periphragm.

Mancodinium[9][10]

  • Mancodinium semitabulatum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst, type member of Mancodiniaceae. Dominant genera on some layers of the Lias Delta Stage.[9]

Maturodinium[10]

  • Maturodinium inornatum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst, member of Mancodiniaceae. Commonly found along the genus Beaumontella.[10]

Luehndea[9][10]

  • Luehndea spinosa
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst, type member of Luehndeoideae. Luehndea spinosa is common on the medium layers of the lower Sachrang Formation, while restricted to some areas on the Lias delta.[9]

Beaumontella[10]

  • Beaumontella caminuspina
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Cysts

A Dinoflagellate cyst, member of Suessiaceae. Common on Pliensbachian levels, become present but rare on lower Toarcian.[10]

Algae[edit]

Includes abundant variety of algae, such as the genus of colonial Green algae Botryococcus,[16] or the unicellular algal bodies Tasmanites, and other small examples. Algae are a good reference for changes on the oxygen conditions along the Toarcian.[17]

Algae Acritarchs[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Veryhachium[9][10]

  • Veryhachium brevispinum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

An Acritarch probably from Algal origin. Veryhachium fossils represent open marine and transgressive conditions. It has high presence on most of the samples studied from the Sachrang Formation, being nearly the 50% of the Acritarch fraction on some locations.

Micrhystridium[9][10]

  • Micrhystridium inconspicuum
  • Micrhystridium spinuliferum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

An Acritarch probably from Algal origin. Its fossils indicate nearshore or estuarine to shallow lagoon and/or slightly brackish-water environments. It is the dominant on the nearshore sections.

Leiofusa[10]

  • Leiofusa jurassica
  • Leiofusa fusiformis
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

An Acritarch probably from Algal origin. Related to estuarine deposits.

Pterospermopsis[10]

  • Pterospermopsis pelagica
  • Pterospermopsis goslarensis
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

An Acritarch probably from Algal origin. Related to open shelf deposits

Cymatiosphaeropsis[18]

  • Cymatiosphaeropsis punctiferus
  • Cymatiosphaeropsis stigmatus
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

An Acritarch probably from Algal origin. Related to open shelf deposits

Pterosphaeridia[10][18]

  • Pterosphaeridia undulata
  • Pterosphaeridia eisenackii
  • Pterosphaeridia intersignata
  • Pterosphaeridia nodosa
  • Pterosphaeridia pachytheca
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

An Acritarch probably from Algal origin. Related to open shelf deposits

Haptophyta[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Mitrolithus[19]

  • Mitrolithus jansae
  • Schandelah
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the family Parhabdolithaceae inside Stephanolithiales. Shore deposits genus. The abundance drop of M. jansae further characterise the T-OAE perturbation, where becomes the dominant Genus on most of the Saxony Basin.

Parhabdolithus[19]

  • Parhabdolithus liasicus
  • Schandelah
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

Type member of the family Parhabdolithaceae inside Stephanolithiales.

Schizosphaerella[19][20]

  • Schizosphaerella punctulata
  • Schandelah
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

Type member of the family Schizosphaerellaceae inside Parhabdolithaceae. Towards the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extincion this genus gets a decrease in abundance and size that shows the change and biotic crisis.

Biscutum[19][20]

  • Biscutum dubium
  • Biscutum finchii
  • Biscutum grandis
  • Biscutum grandis
  • Biscutum novum
  • Biscutum sp.
  • Schandelah
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

Type member of the family Biscutaceae inside Parhabdolithaceae.

Discorhabdus[20]

  • Discorhabdus criotus
  • Discorhabdus ignotus
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

Type member of the family Biscutaceae inside Parhabdolithaceae.

Sollasites[20]

  • Sollasites lowei
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

Type member of the family Biscutaceae inside Parhabdolithaceae.

Carinolithus[20][21][22]

  • Carinolithus superbus
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

Type member of the family Calyculaceae inside Parhabdolithaceae.

Tubirhabdus[20]

  • Tubirhabdus patulus
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the family Chiastozygaceae inside Eiffellithales.

Crepidolithus[19][20]

  • Crepidolithus granulatus
  • Crepidolithus crassus
  • Crepidolithus pliensbachiensis
  • Crepidolithus cavus
  • Schandelah
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the family Chiastozygaceae inside Eiffellithales.

Bussonius[20]

  • Bussonius sp.
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the family Watznaueriaceae inside Watznaueriales.

Lotharingius[20][21]

  • Lotharingius barozii
  • Lotharingius haufforum
  • Lotharingius imprimus
  • Lotharingius primigenius
  • Lotharingius sigillatus
  • Holzmaden
  • Sachrang
  • Unken
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the family Watznaueriaceae inside Watznaueriales.

Chlorophyta[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Scriniocassis[13][14]

  • Scriniocassis limbatus
  • Scriniocassis limbicavatus
  • Scriniocassis priscus
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of Dinophyceae.

Palaeohystrichophora[13][14]

  • Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of Peridiniaceae inside Dinophyceae.

Dissiliodinium[13][14]

  • Dissiliodinium giganteum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of Gonyaulacaceae inside Dinophyceae.

Pleurozonaria[10][18][23]

  • Pleurozonaria globulus
  • Pleurozonaria chondrota
  • Pleurozonaria concinna
  • Pleurozonaria digitata
  • Pleurozonaria distans
  • Pleurozonaria diversipora
  • Pleurozonaria macropora
  • Pleurozonaria media
  • Pleurozonaria polyporosa
  • Pleurozonaria spongiosa
  • Pleurozonaria stellulata
  • Pleurozonaria suevica
  • Pleurozonaria wetzelii
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of Prasinophyceae. It the main genus present on silt and sand horizons, trending to be absent on black argillaceous layers.

Campenia[10][18][23]

  • Campenia minor
  • Campenia gigas
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of Prasinophyceae. A genus common on green clays and other upper strata on the formation.

Tasmanites[18][23][24]

  • Tasmanites mourai
  • Tasmanites tardus
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of Prasinophyceae. A genus common on green clays and other upper strata on the formation.

Cyrnatiosphaera[9][18][23]

  • Cyrnatiosphaera densisepta
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of Prasinophyceae. A genus common on green clays and other upper strata on the formation.

Leiosphaera[9][18]

  • Leiosphaera globosa
  • Leiosphaeridia deflandrei
  • Leiosphaeridia pusilla
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the Prasinophyceae. Basinal deposits genus

Lancettopsis[18]

  • Lancettopsis lanceolata
  • All the epicontinental, basinal & nearshore sections of the formation
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the Prasinophyceae. Basinal deposits genus

Nostocopsis[18]

  • Nostocopsis saprolithica
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the Prasinophyceae. Basinal deposits genus

Granodiscus[18]

  • Granodiscus granulatus
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the Prasinophyceae. Basinal deposits genus

Tytthodiscus[18]

  • Tytthodiscus chondrotus
  • Tytthodiscus schandelahensis
  • Tytthodiscus suevicus
  • Tytthodiscus cf. suevicus
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the Prasinophyceae. Basinal deposits genus

Cymatiosphaera[9]

  • Cymatiosphaera areolata
  • Cymatiosphaera punctifera
  • Cymatiosphaera stigmata
  • Cymatiosphaera tecta
  • Cymatiosphaera pachytheca
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the family Pyramimonadales inside Prasinophyceae. Basinal deposits genus

Halosphaeropsis[9]

  • Halosphaeropsis liassica
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

A member of the family Halosphaeraceae inside Chlorodendrales. Basinal deposits genus

Botryococcus[18]

  • Botryococcus braunii
  • Botryococcus luteus
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Kerkhofen
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • All the levels

Millions of specimens

Type member of the family Botryococcaceae inside Trebouxiales. Freshwater or Deltaic Genus

Fungi[edit]

Fungal Spores, hypae and undeterminated remains are a rare element of the otherwise openmarine deposits of the Posidonienschiefer formation, but where recovered at Dormettingen.[25] This fungal remains are composed mostly by indeterminate spores and indicate oxygenated environments and suitable transportation by rivers.[25]

Plantae[edit]

The Flora is dominated by horsetails, what can be due to a similar ecological niche to modern genus Phragmites, able to resist saline conditions. Storms or floods maybe where the major events that transported this flora to the sea.

The macroflora of the Posidonia slate can be described as extremely poor in species.[26] Apart from the remains of Horsetails, it is without exception the remains of coarse branches and fronds from gymnosperms, in which one has a certain can assume transport resistance. Remains of Ferns are completely missing, except for tall arboreal ferns (Peltaspermales).[27] Mostly of the flora was reported from the area of Braunschweig.[26] The major explanation for the flora could be that the plants in question are mono-or oligotypic stands on the edge of the waters that flow into the Posidonienschiefer sea, probably tear away in the course of flood events, easily fragmented during transport and wave waves, possibly especially in the occasional storm events postulated.[28] In terms of taphonomy, this would result in a comparison with today's reed Phragmites, which can form extensive stocks on the edge of shallower and slowly flowing waters ("Reed belts").[26] The Wood remnants clearly indicate one higher diversity of Coniferous flora in the delivery area than the remains of leafy branches.[26] This fact is likely to be proportionate, similar to that frequent occurrence of charcoalized or gagged trunks, mostly of them are believed to be "driftwoods" that only take a long time drifting also suggests a frequent settlement with mussels and full-grown Sea Lilies.[26][28] The deposition settings are at large distance from the nearest coastline (for southern Germany about 100 kilometers), making only plants strong to transportation able to resist enougth to get deposited.[29][30] At Irlbach and Kheleim, NE of Regensburg, where the Posidonienschiefer has its nearmainland deposit with abundant sand, a rich desposit filled with plant remains of different kind (Seds, Reproductive organs, Leafs, Stems, Cuticles and wood) with traces of coal was recovered, hovewer, it was never studied in depth.[31] Of all the plant material expected only a few Bennetites leafs and two conifer branches with leaves where cited and none studied.[31] At the Austrian realm The sachrang Member was developed in the basinal area, while the Unken Member, sandwiched between red, often condensed limestones, represents the marginal facies.[20] Due to be more marginal and connected with the southern Vindelician land, the most diverse palynological assamblages of the formation are found, transported from zonas with moldanuvian granites as proven by the feldespar accumulations.[20]

Phytoclasts[edit]

Phytoclasts have been recovered from several sections on the formation, but only studied in depth from the Dotternhausen and specially Dormettingen.[25] Here two kinds of Phytoclasts where recovered, opaque phytoclasts (charcoal, indicator of wildfire activity on nearby landmasses, indicator of seasonal alterations of the water column) and translucent phytoclasts (indicator of proximal landmasses with high aviability of wood and other plant material, as well transport conditions).[25] On the lowermost part of the section opaque phytoclasts are low (15% of the total organic matter) while tranlucent are incredibily abundant (40%), lowering its abundance to a 20-10% on the next section.[25] The Exaratum Subzone is the only one with an inverse trend and more abundance of opaque phytoclasts. On the Bifrons level, both types reach between a 15% and a 30%, showing a rapid increase, to decrease on the end of the section to values of less than a 10%.[25] Opaque Phytoclasts, for a supposed marine deposit are relatively abundant on some sections, whose decreasing on others suggest (along with increasing levels of Kaolinite) an increased delivery of land plant material by rivers, from areas with wetter climate and less frequent fires, while its rise suggest the opposite, nearby continental setting with dry climate and continuous wildfire activity.[25]

Palynology[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Ischyosporites[20]

  • Ischyosporites cf. variegatus
  • Ischyosporites sp
  • Unken, probes 4-5
  • All the levels

Spores

Affinities with Pteridopsida. Spores from several types of ferns, relatively rare, present only on 2 samples.

Kraeuselisporites[25]

  • Kraeuselisporites reissingeri
  • Dormettingen
  • All the levels

Spores

Affinities with Selaginellaceae and probably Lycopsida. A rare element on the palynological records of the German Basin, altrougth more abundant than any other Spore recovered locally.

Extant Selaginella, typical example of Selaginellaceae. Genera like Kraeuselisporites probably come from a similar or a related Plant

Osmundacidites[25]

  • Osmundacidites wellmanii
  • Osmundacidites spp.
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • All the levels

Spores

Affinities with the family Osmundaceae inside Polypodiopsida. Near Fluvial currents ferns, reted to the modern Osmunda regalis

Example of extant Osmunda specimens, Osmundacidites come probably from similar genera or maybe an species from the genus

Cyathidites[25]

  • Cyathidites sp.
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • All the levels
  • Spores

Affinities with the family Cyatheaceae inside Cyatheales. Arboreal Fern Spores

Example of extant Cyathea, Cyathidites come probably from similar genera

Deltoidosporites[20]

  • cf. Deltoidosporites sp.
  • Unken, sample 5
  • All the levels

Spores

Affinities with Dicksoniaceae inside Pteridopsida. Tree Fern Spores

Modern Dicksonia, Deltoidosporites come probably from similar genera

Lycopodiacidites[20]

  • Lycopodiacidites infragranulatus
  • Unken, sample 3
  • All the levels

Spores

Affinities with the Ophioglossaceae inside Filicopsida. Spores related with modern floor Ferns, that appear on abundant water locations. The Unken Member is considered a more basinal deposit, where Wood and Sporomorph remains are more common.

Ophioglossum, Lycopodiacidites come probably from similar genera

Concavisporites[20]

  • Concavisporites cf. kaiseri
  • Unken, samples 3-4
  • All the levels

Spores

Affinities with Gleicheniaceae inside Gleicheniales. Suggest relative increase of humidity on the rivers flowing towards the Austrian realm. Most abundant Fern spore in this region.

Dicranopteris, Concavisporites come probably from similar genera

Alisporites[32]

  • Alisporites grandis
  • Alisporites radialis
  • Alisporites microsaccus
  • Alisporites spp.
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with the families Peltaspermaceae, Corystospermaceae or Umkomasiaceae inside Peltaspermales. Pollen of Uncertain provenance, that can be derived from any of the members of the Peltaspermales. The lack o distinctive characters and bad conservation are among the main factors to make this Palynological residues difficult to classify. Arboreal to arbustive seed ferns.

Clavatipollenites[33]

  • Clavatipollenites palaeoserratus
  • Clavatipollenites sp.
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Gnetopsida and probably Gnetophyta. Has Been considered Pollen of Chloranthaceae. However, it is to old for belonging to advanced Angiosperms. It probably comes from cones related to the Genera Piroconites kuesperti from the Lowermost Jurassic of Germany, resembling pollen of extant Ephedra and Welwitschia.

Closer Look of Ephedra cones, a common Gnetal. Clavatipollenites maybe come from a related plant

Cycadopites[20]

  • Cycadopites cf. follicularis
  • Unken, samples 1-3
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with the Cycadopsida inside Cycadales. Pollen related with modern Cycas, arbustive to lower floor plants, relatively abundant, present on various of the measured samples. The mos common found on the Austrian realm, indicator of dry settings.

Encephalartos, Cycadopites come probably from similar genera

Chasmatosporites[32][34][25]

  • Chasmatosporites apertus
  • Chasmatosporites megaverruculosus
  • Chasmatosporites sp.
  • Dutch Central Graben
  • West Netherlands Basin
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • Dormettingen
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Cycadaceae and probably Cycadales. Alternatively can be Pollen from Bennettitales. It is the most abundant non conifer Pollen recovered on the formation, recovered on all the major sampled areas. Probably derived from arbustive cycads, this genus is related with dry settings, even from desertic regions.

Closer Look of Macrozamia cones, a common Cycad. Chasmatosporites maybe come from a related plant

Callialasporites[13][14]

  • Callialasporites dampieri
  • Callialasporites turbatus
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Pinaceae inside Coniferae.

Extant Pinus Cone, example of the Pinidae. Callialasporites is similar to the pollen found on this genus

Inaperturopollenites[9][35][10]

  • Inaperturopollenites orbiculatus
  • Bisingen/Zimmern Borehole
  • Klein Lehmhagen pit, Grimmen
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with the Pinidae inside Coniferae. Abundant on the Lower Jurassic of NW Europe. Its identification on the Posidonienschiefer is rather complex due to the bad preservation of the Pollen Grains.

Extant Pinus cembra Cone, example of the Pinidae. Inaperturopollenites is similar to the pollen found on this genus

Cerebropollenites[18][34][32]

  • Cerebropollenites mesozoicus
  • Cerebropollenites macroverrucosus
  • Cerebropollenites thiergartii
  • Cerebropollenites sp.
  • Dutch Central Graben
  • West Netherlands Basin
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • Schandelah
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Abietoideae inside Coniferae. Pollen From arbustive to arboreal plants, the second most abundant conifer pollen recovered, resembling the pollen of the modern genus Tsuga (Section Micropeuce).[36] The differences observed between Cerebropollenites and Tsuga are no greater than the differences observed between the pollen of the two Sections of Tsuga, Hesperopeuce and Micropeuce.[36] The greater difference with the modern Tsuga is the relation of this genus with an arid/ecuatorial range, as this genus is indicative of dry, arid and even desertic conditions, compared with the cold locations where this genus is found today. Probably has a similar role to the modern species Pinus pinea.[36]

Extant Tsuga Cone, example of the Abietoideae. Cerebropollenites is similar to the pollen found on this genus

Crassipollenites[18][35]

  • Crassipollenites diffusus
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae and Araucariaceae inside Pinaceae. Non concreted affinities

Spheripollenites[9][10][35][25]

  • Spheripollenites subgranulatus
  • Spheripollenites sp.
  • Bisingen/Zimmern borehole
  • Klein Lehmhagen pit, Grimmen
  • Dormettingen
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae inside Pinaceae. Abundant on the Lower Jurassic of NW Europe. Spheripollenites co-occurs on the coeval Sorthat Formation with cuticles of Dactyletrophyllum ramonensis, and after a test of relationships it was found a highly significant correlation that may suggest that the species S. psilatus was produced by the conifer genus Dactyletrophyllum.[37]

Circulina[20]

  • Circulina meyeriana
  • Unken, sample 1
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with the Cheirolepidiaceae inside Pinales. Pollen from Arboreal to Arbustive Plants. It is rare on the Samples measured.

Classopollis[34][32][18][25][10]

  • Classopollis classoides
  • Classopollis dellassis
  • Classopollis reclusus
  • Classopollis striatus
  • Classopollis tetradenverband
  • Classopollis torosus
  • Classopollis sp.
  • Dutch Central Graben
  • West Netherlands Basin
  • Klein Lehmhagen pit, Grimmen
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Schandelah
  • Dormettingen
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae inside Coniferae. Abundant on the Lower Jurassic of North and Southern Europe, represents pollen of medium to large arboreal plants, specially coniferales. The abundance of pollen of Classopollis and other thermophile plants was observed in this region in the lower Toarcian from the end of the antiquum (= tenuicostatum) zone to the middle of commune zone.[38] Classopollis is correlated with evaporites and are therefore associated with desert basins, but the shrubs may have also lived in xeric upland areas with seasonal fires. Evidence of fires is absent on the marine Posidonienschiefer, but has been recovered on the coeval nearshore calcareous sandstones.[38] It increases with the appearance of charcoal phytoclasts, as derived from dry settings with increased wilfires.[25]

Circumpollis[18][35][25]

  • Circumpollis pharisaeus
  • Circumpollis philosophus
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Schandelah
  • Dormettingen
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae inside Coniferae. Pollen of medium to large arboreal plants, specially coniferales.

Exesipollenites[32]

  • Exesipollenites tumulus
  • Exesipollenites spp.
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with the family Cupressaceae inside Pinopsida. Pollen that resembles extant genera such as the Genus Actinostrobus and Austrocedrus, probably derived from Dry environments.

Extant Austrocedrus. Exesipollenites maybe come from a related plant

Disaccites[18][35]

  • Disaccites reclusus
  • Disaccites sp.
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • All the levels

Pollen

Affinities with Podocarpaceae inside Pinopsida. Pollen From arbustive to arboreal plants

Extant Afrocarpus Cone, example of the Podocarpaceae. Disaccites is similar to the pollen found on this genus

Equisetaceae[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Equisetites[26][30]

  • Equisetites cf. muensteri
  • Equisetites cf. columnaris
  • Equisetites sp.
  • Kerkhofen
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Hondelage
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Hattorf
  • Flechtorf
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Stems

Affinities with Equisetaceae inside Equisetopsida. Number of mostly very fragmented and not particularly well preserved, but clear horsetail remains described. So far recognizable, leaf sheaths where developed in most cases, but the state of preservation does not allow a more precise determination.[40]

Neocalamites[26][30][41]

  • Neocalamites merianii
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Hondelange
  • Kerkhofen
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • Schandelah
  • Bascharange
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Stems and incomplete axes

Affinities with Equisetaceae inside Equisetopsida. Neocalamites is the most common more distributed of all the Posidonia Shale, being even found on Luxembourg Posidonia Strata.[41] Mostly of the Stems reported come from Aeolian-Dunar related deposits, or from nearshore-basinal deposition. Probably was related to the seashore.[41] Some stems are big, resembling the rates of growth seen on modern Bamboo specimens, suggesting +6–7 m tall Equisetopsids.[41]

Neocalamites merianii specimen

Palaeostachya?[42]

  • Palaeostachya? sp.
  • Dotternhausen
  • Tenuicostatum

Pollen Cones

Affinities with Calamitaceae inside Equisetopsida. It was an approximately 2–3 m high shrub-like plant related to swamp environments. Calamitaceans are common in late Palaeozoic wetland plant communities, so the find of a jurassic specimen is rare.[42] Maybe is a mistaken new genera of Pollen cone, but definitely come from an Equisetalean. This genus is found associated with Annularia, being both part of the Calamites plant. It can be related with the Equisetites stems found on the formation.

Palaeostachya drawing of a specimen

Pteridospermatophyta[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Pachypteris[26][43]

  • Pachypteris nordenskioeldii
  • Braunschweig
  • Falciferum
  • One specimen of pteridosperm frond.

Affinities with Umkomasiaceae inside Corystospermaceae. Is based on bipinnate leaves, rachis longitudinally striated, with a long petiole and secondary rachises. It belongs to large tree ferns. Sachrang Formation Specimen is characterized for its large size and probably where attached to trunks similar in built to the Cretaceous genus Tempskya.[43]

The only Pachypteris specimen know from the Sachrang Formation

Bennettitales[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Otozamites[26][44][45]

  • Otozamites gracilis
  • Otozamites bechei
  • Otozamites sp.
  • Banz
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Hondelange
  • Bascharage
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Leaflets

Affinities with Cycadeoidaceae inside Bennettitales. It is the most abundant medium-sized plant on the environment. Found specially on seashore depositional settings, but also on deltaic and lagoonar environments. It was a low arbustive-arboreal Bennetite related to arid environments, with a leave similar of that of the modern genus Encephalartos, specially Encephalartos munchii, but also Dioon mejiae. Otozamites has been considered synonym with Otopteris, but since the 1990s everybody used the name Otozamites, and Otopteris was forgotten.[46]

Otozamites gracilis specimen from the Sachrang Formation

Pterophyllum[26][40][44]

  • Pterophyllum acutifolium
  • Banz
  • Holzmaden
  • Altdorf
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Leaflets

Affinities with Cycadeoidaceae inside Bennettitales. This Bennettitalean is related to Shrub built. Some specimens were assigned to Dioonites acutifolium (Junior synonym). Consits on leaves with pinnate, leaflets perpendicular or oblique to the rhachis, on the top of the leaf axis. It comes from fragments of fairly large fronds. In its external form it closely follows the modern genus Dioon, only the leaflets are of our kind wider and shorter, they are further apart, but the tendency to rhachis is the same.

Ptilophyllum[26][40][30]

  • Ptilophyllum gracilis
  • Ptilophyllum sp.
  • Banz
  • Ohmden
  • Holzmaden
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Kerkhofen
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Leaflets

Affinities with Williamsoniaceae inside Bennettitales. Arboreal Cycadaceans, some with the presence of flower-like structures. It resembles the leaf of the modern Microcycas calocoma, and probably had a similar arboreal built, being the leave of tall Bennetite trees such as Bucklandia, found on the middle jurassic of England.

Ptilophyllum sp. specimen from the Sachrang Formation

Glossozamites[26][40][44]

  • Glossozamites oblongifolius
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Holzmaden
  • Altdorf
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Leaflets

A member of Williamsoniaceae inside Bennettitales. Identified originally as Zamites oblongifolius

Zamites[26][40][44]

  • Zamites mandelslohi
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Holzmaden
  • Altdorf
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Leaflets

A member of Williamsoniaceae inside Bennettitales. It has been interpreted as a cycad in the family Cycadaceae or a Bennettitalean plant, and also a late surviving member of Noeggerathiales. Leaflets somewhat removed, oval-oblong, a little narrower near the base, rounded at the tip, nerves partially diverging from the base towards the edge. It was assigned to Pterophyllum oblongifolium and on the genus Glossozamites. This genus was the leaf of arboreal Bennetites, similar in appearance to the modern Encephalartos woodii.

Zamites mandelslohi specimen

Ginkgoales[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Ginkgoites[26][40][33][27]

  • Ginkgoites digitata
  • Ginkgoites sp.
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Ohmden
  • Holzmaden
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Leave Compressions

Affinities with Ginkgoaceae inside Ginkgoales. Various leaves are known from Ohmden, coming from marine deposits and where identified as Ginko digitata, identified originally as the only Ginko specimen reported on the Sachrang Formation. In the southern and northern Germany, there are regular remains of coal, which are initially reminiscent of small Ginkgo leaves. The leaves are hard to identify, more or less regularly concentric structures, as they sometimes appear like the coarse fruiting bodies of wood-dwelling fungi, such as the genus Trametes.

Ginkgoites digitata specimens

Pinophyta[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Pagiophyllum[26][44][47][48]

  • Pagiophyllum kurri
  • Pagiophyllum araucarinum
  • Pagiophyllum falcatum
  • Pagiophyllum sp.
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Irlbach
  • Hondelange
  • Banz
  • Mistelgau
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Hattorf
  • Flechtorf
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Bascharange
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Fragmentary axis compressions with preserved leaves
  • Cuticles
  • Isolated Leave Fragments

Affinities with Araucariaceae or Cheirolepidiaceae inside Pinales. Pagiophyllum araucarinum predominates among the two types of leafy coniferous branches that have become known from the Posidonia. However, there is no indication whether this fact reflects their respective share in the vegetation of the delivery area. Cheirolepidiaceae Pollen is the most abundant and diverse found on the formation, what is correlated with the abundance of this genus. Other factor that puts local Pagiophyllum on Cheirolepidiaceae is the dominance of an arid climate, the preferred for this type of conifers.

Pagiophyllum kurri specimen from Banz

Brachyphyllum[26][49]

  • Brachyphyllum sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Fragmentary axis

Affinities with Araucariaceae or Cheirolepidiaceae inside Pinales. Specimens whose spiral foliage of the branch, in which the individual leaves open about 2/3 of their length (without the tip) are fused with the branch they hold in their free part fits tightly, suggests belonging to the genus Brachyphyllum.

Hirmeriella[26]

  • cf. Hirmeriella sp
  • Dotternhausen
  • Falciferum

Ovuliferous dwarf-shoots

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae. Is the type genus of this family, and is related with Arid Settings. Coming from The land-plant-taphocoenose from posidonia slate 3, is ready for processing.

Widdringtonites[26][49][50]

  • Widdringtonites liasicus
  • Banz
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • Irlbach
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons
  • Fragmentary axis compressions with preserved leaves

A possible ancestral member of the Callitroideae inside Cupressaceae. Was originally related to the genus "Quasisequoia" couttsiae, as a sister taxa to Sequoia jeholensis. The leaves of this genus however resemble the modern African conifer Widdringtonia. There studies suggesting affinities with large modern redwoods or with the modern genus Fitzroya cupressoides. But both Genera are related with relatively humid ecosystems, while Widdringtonites is known from an Arid setting, like Widdringtonia, so relationships with this last one are more probably.

Widdringtonites liasinus specimen from the Sachrang Formation

Fossil wood[edit]

Fossil Wood increases on the marginal Unken Member, with great amounts of logs and fragments of more than 1 m. Surface studies suggest relationships with the wood genera identified on the coeval Úrkút Manganese Ore Formation.[51]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Taxodioxylon[26][52]

  • cf. Taxodioxylon sp.
  • Altdorf
  • Korbach
  • Hondelange
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with the Cupressaceae inside Pinales. Probably related to the coastal settings. It maybe covered a similar role that modern Swamp Cypress, Taxodium distichum.

Taxodium distichum specimen, whose role was probably covered by the makers of the Taxodioxylon woods.

Cupressinoxylon[26][27]

  • Cupressinoxylon sp.
  • Reutlingen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Cupressaceae inside Pinales. Wood with a morphology similar to the modern genus Metasequoia. Probably related to Widdringtonites liasinus.

Metasequoia specimen, whose role was probably covered by the makers of the Cupressinoxylon woods.

Circoporoxylon[26][53][54]

  • Circoporoxylon grandiporosum
  • Braunschweig area
  • GroßGschaidt near Erlangen
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Podocarpaceae inside Pinales. Acmopyle pancheri is the only living conifer that has real resemblance with the wood assigned to Circoporoxylon. Xenoxylon phyllocladoides and C. grandiporosum are commonly found associated, for example in Braunschweig area.

Podocarpoxylon[26][27]

  • Podocarpoxylon sp.
  • cf. Podocarpoxylon sp.
  • "Georg-Friedrich" mine not far from Liebenberg near Grauhof in the Harz foreland
  • Wenzen between Einbeck and Alfeld
  • Mistelgau
  • Altdorf
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil Wood

Affinities with Podocarpaceae inside Pinales. resembling modern genera such as Dacrycarpus, with other specimens resembling Juniperus. Includes wood more related to nearshore arbustive Conifers (columnar or low-spreading Shrubs with long, trailing branches), being the most abundant, but also medium to large arboreal conifers from nearshore forests.

Phyllocladoxylon[26][27]

  • Phyllocladoxylon sp.
  • Hondelange
  • Hattorf
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Altdorf
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Podocarpaceae inside Pinales. Phyllocladus is the extant genus of conifer whose wood is more similar.

Phyllocladus specimen, whose role was probably covered by the makers of the Phyllocladoxylon woods.

Protophyllocladoxylon[26][27]

  • Protophyllocladoxylon franconicum
  • Kerkhofen
  • Altdorf
  • Meilenhofen
  • Dörlbach
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Podocarpaceae and Cupressaceae inside Pinales. The assignation of this genus ir rather complex.

Bivalves added to a Protophyllocladoxylon driftwood

Agathoxylon[55]

  • cf. Agathoxylon sp.
  • Dotternhausen
  • Ohmden
  • Holzmaden
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood.

Affinities with Araucariaceae inside Pinales. Has araucarioid structures, but lacks proper characters of extant genera such as Araucaria & Agathis The largest known rafting wood on the fossil record is assigned to this genus, with a length of 18 m. The rafts were populated with Crinoid colonies, and a wide variety of organisms.[55]

Araucarioxylon (=Agathoxylon) reconstruction

Araucariopytis[56]

  • Araucariopytis nicri
  • Araucariopytis tubingense
  • Araucariopytis sp.
  • Dotternhausen
  • Ohmden
  • Holzmaden
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Abietinae inside Pinales. This genus was found to be related with Protocedroxylon found on the coeval Whitby Mudstone, crucial to the interpretation of the fossil record of Early Abietinae.

Abies specimen, whose role was probably covered by the makers of the Araucariopytis woods.

Protocupressinoxylon[26][57]

  • Protocupressinoxylon catenatum
  • Protocupressinoxylon liasinum
  • Mistlegau
  • Hondelange
  • Glasser
  • Kerkhofen
  • Altdorf
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae inside Pinales. Includes large sized trunks up to 1.7 m tall and 115 cm wide. Wood of other species of this genus, such as Protocupressinoxylon purbeckensis grown on flood-influenced settings of vegetated soil with brackish-water, like modern Swamp Cypress.

Protocupressinoxylon catenatum specimen

Simplicioxylon[58][59][60]

  • Simplicioxylon wurtembergicum[61]
  • Simplicioxylon cf.hungaricum
  • Hondelange
  • Schandelah
  • Dotternhausen
  • Ohmden
  • Altdorf
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae inside Pinales.

"Protopinaceae"[26][62]

  • Protopinaceae sp.
  • Hondelange
  • Beienrode
  • Schandelah
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Wood of the Protopinaceae, a possible "morpho-group" of the family Cheirolepidiaceae. Belongs to an invalid group of mostly Paleozoic Woods, and all the woods assigned to the family should be threated[clarification needed] as Incertade Sedis.[63]

Woodworthia, example of Protopinaceae

Xenoxylon[26][64][65][66][54]

  • Xenoxylon phyllocladoides
  • Xenoxylon cf. barberi
  • Xenoxylon ellipticum
  • Braunschweig area
  • Taught near Hanover
  • Dörnten not far from Liebenburg, district of Goslar
  • Tenuicostatum
  • Falciferum
  • Bifrons

Fossil wood

Affinities with Coniferales, concretely is closer to the Podocarpaceae, Cupressaceae and in a lesser extend to the Cheirolepidiaceae. Finally can be a member of the extinct family Miroviaceae. It is the more abundant genus of wood present on the Bohemian Realm of the Sachrang Formation.

Ichnofossils[edit]

The major ichnological analyses of the Posidonian Shale come from Dotternhausen/Dormettingen, where the ichnogenus Phymatoderma formed the so-called Tafelfleins and Seegrasschiefer.[67] The Tafelflein bed was deposited under anoxic bottom and pore water, where a recover of oxygen allow the Phymatoderma-producers return.[67] The two organic-rich layers (Tafelfleins and Seegrasschiefer) are characterized by the dense occurrence of trace fossils such as Chondrites and Phymatoderma, done episodically due to the fall of the oxygen levels.[67] The Coeval more nearshore Swiss deposits referred Posidonian Shale (Rietheim Member) hosted similar trace fossils asthose recovered on SW Germany.[67] Tougth this setting apparently evolved faster to more oxic-to-dysoxic bottom waters.[67] At Unken, laminated deposits of red limestone suggest well oxygenated active waters (as lack shale), where high amounts of Chondrites are found.[20]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Zoophycos[68]

  • Zoophycos sp.
  • Salzburg
  • Unken

Burrowing and track ichnofossils.

Burrow-like ichnofossils. It has been related to Echiuran annelids, but also from moving and feeding polychaete worms.[69]

Example of Zoophycos fossil

Rhizocorallium[56]

  • Rhizocorallium parallelum
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Altdorf
  • Banz

Burrowing and track ichnofossils

U-shaped tubes with sinuous, bifurcating or planispiral spreite, that can be related to Crustaceans, Annelids and Fishes, being both Domichnia and/or fodinichnia.

Specimens

Thalassinoides[56][70][71]

  • Thalassinoides sp.
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Altdorf
  • Banz
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim

Burrowing and track ichnofossils

Burrow-like ichnofossils, that can be related to Crustaceans, Annelids and Fishes.[70] The presence of this burrows changed along the different depositional layers, interpreted as result of relative magnitudes and durations of a series oxygenation events.[70] Increased Oxygen conditions eventually led to a level that permitted both the survival of larger Chondrites and Thalassinoides producing organisms, as well the depth of the Burrow-like structures.[70] The changes on the layers are detailed enough to know that oxygenation-change events duration was sufficient to allowe the migration and establishment of trace-producing organisms, establishing an "equilibrium" with bottom-water oxygen conditions.[70]

Thalassinoides found on the Sachrang Formation

Chondrites[56][72][71]

  • Chondrites bollensis
  • Chondrites hechingensis
  • Chondrites granulatus
  • Chondrites furcatus
  • Chondrites sp.
  • Chondrites? sp.
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Unken
  • Sachrang
  • Sazburg
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim

Burrowing and track ichnofossils

Burrow-like ichnofossils. Interpreted as the feeding burrow of a sediment-ingesting animal.[73] A more recent study has find that Scoloplos armiger and Heteromastus filiformis, occurring in the German Wadden Sea in the lower parts of tidal flats, make burrows that are homonymous with numerous trace fossils of the ichnogenus.[74] Chondrites burrows from Holzmaden are mostly filled with granular Calcite crystals, clay minerals, and rare framboidal Pyrite. The local dysoxic seawater is reflected on the palaeoredox conditions, relating framboidal pyrite and biogenic processes. Chondrites appear to be capable of colonizing environments characterized by oxygen levels well below levels needed for survival of other animals, being considered a "extremotolerant" ichnotaxon.[75]

Illustration of Chondrites bollensis

Phymatoderma[76]

  • Phymatoderma granulata
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon

Burrowing and track ichnofossils.

Burrow-like ichnofossils. It consists commonly on a subhorizontal branching burrow system consisting of radiating tunnels filled with fecal pellets.[76] It has been interpreted as a product made by an Endobenthic deposit-feeding animal, specially a Fodinichnia, burrows produced by benthonic subsurface food-mining activity, as is proved by the tunnels and pelletal infill.[76] The study of the Fecal Pellets has revelated that the maker of this ichnogenus was an epicontinental shelf setting non-selective deposit feeder, ingesting particles on the sediment surface without selection. A mode of feeding common on aquatic Benthos, reported on modern animals such as Spionid Polychaete worms, tropical Holothurians and Spatangoid urchins.[77]

Planolites[56][78][71]

  • Planolites montanus
  • Banz
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim

Burrowing and track ichnofossils.

Burrow-like ichnofossils. It is controversial, since is considered a strictly a junior synonym of Palaeophycus.[79]

Example of Planolites fossil

Invertebrata[edit]

Anthozoa[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Thecocyathus[42][80]

  • Thecocyathus mitrae
  • Thecocyathus tintinabulum
  • Thecocyathus mactra
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Irlbach
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Dudelange-Zoufftgen

Polyps

A stone cora of the family Caryophylliidae inside Hexacorallia. Related to shallow waters, this genus is the main coral found on the Sachrang Formation, resembling the modern Polycyathus muellerae. Its fossils are related with near-land facies, Coralline Islands and relatively small landmases shuch as the Bohemian Massif.

Thecocyathus mitrae from Banz

Porifera[edit]

In the non-bituminous facies located on Obereggenen im Breisgau (Shore of the Black Forest High), especially the lower semicelatum subzone, pyritized individual needles of silica sponges (Demospongiae and Hexactinellida) are found, rarely on pelagic layers to very often on the low depth marine deposits.[5] They are usually associated with radiolarian stone cores. In Dusslingen and Reutlingen, these sponge needles could be barytized in phosphorites of the Haskerense subzone and are much more common here than in any other zone of the Lower Toarcian. These needles are absent in the bituminous horizons of the entire Lower Toarcian.[5] Increased amounts of Sponge needles (dominated by Hexactinellida) are also found on the arenaceous facies of the nearshore unit that is the Unken member, being the only section if its region hosts them, probably due to be an active and well oxygenated bottom.[20] The location of this member as a possible bay on the south of the vindelician land probably allow to the development of more pre-Toarcian AOE conditions, hence the presence of biota otherwise rare on bituminous layers.[20]

Annelida[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Serpula[56][81]

  • Serpula trigona
  • Serpula sp. A
  • Serpula sp. B
  • Banz
  • Aichelberg
  • Holzmaden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden

Multiple Specimens.

A sessile, marine annelid tube worm of the family Serpulidae. Its affinities with the genus Serpula are controversial, since the genus is known mostly since Cretaceus strata. Although there are other fossils assigned to the genus on same age deposits of France.[82] Presumably these specimens have fallen from their growth areas.[5]

Head of a modern Serpula vermicularis

Toarcihalla[5]

  • Toarcihalla tortitis
  • Toarcihalla sp.
  • Göppingen
  • Chalhac
  • Single Scolecodont
  • Incomplete Indeterminate Scolecodont

A polychaete of the family Dorvilleidae inside Eunicida. It was considered as part of the genus Halla. Eunicidan species with prionognath jaws, absent on Bituminous layers

Mollusca[edit]

Brachiopoda[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Gibbirynchia[56][71]

  • Gibbirynchia amalthei
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim

Shells

A pennospiriferinid rhynchonellatan.[83]

Discina[56]

  • Discina papyracea
  • Hondelange
  • Kerkhofen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Gomaringen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken

Shells

A Discinidae rhynchonellatan. This genus was found had a planktotrophic larval stage, that adapted while growing to the local redox boundary, when this fluctuated near the sediment–water interface and oxygen availability prevailed, allowing benthic colonization. Is found on associations with Grammatodon and Pseudomytiloides.[83]

Lingula[56]

  • Lingula posidoniae
  • Hondelange
  • Kerkhofen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Gomaringen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken

Shells

A Lingulidae rhynchonellatan. Associations of bioturbation infauna are dominated on certain sections by Palaeonucula/Lingula agrupations, developed under longer-term oxygenated conditions within the substrate and bottom waters.[83]

Rhynchonella[56]

  • Rhynchonella amalthei
  • Hondelange
  • Kerkhofen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Gomaringen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken

Shells

A Rhynchonellidae rhynchonellatan. Found associated with Plicatula on long-term well-oxygenated conditions within the substrate and bottom waters.[83]

Spiriferina[56]

  • Spiriferina villosa
  • Hondelange
  • Kerkhofen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Gomaringen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken

Shells

A Spiriferinidae rhynchonellatan.

Waldheimia[56]

  • Waldheimia subdigona
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Gomaringen

Shells

A Terebratellidae rhynchonellatan.

Bivalvia[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Meleagrinella[84][85][86][71]

  • Meleagrinella substriata
  • Meleagrinella dubia
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Schandelah
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Oedhof
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken[87]
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

An oxytomid scallop.

Colony of specimens

Praearctotis[88]

  • Praearctotis substriata
  • Praearctotis sp.
  • Dörlbach, Ludwig Canal
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

An oxytomid scallop. Found mostly on the "Dactylioceras-Monotis-Bank", a deposit derived from large scale tectonic events on the Bohemian coastline

Oxytoma[56][71]

  • Oxytoma inequivalvis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

An oxytomid scallop.

Chlamys[56]

  • Chlamys priscus
  • Chlamys sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A pectinoid scallop.

Single specimen

Eopecten[56][71]

  • Eopecten strionatis
  • Eopecten tumidus
  • Eopecten sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A pectinoid scallop.

Propeamussium[56][71]

  • Propeamussium pumilus
  • Propeamussium sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A propeamussiid mud scallop.

Various specimens on the same rock

Plicatula[56][71]

  • Plicatula spinosa
  • Plicatula sp.
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A plicatulid mud scallop.

Bositra[89][84][85][87][86][90][91]

  • Bositra buchii
  • All the Formation

20.000 specimens/m2

A posidoniid ostreoidan. It is the type fossil of the Sachrang Formation. Originally it was named "Posidonia bronni", thought to be a new genus, and the strata was denominated the Posidonia layers after it. Years later it turned out to be a junior synonym of Bositra, and thus, it was reassigned. However, the name of the layers was retained. The habitat and mode of life of Bositra has been debated for more than a century. There have been different interpretations, such as a pseudoplanktonic organism,[92] a benthic organism[93] related to open marine floor, where it was the main inhabitant of the basinal settings,[94][95] a free swimming mode of life filtering phytoplankton,[91] and a hybrid mode, where it has a life cycle with holopelagic reproduction controlled by the change on Oxygen levels,[96] and even a chemosymbiotic lifestile, related to the large crinoid rafts, being the main "Safe conduct" to evade anoxic events.[97] All the opinions along the years led to a large study in 1998, where the size/frequency distribution, the density of growth thanks to the lines related to the shell size and the position of the redox boundary by total organic carbon diagrams has revealed that Bositra probably had a benthic mode of life.[98]

Thousands of specimens in one matrix

Steinmannia[56]

  • Steinmannia bronni
  • Steinmannia radiata
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A "posidoniid" ostreoidan. Another Genera mistaken with "Posidonia bronni".

Various specimens in one matrix

Gervillella[56][71]

  • Gervillella lanceolata
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A bakevelliid mud oyster.

Liostrea[56][71]

  • Liostrea falcifera
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A gryphaeid mud oyster.

Various specimens

Gryphaea[56]

  • Gryphaea arcuata
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A gryphaeid mud oyster.

Various specimens

Exogyra[56]

  • Exogyra berthaudi
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A gryphaeid mud oyster.

Pinna[56]

  • Pinna hartmanni
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A Pinnoid oyster.

Pteria[56]

  • Pteria sp.
  • Dotternhausen
  • Isolated shells

A Pteriidaeoid wing-oyster.

Palaeonucula[99]

  • Palaeonucula sp.
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A Nuculid nut clam

Goniomya[99]

  • Goniomya rhombifera
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A Pholadomyid clam

Nicaniella[99]

  • Nicaniella sp.
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

An Astartid clam

Pleuromya[99]

  • Pleuromya sp.
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A Pleuromyid clam

Pseudomytiloides[100][84][85][87][89][86][99]

  • Pseudomonotis substriata
  • Pseudomytiloides dubius
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

An inoceramid clam. Being the second most common genera of Bivalve on the Formation, it had been object to several studies to find its ecological niche, like Bositra. Several opinions include a pseudoplanktonic-only organism, able to live in open sea,[95] or a benthonic-only organism.[94] On the 1998 evaluation with Bositra, was found that probably has a benthic early life that translated to a faculatively pseudoplanktonic mode of adult life.[98]

Single specimen

Inoceramus[100][84][85][87][89][86]

  • Inoceramus dubius
  • Inoceramus amygdaloides
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

An inoceramid clam.

Thousands of specimens on a single rock

Solemya[56][101]

  • Solemya bollensis
  • Solemya voltzi
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A Clam, type member of the family Solemyidae inside Solemyida.

Single specimen

Cucullaea[56][71]

  • Cucullaea (Idonearca) muensteri
  • Cucullaea sp.
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A cucullaeid clam.

Mesomiltha[56][71]

  • Mesomiltha pumilus
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A lucinid clam.

Grammatodon[84][85][89]

  • Grammatodon taylori
  • Grammatodon jurianus
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A Grammatodontinae clam. This Genus had a lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval development.[83]

Unicardium[56][71]

  • Unicardium bollense
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A mactromyid clam.

Plagiostoma[56]

  • Plagiostoma antiquata
  • Plagiostoma cf. punctata
  • Banz
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Shells
  • Isolated valves

A Limidae file clam.

Plagiostoma giganteum, specimen multiview

Pseudolimea[56]

  • Pseudolimea acuticosta
  • Hondelange
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Isolated shells

A Limidoid file clam.

Antiquilima[56]

  • Antiquilima sp.
  • Dotternhausen
  • Isolated shells

A Limidoid file clam.

Gastropoda[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Coelodiscus[56][102]

  • Coelodiscus minutus
  • Coelodiscus biumbilicatus
  • Coelodiscus fluegeli[103]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Schandelah
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Bamberg
  • Trimeusel
  • Hetzles
  • Oedhof
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Shells
  • Larval Shells

A Coelodiscidae sea Snail. Is the oldest known holoplanktonic gastropod, thanks to a bilateral symmetrical shells as an adaption to active swimming. Also the most common of the sea snails of the Formation, it is also one of the most varied in size terms, with some of the biggest specimens of snail from the Lower Toarcian know.[102] It has been related to large floating driftwood as one of the primary settlers.[102]

Tatediscus[56][104]

  • Tatediscus aratus
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten

Shells

A Coelodiscidae sea Snail. Possible holoplanktonic gastropod.[102]

Pleurotomaria[56][99]

  • Pleurotomaria anglica
  • Pleurotomaria sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Shells

A Pleurotomariidae sea Snail.

Specimen

Zygopleura[56]

  • Zygopleura undulata
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Shells

A Zygopleuridae sea Snail.

Specimens

Eucyclus[56]

  • Eucyclus capitaneus
  • Altdorf
  • Kerkhofen
  • Aichelberg
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Shells

A Eucyclidae sea Snail.

Specimens

Amberleya[56]

  • Amberleya imbricata
  • Altdorf
  • Kerkhofen
  • Aichelberg
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Shells

A Eucyclidae sea Snail.

Rhabdocolpus[56]

  • Rhabdocolpus? cf. brandi
  • Rhabdocolpus cf. vetustus
  • Altdorf
  • Kerkhofen
  • Aichelberg
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Shells

A Procerithiidae sea Snail.

Natica[56][99]

  • Natica pelops
  • Natica reticulata
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Aichelberg
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Shells

A Naticidae moon Snail.

Extant Specimen

Rigauxia[56]

  • Rigauxia hiltermanni
  • Altdorf
  • Kerkhofen
  • Dotternhausen

Shells

A Snail of uncertain placement.

Pterotrachea[103]

  • Pterotrachea liassica
  • Pterotrachea ceratophagus
  • Altdorf
  • Hetzles
  • Trimeusel
  • Bamberg
  • Mistelgau
  • Larval Shells

A Pterotracheidae sea Slug. Among the oldest pelagic floating Slugs, Pterotrachea liassica had a more extended larval period than modern extant Pterotrachea coronata, because one additional whorl is present.[103]

Modern Specimen

Cephalopoda[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Cenoceras[105][106][31]

  • Cenoceras intermedium
  • Cenoceras sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Mistlegau
  • Irlbach
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shell

A Nautilidae Nautilidan. Includes the largest specimen of Cenoceras known, with 80 cm width. Two specimens, identified as Nautilus sp. from Holzmaden where found encrusted with Serpulids and Bryozoans.[107]

Nautilidae shell from Banz, probably Cenoceras

Lytoceras[7][106][31][108][109]

  • Lytoceras ceratophagum
  • Lytoceras onychograptum
  • Lytoceras cornucopia
  • Lytoceras sublineatum
  • Lytoceras germaini
  • Lytoceras mucronatum
  • Lytoceras fimbriatum
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Irlbach
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dormettingen
  • Mögglingen
  • Boll
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shell

A Lytoceratidae Ammonite. Lytoceras can get quite big, with nearly 50 cm in diameter.

Pachylytoceras[7][106]

  • Pachylytoceras hircinum
  • Pachylytoceras cf. hircinum
  • Pachylytoceras torulosum
  • Pachylytoceras wrighti
  • Pachylytoceras dilucidum
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shell

A Lytoceratidae Ammonite.

Erycites[7][106]

  • Erycites labrosus
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shell

A Hammatoceratidae Ammonite.

Hammatoceras[7][106][31]

  • Hammatoceras insigne
  • Hammatoceras compressum
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Irlbach
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shell

A Hammatoceratidae Ammonite.

Grammoceras[110][108][31]

  • Grammoceras thouarsense
  • Grammoceras cf. thouarsense
  • Grammoceras orhignyi
  • Grammoceras doerntense
  • Grammoceras dispatisum
  • Grammoceras saemanni
  • Grammoceras cf. fluitans
  • Grammoceras radians
  • Grammoceras cf. radians'
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Irlbach
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Mulden-Südflügel tritt
  • Klammgraben
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Grammoceras specimen from Banz

Frechiella[56][99][111]

  • Frechiella subcarinata
  • Dotternhausen
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach

Shells

A Hildoceratidae ammonite. The co-occurrence on Altdorf of boreal (Pseudolioceras) and Tethyan faunal elements (Frechiella) is striking, suggesting clear connection with both regions.[111]

Polyplectus[56][108]

  • Polyplectus capellinus
  • Polyplectus bicarinatus
  • Göppingen
  • Frickenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Großbettlinggen
  • Holzeim
  • Balingen
  • Haglertal, Höhe
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley

Shells

A Hildoceratidae ammonite

Neolioceratoides[112]

  • Neolioceratoides infidum
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dormettingen
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragmentary Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Cleviceras[113]

  • Cleviceras exaratum
  • Bächental basin

Specimens

A Hildoceratidae ammonite

ClevicerasExaratumType.png

Phlyseogrammoceras[110][106]

  • Phlyseogrammoceras dispansum
  • Phlyseogrammoceras cf. dispansiforme
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Pseudogrammoceras[110]

  • Pseudogrammoceras bingmanni
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Hudlestonia[106]

  • Hudlestonia serrodens
  • Hudlestonia affinis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Catulloceras[106]

  • Catulloceras dumortieri
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Cotteswoldia[106]

  • Cotteswoldia distans
  • Cotteswoldia lotharingica
  • Cotteswoldia mactra
  • Cotteswoldia subcompta
  • Cotteswoldia fluitans
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Harpoceras[10][114][115][108]

  • Harpoceras falciferum
  • Harpoceras nitescens
  • Harpoceras falciferum
  • Harpoceras serpentinum
  • Harpoceras renevieri
  • Harpoceras cf. exaratum
  • Harpoceras sp.
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Unken
  • Sachrang
  • Sazburg
  • Haglertal, Höhe
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shell
  • Soft Tissue
  • Beaks

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Harpoceras specimen

Tiltoniceras[110]

  • Tiltoniceras antiquum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Unken
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Tiltoniceras specimen

Hildoceras[116][117][31]

  • Hildoceras levisoni
  • Hildoceras serpentinum[116]
  • Hildoceras subserpentinum
  • Hildoceras propeserpentinum
  • Hildoceras kiliani
  • Hildoceras douvillei
  • Hildoceras sublevisoni
  • Hildoceras semipolitum
  • Hildoceras bifrons
  • Hildoceras bodei[108]
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Unken
  • Sachrang
  • Sazburg
  • Haglertal, Höhe
  • Klammgraben
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragmentary Shells
  • Beaks
  • Soft Tissue

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Hildoceras specimen

Mercaticeras[116]

  • Mercaticeras forte
  • Mercaticeras cf. mercati
  • Mercaticeras dilatum
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden

Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Mercaticeras specimen

Paroniceras[108]

  • Paroniceras sternale
  • Paroniceras cf. sternale
  • Klammgraben
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley

Shells

A Hildoceratidae ammonite

Eleganticeras[116]

  • Eleganticeras exaratum
  • Eleganticeras elegantulum[10]
  • Grimmen
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Pseudolioceras[116][108][117]

  • Pseudolioceras lythense
  • Pseudolioceras leptophyllum
  • Pseudolioceras compactile
  • Pseudolioceras discoides
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dörlbach
  • Hirschbühler Bach
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Shells

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Peronoceras[56][108]

  • Peronoceras fibulatum
  • Peronoceras andrsi
  • Peronoceras vortex
  • Peronoceras millavense
  • Peronoceras subarmatum
  • Peronoceras cf. subarmatum
  • Dotternhausen
  • Gomaringen
  • Hechingen
  • Mössingen
  • Frommern
  • Zell
  • Boll
  • Aalen
  • Klammgraben
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley

Shells

A Dactylioceratinae ammonite, inside Eoderoceratoidea.

Dactylioceras[10][116][108][99][31][112]

  • Dactylioceras semiannulatum
  • Dactylioceras semicelatum
  • Dactylioceras crassifactum
  • Dactylioceras tenuicostatum
  • Dactylioceras wunnenbergi
  • Dactylioceras crosbeyi
  • Dactylioceras clevelandicum
  • Dactylioceras ernsti
  • Dactylioceras vermis
  • Dactylioceras athleticum
  • Dactylioceras annulatum
  • Dactylioceras commune
  • Dactylioceras anguinum
  • Dactylioceras rarestriatum
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Unken
  • Sachrang
  • Sazburg
  • Haglertal, Höhe
  • Klammgraben
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragmentary Shells
  • Isolated Fragments
  • Beaks
  • Ammonite "Pearls"
  • Beaks
  • Apitchen

A Dactylioceratidae Ammonite.

Dactyliocerascommune on Holzmaden

Kedonoceras[112]

  • Kedonoceras cf. compactum
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dormettingen
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragmentary Shells

A Dactylioceratidae Ammonite.

Collina[117][106][31]

  • Collina mucronata
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Complete Shells

A Dactylioceratidae Ammonite. Is common on the bituminous marls (incorrectly designated as "Wilder Schiefer") of the Altdorf High.

Catacoeloceras[117][106][31]

  • Catacoeloceras crassum
  • Catacoeloceras engeli
  • Catacoeloceras marioni
  • Catacoeloceras raquinianum
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Complete Shells

A Dactylioceratidae Ammonite.

Nodicoeloceras[56]

  • Nodicoeloceras crassoides
  • Nodicoeloceras acanthus
  • Nodicoeloceras crassescens
  • Dotternhausen
  • Ohmden
  • Dürnau
  • Zell
  • Complete Shells

A Dactylioceratidae Ammonite.

Coeloceras[117][106][31]

  • Coeloceras crassum
  • Coeloceras mucronatum
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shell

Type Coeloceratidae Ammonite.

Phylloceras[116][108][118]

  • Phylloceras heterophyllum
  • Phylloceras supraliasicum
  • Phylloceras nilssoni
  • Phylloceras cf. heterophyllum
  • Phylloceras pompeckji
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Unken
  • Sachrang
  • Sazburg
  • Haglertal, Höhe
  • Klammgraben
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Complete Shells
  • Fragments of Shells
  • Beaks
  • Soft Tissue

A Phylloceratidae Ammonite. The largest ammonite found in the Posidonienschiefer comes from the Ohmden quarry,and belongs to a Phylloceras heterophyllum with a diameter of 87 cm.[116]

Phylloceras restoration

Haugia[116][117]

  • Haugia variabilis
  • Haugia illustris
  • Haugia jugosa
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Irlbach
  • Complete Shells

A Phymatoceratidae Ammonite.

Denckmannia[116][117]

  • Denckmannia malagma
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Complete Shells

A Phymatoceratidae Ammonite.

Phymatoceras[116][108][117]

  • Phymatoceras lilli
  • Phymatoceras rude
  • Phymatoceras escheri
  • Phymatoceras anomalum
  • Phymatoceras ex gr. binodatum
  • Dotterhausen
  • Holzamden
  • Zell
  • Dudelange-Zoufftgen
  • Holzgau-Lermooser Mulde
  • Anstehenden
  • Complete Shells

A Phymatoceratidae Ammonite.

Brodieia[56]

  • Brodieia sp.
  • Blumberg-Achdorf
  • Asfelfingen
  • Pyritized Fragments

A Phymatoceratidae Ammonite.

Chitinobelus[119]

  • Chitinobelus acifer
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Rostrum
  • Phragmocone
  • Tissue Impressions

A Belemnotheutidae Belemnite. Chitinobelus rostrum was composed of aragonite with organic material, while normal Belemnites had calcite. Has been suggested this rostrum was calcitic.

Chondroteuthis[120]

  • Chondroteuthis wunnenbergi
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Phragmocones
  • Isolated Rostrum
  • Tissue Impressions

A Belemnotheutidae Belemnite.

Simpsonibelus[117]

  • Simpsonibelus dorsalis
  • Simpsonibelus lentus[121]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Phragmocones
  • Isolated TRostrum
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions

A Belemnotheutidae Belemnite.

Acrocoelites[56][116][108][117]

  • Acrocoelites longiconus
  • Acrocoelites oxyconus
  • Acrocoelites ilminstrensis
  • Acrocoelites dorsalis
  • Acrocoelites voltzi
  • Acrocoelites pyramidalis
  • Acrocoelites glaber
  • Acrocoelites raui
  • Acrocoelites cf. riegrafi
  • Acrocoelites levidensis
  • Acrocoelites vulgaris
  • Acrocoelites tripartitus
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Unken
  • Sachrang
  • Sazburg
  • Berge westlich der Trettach
  • Haglertal, Höhe
  • Klammgraben
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Aselfingen
  • Fützen
  • Beggingen
  • Schieitheim
  • Siblingen
  • Rietheim
  • Staffelegg
  • Salhöf
  • Schafisheim
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Phragmocones
  • Isolated Rostrums

A Megateuthididae Belemnite. Includes some of the Biggest Know Belemnites, with an estimated maximum up to 4.5 m long in life, although, most specimens would have been rather smaller.

Dactyloteuthis[116][117]

  • Dactyloteuthis wrighti
  • Dactyloteuthis inaudita
  • Dactyloteuthis digitalis[121]
  • Dactyloteuthis semistriata
  • Dactyloteuthis irregularis
  • Dactyloteuthis similis
  • Dactyloteuthis incurvata
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Phragmocones
  • Isolated Rostrums
  • Soft Tissue Impressions

A Megateuthididae Belemnite.

Youngibelus[122][123]

  • Youngibelus tubularis
  • Youngibelus gigas
  • Youngibelus giganteus
  • Youngibelus ohmdenensis[121]
  • Youngibelus simpsoni
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Phragmocones
  • Isolated Rosturms

A Megateuthididae Belemnite. Includes really large specimens

Youngibelus Reconstruction

Passaloteuthis[56][124]

  • Passaloteuthis paxillosa
  • Passaloteuthis bisulcata
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Phragmocones

A Passaloteuthididae Belemnite.

Passaloteuthis Holzmaden specimen

Micropassaloteuthis[56]

  • Micropassaloteuthis fistulata
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Schömberg
  • Gomaringen
  • Hüttlingen
  • Frommern
  • Aalen-Reichenbach
  • Isolated Phragmocones

A Passaloteuthididae Belemnite.

Salpingoteuthis[121]

  • Salpingoteuthis trisulcata
  • Salpingoteuthis persulcata
  • Salpingoteuthis bauhini
  • Salpingoteuthis longisulcata
  • Salpingoteuthis macra
  • Salpingoteuthis tessoniana
  • Salpingoteuthis dorsetiensis
  • Salpingoteuthis blomenhofensis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Maurach
  • Hemmikon
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Phragmocones

A Salpingoteuthididae Belemnite.

Onychites[56]

  • Onychites amalthei
  • Onychites runcinatus
  • Hechingen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Hooks

Incertade sedis Belemnites.

Loligosepia[125]

  • Loligosepia aalensis
  • Loligosepia sp.
  • Banz
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Schömberg
  • Bachhausen
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Aselfingen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Complete Arm Crown
  • Phospatilized Musculature
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Organ Traces
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladius
  • Isolated Hooks

A Loligosepiidae Loligosepiidan (Vampyromorpha).[126] The Loligosepiidae is believed to be ancestral to the Recent vampire squid, Vampyroteuthis infernalis.[127] Hooklets in the food residues in the posterior mantle indicate that Loligosepia preyed upon belemnites.[125]

Loligosepia Holzmaden specimen

Jeletzkyteuthis[128][127]

  • Jeletzkyteuthis coriaceus
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Banz
  • Dotternhausen
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladius

A Loligosepiidae Loligosepiidan (Vampyromorpha). Related to the modern Vampyroteuthis infernalis. Gladii of Loligosepia can be distinguished from Jeletzkyteuthis by the transition lateral field/hyperbolar zone. A specimen of this genus found on Ohmden has appeared predating a Parabelopeltis.[129] The association of this 2 genera shows the predatory behaviour of this group when lived on Epicontinental seas, being rather different than extant Vampyromorphs.[129]

Geopeltis[130][127]

  • Geopeltis simplex
  • Geopeltis emarginata
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Banz
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Gladius
  • Ink Sac Impressions

A Geopeltidae Loligosepiidan (Vampyromorpha). Related to the modern Vampyroteuthis infernalis. Gladius with weakly arcuated hyperbolar zones.

Geopeltis specimen

Parabelopeltis[131][127]

  • Parabelopeltis flexuosa
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Gladius
  • Ink Sac Impressions
  • Hook Impressions

A Geopeltidae Loligosepiidan (Vampyromorpha). Related to the modern Vampyroteuthis infernalis. It is distinguished from Geoteuthis and Loligosepia by its median rib: this rib forms a narrow ridge between two narrow grooves. Probably hosted finds similar to modern Vampyroteuthis.[129]

Paraplesioteuthis[131]

  • Paraplesioteuthis sagittata
  • Paraplesioteuthis hastata
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Partial Specimen
  • Isolated Gladius

A Plesioteuthididae Prototeuthidinan (Vampyromorpha). was originally described as "Geoteuthis" sagittata.

Lioteuthis[132]

  • Lioteuthis problematica
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladii
  • Isolated Rostrums

Type member of the Lioteuthididae inside Vampyromorphida. The taxonomic position of Lioteuthis is uncertain, although the wings reaching the proximal gladius section and the smooth median field suggest affinity to the Prototeuthididae[132]

Teudopsis[126][133]

  • Teudopsis bollensis
  • Teudopsis subcostata
  • Teudopsis schubleri
  • Banz
  • Aichelberg
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aselfingen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladii
  • Isolated Rostrums

A Teudopseinae Palaeololiginidaean (Vampyromorphida).

Teudopsis Ohmden specimen

Clarkeiteuthis[134]

  • Clarkeiteuthis conocauda
  • Banz
  • Aichelberg
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladii

A Diplobelidae Coleoidean. It has been found adult individuals of Clarkeiteuthis which caught small teleost fish of the species Leptolepis bronni. Further indirect evidence for the hunting behaviour comes from their body orientation in the water during life.[135]

Clarkeiteuthis Holzmaden specimen

Odontobelus[136]

  • Odontobelus tripartitus
  • Banz
  • Schandelah
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladii

A Diplobelidae Coleoidean. Has been confused with Acrocoelites tripartitus, hence the species name.

Belotheutis[136]

  • Belotheutis subcostata
  • Schandelah
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladii
  • Isolated Rostrums

A Diplobelidae Coleoidean. Some specimens belong to Clarkeiteuthis (=Phragmoteuthis) conocauda, but others are clearly different.

Sueviteuthis[137]

  • Sueviteuthis schlierbachensis
  • Sueviteuthis zellensis
  • Banz
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladii
  • Isolated Rostrums

A Sueviteuthididae Coleoidean. Sueviteuthis had at least six arms with rather simple hooks, similar to the present of the genus Phragmoteuthis.

Geotheutis[138]

  • Geotheutis bollensis
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Hook Impressions
  • Ink Sacs
  • Melanosome Impressions
  • Isolated Gladii
  • Isolated Rostrums

A possible primigenial Cuttlefish. Is one of the most important fossils of Cephalopods on the Sachrang Formation, due to be one of the Earliest examples of Pigments found on any species, also one of the first historically.[139] The pigments are preserved on various specimens with Eumelanin related to its ink sacs and include even phosphatized musculature.[140]

Arthropoda[edit]

Cycloidea[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Juracyclus[141]

  • Juracyclus posidoniae
  • Gomaringen

Incomplete carapace

The First Cycloid Arthropod from the Jurassic, from the family Halicynidae inside Cycloidea.[141] Cycloids are a group of maxillopod arthropods that span between the Paleozoic until the latest Cretaceous, probably related to the crustaceans and probably detritivores.[141]

Ostracoda[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Trachycythere[56]

  • Trachycythere tubulosa
  • Trachycythere verrucosa
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Wasseralfingen

Cunchs

A marine Ostracodan, incertade sedis inside Podocopida.

Infracytheropteron[142]

  • Infracytheropteron groissi
  • Infracytheropteron gwashense
  • Infracytheropteron rarum
  • Infracytheropteron atafastigatum
  • Chalhac
  • Aselfingen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen,
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Protostomia. The specimens of this genus are rather fargmentary and of uncertain nature.

Ogmoconcha[56][7][143]

  • Ogmoconcha rotunda
  • Ogmoconcha amalthei
  • Ogmoconcha ambo
  • Ogmoconcha intercedens
  • Ogmoconcha circumvallata
  • Ogmoconcha amalthei
  • Ogmoconcha? contractula
  • Ogmoconcha sp.
  • Chalhac
  • Häufig in Obereggenen
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen,
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig

Cunchs

A marine Ostracodan, member of the family Healdiidae inside Podocopida. Rather abundant on the Toarcian profiles on Europe, this genus has a Mussel-like shape, with a very clean and round morphology.

Macrocypris[56]

  • Macrocypris liassica
  • Macrocypris sp. A
  • Macrocypris sp. B
  • Chalhac
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Weilheim/Teck
  • Heiningen
  • Göppingen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen

Cunchs

A marine Ostracodan, member of the family Macrocyprididae inside Podocopida.

Liasina[56]

  • Liasina lanceolata
  • Chalhac
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen

Cunchs

A marine Ostracodan, member of the family Pontocyprididae inside Podocopida.

Hermiella[144]

  • Hermiella cincta
  • Hermiella comes
  • Hermiella klingleri
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Healdiidae inside Podocopida. This genus is the main reported on the marine facies of the Dobbertin Clay Pit.

Ogmoconchella[56][144]

  • Ogmoconchella impressa
  • Ogmoconchella propinqua
  • Ogmoconchella conversa
  • Chalhac
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Göppingen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Healdiidae inside Podocopida. This genus is the main reported on the marine facies of the Dobbertin Clay Pit.

Pseudohealdia[145]

  • Pseudohealdia gruendeli
  • Pseudohealdia truncata
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Göppingen

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Healdiidae inside Podocopida. The genus is rare on the layers.

Kinkelinella[56][146][142]

  • Kinkelinella procera
  • Kinkelinella costata
  • Kinkelinella cf. persica
  • Kinkelinella tenuicostati
  • Kinkelinella champeauae
  • Kinkelinella sermoisensis
  • Kinkelinella costata
  • Kinkelinella debilis
  • Kinkelinella (Ektyphocythere) n. sp.
  • Chalhac
  • Aselfingen
  • Achdorf
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Heiningen
  • Göppingen
  • Hammerstadt
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Protocytheridae inside Podocopida. A genus related with Fish fossils and anoxic bottoms.

Praeschuleridea[146][142]

  • Praeschuleridea tenera
  • Praeschuleridea gallemannica
  • Praeschuleridea aspera
  • Achdorf
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Heiningen
  • Göppingen
  • Hammerstadt

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Praeschuleridea inside Podocopida.

Eucytherura[142]

  • Eucytherura angulocostata
  • Hammerstadt
  • Achdorf

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Cytheruridae inside Podocopida. Is rare and the specimens found are rather incomplete.

Polycope[56][147]

  • Polycope tenuireticulata
  • Polycope pelta
  • Polycope cf. cerasia
  • Polycope cincinnata
  • Polycope plumhoffi
  • Achdorf
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Göppingen,
  • Reichenbach

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Polycopidae inside Cladocopina. Scarce but well preserved specimens.

Monoceratina[56]

  • Monoceratina striata
  • Monoceratina scrobiculata
  • Monoceratina atimulea
  • Monoceratina seebergensis
  • Monoceratina frentzeni
  • Monoceratina vulsa
  • Chalhac
  • Achdorf
  • Häufig
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Weilheim/Teck

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Bythocytheridae inside Cladocopina.

Cytherella[148]

  • Cytherella praecadomensis
  • Cytherella toarcensis
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Wasseralfingen

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Cytherellidae inside Platycopida.

Bairdia[56][142]

  • Bairdia ohmerti
  • Bairdia thuringica
  • Bairdia donzei
  • Bairdia cf. carinata
  • Bairdia rostrata
  • Bairdia aselfingensis
  • Bairdia hahni
  • Bairdia inflata
  • Chalhac
  • Obereggenen
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhaueen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Göppingen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Untereturmig.

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Bairdiidae inside Bairdioidea. Abundant and diverse, is found associated with Ammonite shells.

Bairdiacypris[142]

  • Bairdiacypris dorisae
  • Bairdiacypris faba
  • Chalhac
  • Aselfingen
  • Mössingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen

Cunchs

A Marine Ostracodan of the family Bairdiidae inside Bairdioidea.

Malacostraca[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Palaeopagurus[149]

  • Palaeopagurus sp.
  • Dotternhausen

Single Specimen inside an Ammonite Shell.

An hermit crab of the family Paguridae. This specimens where found inside an Ammonite shell, probably looking to evade anoxic conditions or predators.

Mecochirus[150]

  • Mecochirus eckerti
  • Langenbrücken

Complete Specimens

A Decapodan of the family Mecochiridae.

Glypheopsis[151]

  • Glypheopsis grandichela
  • Gomaringen

Isolated Chelae

A Decapodan of the family Glypheidae.

Uncina[152][153]
  • Uncina posidoniae
  • Uncina alpina
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Calcified Musculature
  • Isolated Thorax
  • Isolated Chelae
  • Single chela

An Astacidea Decapodan of the family Uncinidae. Reaching large sizes of almost half a meter (39–47 cm), Uncina Posidoniae is among the largest known Jurassic Crustaceans. Uncina posidoniae is also the largest representative of the genus Uncina.[153] This large crustacean has been found associated with Ammonite and Bivalve filled Bentos, where probably hunted different kinds of prey.[153] Its large claws would have been perfect to hunt small invertebrates and vertebrates.[153]

Uncina posidoniae specimen
The Largest complete Uncina posidoniae specimen, with 44 cm long.

Tonneleryon[154]

  • Tonneleryon schweigerti
  • Holzmaden

Associated Partial & Complete Specimens

A gregarious Polychelidan Lobster. Specimens of Tonneleryon schweigerti where recovered generally in cluster of several individuals, a characteristic unique to this species on the whole Polychelida group.[154] The specimens in these accumulations are of similar size, lacking characters of exuviae such as a split median line or disjunction of carapace and first pleonite. Due to that and the disposition of the specimens probably represent a mass-mortality assemblage and suggest this species was gregarious.[154]

Gabaleryon[155]

  • Gabaleryon sp. 1
  • Gabaleryon sp. 2
  • Gomaringen
  • Pfronten, Engetal valley
  • Complete Specimens

A Coleiidae Decapodan. Was confussed with Proeryon hartmanni specimens. Although these finds point to some potential for exceptional preservation, the Pfronten locality was never systematically sampled.[155] It was assigned to the genus Gabaleryon the basis of its ovoid carapace, a transverse groove cutting the axial carina on pleonal terga and an uropodal exopod with curved diaeresis.[155] It shares similarities with Gabaleryon garassinoi and Gabaleryon moorei.[155] An species from Gomaringen is the first know with preserved ommatidia.[156]

Proeryon[157][158]

  • Proeryon giganteus
  • Proeryon hauffi[159]
  • Proeryon hartmanni[160]
  • Proeryon laticaudatus[161]
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Gomaringen
  • Banz
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Altdorf
  • Hemmikon
  • Nancy
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Calcified Musculature
  • Isolated Thorax
  • Isolated Chelae

A Coleiidae Decapodan. The second largest Decapodan from the formation, P. giganteus is a species reaching a larger size than most other polychelidans, with up to 15 cm. On the Sachrang Formation there is the most abundant variety of species from the genus, ranging from different sizes and morphologies, that indicate different habitat & feeding adaptations on the genus. Some like P. hartmani show less adaptations to hunt for small nectobenthic preys than other relatives, being abundant on Oyster-filled waters. There is a relatively abundance of the genus in deep-water settings from the Toarcian onward.[162]

Proeryon giganteus
Proeryon sp. specimen from Schandelah

Antrimpos[39][163]

  • Antrimpos sp.
  • cf. Antrimpos sp.
  • Gomaringen
  • Schandelah

Partial Specimens.

A Penaeidae Decapodan.

Antrimpos specimen

Penaeus[39][163]

  • Penaeus sp.
  • Schandelah

Partial Specimens.

A Penaeidae Decapodan.

Acanthochirana[164]

  • Acanthochirana krausei
  • Dörnten, north of Goslar, opencast mine Fischerköpfe
  • 4 specimens in lateral position
  • 1 in dorsal position

An Aegeridae Decapodan.

Palaeastacus[165][166][163]

  • Palaeastacus sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen

Partial Specimens.

An Erymidae Decapodan.

Palaeastacus specimen

Coleia[154][167]

  • Coleia theodorii
  • Coleia moorei
  • Coleia sinuata
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Banz
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Calcified Musculature
  • Isolated Thorax
  • Isolated Chelae
  • Specimens inside ammonites shells

An Erymidae Decapodan.

Eryma[168][169][170]

  • Eryma amalthei
  • Eryma sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Banz

Complete Specimens

Type genus of the Erymidae Decapodan family. Originally, was named Glyphea amalthei,informally used by Quenstedt and housed on the Museum Naturkunde in Württemberg. A series of posterior revisions probe it was a different genus.[171]

Eryma specimen

Stenodactylina[172][173][170]

  • Stenodactylina liasina
  • Holzmaden

Single Chela

An Erymidae Decapodan. It was erroneously reported from the Late Toarcian, as was found on bituminous limestone on the Unterer Stein it is clear its provenance from the Sachrang Formation.[170]

Achelata[174]

  • Achelata gen. et sp. indet.
  • Gomaringen

Single complete specimen in late larval stage

The specimen reported represents the oldest fossil record of an achelatan lobster larva, and the first representative of achelatan lobsters in the Posidinia Shale. Shares similarities with the late Jurassic genus Cancrinos. It is also the first example among crustaceans, which possibly could have lived as part of the plankton.[174]

California spiny lobsters are relatives of the Larval specimen from the Sachrang Formation

Palinurina[163]

  • Palinurina longipes
  • Palinurina tenera
  • Schandelah
  • Holzmaden
  • Gomaringen

Partial Specimens

A Spiny Lobster of the family Palinuridae

Stomatopoda[175]

  • Stomatopoda Indeterminate
  • Holzmaden

Single Incomplete Specimen

A Stomatopoda Malacostracan. Its affinities haven't been tested.

A female Odontodactylus scyllarus mantis shrimp, maybe related to the Posidonia Specimen

Thoracica[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Toarcolepas[176]

  • Toarcolepas mutans
  • Aichelberg

Numerous disarticulated individuals, associated with fossil wood.[176]

A phosphatic-shelled Cirripede of the family Eolepadidae.[176] Toarcolepas is provisionally interpreted as the oldest epiplanktonic cirripede known, and is thought to have lived attached to floating driftwood.[176]

Modern genus Lepas is the most related taxa to Toarcolepas

Arachnida[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Liassoscorpionides[177]

  • Liassoscorpionides schmidti
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Single Incomplete Specimen.

The type genus of the family Liassoscorpionididae, probably related to Mesophonoidea. Being the only Jurassic scorpion known, there is no evidence that L. schmidti was aquatic (which was suggested in the past) and in the absence of further, better preserved material it should be excluded from future considerations of broad patterns of scorpion evolution.[178]

Insecta[edit]

Insects are a common terrestrial animals that were probably washed into the sea due to monsoon conditions present on the Sachrang Formation.[179]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Agmatozoon[180]

  • Agmatozoon articulatum
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Incomplete Specimens

Uncertain Affinity Insects, whose remains are scarce to allow an assignation to a concrete family. Also Includes insects with characters never seen in other families and genera.

Campeulites[180]

  • Campeulites cylindricus
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)

Tomeferusa[180]

  • Tomeferusa abdita
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)

Trimerocephalium[180]

  • Trimerocephalium incisum
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Dimeretes[180]

  • Dimeretes oculatus
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Elasmoscolex[180]

  • Elasmoscolex hamatus
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)

Epimetrophora[180]

  • Epimetrophora recta
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Oocephalina[180]

  • Oocephalina mutilata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Platycorion[180]

  • Platycorion utroquelaesum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Griphoconion[180]

  • Griphoconion tenuistriatum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Cricolia[180]

  • Cricolia inflexa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Geinitzia[180][181]

  • Geinitzia latrunculorum
  • Geinitzia varia
  • Geinitzia superaucta
  • Geinitzia perlaesa
  • Geinitzia fasciata
  • Geinitzia dorni
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

Gryllones (Extinct clade of Basal Insects) of the family Geinitziidae.

Roemerula[181]

  • Roemerula maculosa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Dorniella[180]

  • Dorniella pulchra
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Isolated Wings

An Eoblattidan of the family Blattogryllidae.

Protomyrmeleon[180][182]

  • Protomyrmeleon grasselensis
  • Protomyrmeleon brunonis[183]
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Bascharage

Specimens

A Odonatopteran (ancient winged insects) from the family Protomyrmeleontidae.

Liassostenophlebia[180]

  • Liassostenophlebia germanica
  • Rhine-Danube canal, Km 112

Isolated Wings

A Indeterminate Family dragonfly. Dragonflies non assiganted to a concrete family due to the incomplete or fragmentary nature of its remains.

Syrrhoe[180]

  • Syrrhoe commissa
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Heterophlebia[184][180]

  • Heterophlebia buckmani
  • Holzmaden
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Siemensi)
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

A dragonfly of the family Heterophlebiidae. Heterophlebia is a relative abundant Genus, present on most of the pits of the Sachrang Formation, even on Holzmaden. Heterothemis is the second most distributed insect on the formation.

Plagiophlebia[180]

  • Plagiophlebia praecostarea
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Boreale)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Heterothemis[185]

  • Heterothemis brodiei
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Beienrode
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)
  • Hemmikon[186]
  • Bascharage

Phthitogomphus[180][187]

  • Phthitogomphus angulatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Luxguard quarry

Isolated Wings

A dragonfly of the family Liassogomphidae.

Proinogomphus[180]

  • Proinogomphus bodei
  • Proinogomphus kreuzerorum[188]
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Boreale)
  • Bascharage (SMNS collection)

Necrogomphus[180][189]

  • Necrogomphus brunswigae
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Boreale)

Elattogomphus[180]

  • Elattogomphus latus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Sphenophlebia[180][190]

  • Sphenophlebia interrupta
  • Sphenophlebia pommerana
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Kerkhofen
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

A dragonfly of the family Sphenophlebiidae. The Kerkhofen specimens of Sphenophlebia pommerana shows an almost complete dragonfly with head and abdomen as well the two pairs of wings that are partially on top of each other, consisting of fore and hind wings.[190]

Ensphingophlebia[180]

  • Ensphingophlebia undulata
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Mesoepiophlebia[187]

  • Mesoepiophlebia veronicae
  • Bascharage
  • Sanem

Myopophlebia[180][187]

  • Myopophlebia libera
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Beienrode
  • Bascharage

Isolated Wings

A dragonfly of the family Myopophlebiidae.

Paraheterophlebia[180][187]

  • Paraheterophlebia wunnenbergi
  • Paraheterophlebia marcusi
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • Bascharage

Strongylogomphus[180][187]

  • Strongylogomphus grasselianus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Bascharage

Paraplagiophlebia[187]

  • Paraplagiophlebia loneuxi
  • Bascharage

Campterophlebia[180][189]

  • Campterophlebia elegans
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Boreale)

Isolated Wings

A dragonfly of the family Campterophlebiidae. Campterophlebia is the largest Early Jurassic Insect Know, with a wings size up to 20 cm.[191]

Gallodorsettia[192]

  • Gallodorsettia kronzi
  • A13 motorway construction, south of Foetz

Henrotayia[193]

  • Henrotayia marci
  • Bascharage
  • Isolated Wings

A dragonfly of the family Henrotayiidae.

Liadoblattina[194]

  • Liadoblattina blakei
  • Holzmaden (Ansorge coll)
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

A cockroach of the family Raphidiomimidae.

Ptyctoblattina[180][194]

  • Ptyctoblattina simplicior
  • Ptyctoblattina dilatata
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Beienrode

Mesoblattina[194]

  • Mesoblattina protypa
  • Mistelgau

Isolated Wings

A cockroach of the family Mesoblattinidae.

Caloblattina[180][194]

  • Caloblattina mathildae
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf

Isolated Wings

A cockroach of the family Caloblattinidae.

Blattula[180][194]

  • Blattula langfeldti
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Isolated Wings

A cockroach of the family Blattulidae.

Schesslitziella[195][196][197]

  • Schesslitziella haupti
  • Schesslitziella integra
  • Feuermühlenberg near Scheßlitz
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Bamberg
  • Kerkhofen

Isolated Wings

A stick insect of the family Aerophasmidae. Schesslitziella is one of the described insects found more near the Bohemian Massif, where probably belong most of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna.

Chresmodella[180]

  • Chresmodella fissa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Boreale)

Liassogrylloides[180]

  • Liassogrylloides basifastigatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Isolated Wings

grasshoppers of uncertain Placement.

Prophilaenites[180]

  • Prophilaenites hondelagensis
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Protogryllus[180]

  • Protogryllus formosus
  • Protogryllus hattorfensis
  • Protogryllus praeacutus
  • Protogryllus symmetricus
  • Protogryllus multoramosus
  • Protogryllus multovenosus
  • Protogryllus laceratus
  • Protogryllus foliolum
  • Protogryllus implicatus
  • Protogryllus fissus
  • Protogryllus minor
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

A grasshopper of the family Protogryllidae.

Panorpidium[180]

  • Panorpidium media
  • Panorpidium geinitzi
  • Panorpidium minima
  • Between Sehlde & Ringelheim
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Zessin coll.)
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

A grasshopper of the family Elcanidae.

Acridiopsis[180]

  • Acridiopsis spoliata
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Siemensi)
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

A short-horned grasshopper of the family Acrididae.

Extant member of Acrididae, Acridiopsis was probably similar

Locustopsis[180]

  • Locustopsis procera
  • Locustopsis bernstorffi
  • Locustopsis maculosa
  • Locustopsis sp.
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Zessin coll.)
  • Schandelah (Krüger coll)
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

Grasshoppers of the family Locustopsidae.

Liadolocusta[180]

  • Liadolocusta ornata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Elasmoscelidium[180]

  • Elasmoscelidium rectemarginatum
  • Elasmoscelidium promotum
  • Elasmoscelidium boreale
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)

Isolated Wings

A Planthopper of uncertain placement.

Archijassus[180]

  • Archijassus heeri
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Isolated Wings

A Planthopper of the family Archijassidae.

Fulgoridium[180]

  • Fulgoridium mancomarginatum
  • Fulgoridium semiperspicuum
  • Fulgoridium cubitoramosum
  • Fulgoridium cuneiforme
  • Fulgoridium infuscatum
  • Fulgoridium paulodilatatum
  • Fulgoridium exiguemaculatum
  • Fulgoridium reduncum
  • Fulgoridium fallerslebense
  • Fulgoridium hattorfense
  • Fulgoridium gottingense
  • Fulgoridium tenuimaculatum
  • Fulgoridium incurvatum
  • Fulgoridium praeobtusum
  • Fulgoridium raromaculatum
  • Fulgoridium cubitofurcatum
  • Fulgoridium basilaesum
  • Fulgoridium hondelanum
  • Fulgoridium fabri
  • Fulgoridium hildesheimense
  • Fulgoridium symmetricum
  • Fulgoridium latius
  • Fulgoridium balticum
  • Fulgoridium posidonicum
  • Fulgoridium silvaticum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Trirneusel
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Aselfingen
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

Planthoppers of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Extant member of Fulgoridae, Fulgoridiidae genera where probably similar

Fulgoridulum[180]

  • Fulgoridulum egens
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Procerofulgoridium[180]

  • Procerofulgoridium verticillatum
  • Procerofulgoridium praefastigatum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Tetrafulgoria[180]

  • Tetrafulgoria parallelogramma
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Metafulgoridium[180]

  • Metafulgoridium praetruncatum
  • Metafulgoridium spatulaeforme
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Productofulgoridium[180]

  • Productofulgoridium filiferum
  • Productofulgoridium praeacutum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Margaroptilon[180]

  • Margaroptilon formosum
  • Margaroptilon cuneatum
  • Margaroptilon paucisinuatum
  • Margaroptilon detruncatum
  • Margaroptilon procerum
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Compactofulgoridium[180]

  • Compactofulgoridium fronterotundum
  • Compactofulgoridium obesum
  • Compactofulgoridium aries
  • Compactofulgoridium decapitatum
  • Compactofulgoridium concameratum
  • Compactofulgoridium paenintegrum
  • Schlewecke am Harz
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Procercopis[180]

  • Procercopis lacerata
  • Procercopis abscissa
  • Procercopis wunnenbergi
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

A Froghopper of the family Procercopidae.

Megalocoris[180]

  • Megalocoris laticlavus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Isolated Wings

A Shore bug (Saldidae) Of Uncertain Placement.

Eurynotis[180]

  • Eurynotis incisus
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens

A Shore bug (Saldidae) of the family Archegocimicidae.

Extant member of Saldidae, Archegocimicidae genera where probably similar

Somatocoris[180]

  • Somatocoris conservatus
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf

Corynecoris[180]

  • Corynecoris occultatus
  • Corynecoris semigranulatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Macropterocoris[180]

  • Macropterocoris obtusus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Ophthalmocoris[180]

  • Ophthalmocoris liassicus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Deraiocoris[180]

  • Deraiocoris insculptus
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Eogerridium[180]

  • Eogerridium gracile
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Pronabis[180]

  • Pronabis utroquelaesus
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Entomecoris[180]

  • Entomecoris minor
  • Entomecoris morator
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Ensphingocoris[180]

  • Ensphingocoris parvulus
  • Ensphingocoris praerotundatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Engynabis[180]

  • Engynabis tenuis
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Apicasia[180]

  • Apicasia inolata
  • Schlewecke am Harz
  • Elytrons
  • Fragmentary Specimens

Beetles of uncertain placement inside Coleoptera. Diverse beetle specimens that due to its preservation (incomplete) or its morphological traits are not assigned to any concrete family. The abundance of beetle Elytrons indicates the proximity of terrestrial habitats.

Apiopyrenides[180]

  • Apiopyrenides trigeminus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Auchenophorites[180]

  • Auchenophorites sculpturatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Brachytrachelites[180]

  • Brachytrachelites striatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Diatrypamene[180]

  • Diachoristes collinus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Diatrypamene[180]

  • Diatrypamene angulocollis
  • Diatrypamene excavata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Dicyphelus[180]

  • Dicyphelus concameratus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Dicyphelus[180]

  • Diphymation corrosum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Diplothece[180]

  • Diplothece scissa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Entomocantharus[180]

  • Entomocantharus convexus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Episcepes[180]

  • Episcepes rotundatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Eurynotellus[180]

  • Eurynotellus brevicollis
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Eurysphinctus[180]

  • Eurysphinctus latesulcatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Eusarcantarus[180]

  • Eusarcantarus compactus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Gastrodelus[180]

  • Gastrodelus decapitatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Laimocenos[180]

  • Laimocenos striatogranulatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Leptomites[180]

  • Leptomites procerus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Loxocamarotus[180]

  • Loxocamarotus virgatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Macrotrachelites[180]

  • Macrotrachelites longus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Melanocantharis[180]

  • Melanocantharis bicornuta
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Mesotylites[180]

  • Mesotylites marginatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Ooidellus[180]

  • Ooidellus denudatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Ooperiglyptus[180]

  • Ooperiglyptus contractus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Opiselleipon[180]

  • Opiselleipon gravis
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Oxycephalites[180]

  • Oxycephalites curculioides
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Parnosoma[180]

  • Parnosoma detectum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Proheuristes[180]

  • Proheuristes striatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Sphaericites[180]

  • Sphaericites concameratus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Tetragonides[180]

  • Tetragonides magnus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Trichelepturgetes[180]

  • Trichelepturgetes procerus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Trochmalus[180]

  • Trochmalus compressus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Pholipheron[180]

  • Pholipheron articulatus
  • Pholipheron armatus
  • Pholipheron ovatus
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Grasselites[180]

  • Grasselites pusillus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Omogongylus[180]

  • Omogongylus ovatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Sideriosemion[180]

  • Sideriosemion punctolineatum
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Metanastes[180]

  • Metanastes denudatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Aptilotitus[180]

  • Aptilotitus capitecarens
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Rhomaleus[180]

  • Rhomaleus ornatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Leptosolenophorus[180]

  • Leptosolenophorus brevicollis
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Gastroratus[180]

  • Gastroratus dispertitus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Brachylaimon[180]

  • Brachylaimon striatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Pleuralocista[180]

  • Pleuralocista insculpta
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Mesoncus[180]

  • Mesoncus striatulus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Palaeotrachys[180]

  • Palaeotrachys laticollis
  • Schlewecke am Harz

Hydroicetes[180]

  • Hydroicetes affictus
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Boreale)

Scalopoides[180]

  • Scalopoides inscissus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Peridosoma[180]

  • Peridosoma praecisum
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Syntomopterus[180]

  • Syntomopterus latus
  • Beienrode

Sphaerocantharis[180]

  • Sphaerocantharis striata
  • Sphaerocantharis defossa
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Beienrode

Rhysopsalis[180]

  • Rhysopsalis distorta
  • Beienrode

Diplocelides[180]

  • Diplocelides minutus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Tripsalis[180]

  • Tripsalis praecisa
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Trochiscites[180]

  • Trochiscites capitapertus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Zetemenos[180]

  • Zetemenos sexlineatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)

Amphoxyne[180]

  • Amphoxyne lineata
  • Amphoxyne minuta
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)

Tolype[180]

  • Tolype rotundata
  • Beienrode

Prosynactus[180]

  • Prosynactus gracilis
  • Prosynactus scissus
  • Prosynactus procerus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Beienrode
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)
  • Elytrons

False Ground Beetles of the family Trachypachidae.

Extant member of Trachypachidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Coreoeicos[180]

  • Coreoeicos dilatatus
  • Beienrode

Aposphinctus[180]

  • Aposphinctus conservatus
  • Aposphinctus striatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Beienrode
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Elytrons

A Water Scavenger Beetle of the family Hydrophilidae.

Extant member of Hydrophilidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Amblycephalonius[180]

  • Amblycephalonius tenuistriatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Elytrons

Beetles of the family Coptoclavidae.

Ooperioristus[180]

  • Ooperioristus applanatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Camaricopterus[180]

  • Camaricopterus ovalis
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Elytrons

A Beetle of the family Phoroschizidae.

Megachorites[180]

  • Megachorites brevicollis
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Volkmarsdorf, Braunschweig

Elytrons

A Giant Beetle. It is among the largest found on all the Jurassic.

Geisfeldiella[198]

  • Geisfeldiella benkerti
  • Bamberg

Isolated Wings

Mayfly of the family Protereismatidae.

Protobittacus[180]

  • Protobittacus desacuminatus
  • Protobittacus arculatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Isolated Wings

Hanginflies of the family Bittacidae.

Extant member of Bittacidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Parabittacus[180]

  • Parabittacus lingula
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Boreale)

Neorthophlebia[180]

  • Neorthophlebia maculipennis
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Pleobittacus[180]

  • Pleobittacus retroflexus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Haplobittacus[180]

  • Haplobittacus parvus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Mesobittacus[180]

  • Mesobittacus clavaeformis
  • Mesobittacus minutus
  • Mesobittacus marginelaesus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Beienrode, Fletchtorf

Orthophlebia[180]

  • Orthophlebia latipennisimilis
  • Orthophlebia fallerslebensis
  • Orthophlebia diminuta
  • Orthophlebia brunsvicensis
  • Orthophlebia speciosa
  • Orthophlebia compacta
  • Orthophlebia elongata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Große Kley, Mörse

Isolated Wings

Scorpionflies of the family Orthophlebiidae.

Reprehensa[180]

  • Reprehensa acuminata
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Parorthophlebia[180]

  • Parorthophlebia grasselensis
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Mesopanorpa[180]

  • Mesopanorpa obtusa
  • Mesopanorpa formosa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Beienrode

Protorthophlebia[180]

  • Protorthophlebia cuneata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

Scorpionflies of the family Protorthophlebiidae.

Pseudopolycentropus[180]

  • Pseudopolycentropus obtusus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Isolated Wings

Scorpionflies of the family Pseudopolycentropodidae.

Homoeoptychopteris[180]

  • Homoeoptychopteris incerta
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Nymphs?
  • Isolated Wings
  • Complete Specimens

Flies Of Uncertain Placement. Some of the Specimens where listed as Nymphs but are now tougth to be wingless Dipterans

Liassonympha[180]

  • Liassonympha compacta
  • Liassonympha glans
  • Liassonympha guttula
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Rhopaloscolex[180]

  • Rhopaloscolex brevis
  • Rhopaloscolex longus
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Empidocampe[180]

  • Empidocampe retrocrassata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Amianta[180]

  • Amianta eurycephala
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Culiciscolex[180]

  • Culiciscolex gibberatus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Bodephora[180]

  • Bodephora arucaeformis
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Apistogrypotes[180]

  • Apistogrypotes inflexa
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Amphipromeca[180]

  • Amphipromeca acuta
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Cyrtomides[180]

  • Cyrtomides maculatus
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)

Sphallonymphites[180]

  • Sphallonymphites decurtatus
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)

Propexis[180]

  • Propexis incerta
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Amblylexis[180]

  • Amblylexis gibberata
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Ellipibodus[180]

  • Ellipibodus laesa
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Archipleciomima[199]

  • Archipleciomima germanica
  • Große Kley, Mörse

Protoplecia[180]

  • Protoplecia hattorfensis
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Isolated Wings

A Fly of the family Protopleciidae.

Mesorhyphus[199]

  • Mesorhyphus ulrichi
  • Große Kley, Mörse

Isolated Wings

A Wood Gnat of the family Anisopodidae.

Extant member of Anisopodidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Hondelagia[180]

  • Hondelagia reticulata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

A Snakefly of the family Priscaenigmatidae.

Metaraphidia[200]

  • Metaraphidia vahldieki
  • Schandelah (Vahldiek coll)

Isolated Wings

A Snakefly of the family Metaraphidiidae.

Heterorhyphus[180]

  • Heterorhyphus analivarius
  • Heterorhyphus anomalus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

A Fly of the family Heterorhyphidae.

Protorhyphus[180]

  • Protorhyphus ovisimilis
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

A Fly of the family Protorhyphidae.

Metatrichopteridium[201]

  • Metatrichopteridium confusum
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)

Isolated Wings

A Fly of the family Hennigmatidae. It represents the oldest know genus of this primitive family.

Praemacrochile[180]

  • Praemacrochile decipiens
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Zessin coll.)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)

Isolated Wings

A primitive Crane fly of the family Tanyderidae. Extant members of the family are nectar feeder while extinct members cannot be determined precisely.[202]

Extant member of Tanyderidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Nannotanyderus[196][203]

  • Nannotanyderus krzeminskii
  • Kerkhofen

Isolated Wings

Architipula[180]

  • Architipula bodeisimilis
  • Architipula ptychopteraeformis
  • Architipula formosa
  • Architipula basiminuta
  • Architipula robusta
  • Architipula clara
  • Architipula bodei
  • Architipula brunsvicensis
  • Architipula analiramosa
  • Architipula aequabilis
  • Architipula fragmentosa
  • Architipula veris
  • Architipula latealata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)
  • Große Kley, Mörse

Isolated Wings

A Crane fly of the family Limoniidae.

Extant member of Limoniidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Ozotipula[180]

  • Ozotipula tarda
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Haplotipula[180]

  • Haplotipula majalis
  • Haplotipula cubitoramosa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Leptotipuloides[180]

  • Leptotipuloides fastigata
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Mikrotipula[180]

  • Mikrotipula dixaeformis
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)

Eoptychoptera[196][204][205]

  • Eoptychoptera simplex
  • Eoptychoptera eximia
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Große Kley, Mörse
  • Kerkhofen

Isolated Wings

A Phantom Crane fly of the family Eoptychopterinae.

Necrotaulius[196][180][179][206]

  • Necrotaulius parvulus
  • Necrotaulius obtusior
  • Holzmaden
  • Kerkhofen
  • Trirneusel
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

An Amphiesmenopteran of the family Necrotauliidae. The ovipositor, like terminalia of female N. parvulus, indicate that these insects laid their eggs rather in soil than in water

Micropterygidae[206]

  • Micropterygidae Indeterminate
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Ansorge coll.)
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

Lepidopterans probably related with the family Micropterygidae. Compared with their record on Grimmen, on Lower Saxony Lepidopterans are rather scarce and bad preserved.

Extant member of Micropterygidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Glottopteryx[180][207]

  • Glottopteryx multivenosa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

A Lacewing of uncertain placement.

Prohemerobius[180][207]

  • Prohemerobius prodromus
  • Prohemerobius quatuorpictus
  • Prohemerobius septemvirgatus
  • Parhemerobius multostriatus
  • Prohemerobius mediolatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben (Elegans)
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Isolated Wings

A Lacewing of the family Prohemerobiidae.

Parhemerobius[180]

  • Parhemerobius dilatatus
  • Parhemerobius bodei
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (PIN Collection 4503)

Paractinophlebia[207]

  • Paractinophlebia grasselensis
  • Paractinophlebia tenuis
  • Paractinophlebia acuta
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Grassel, Braunschweig (Boreale)

Actinophlebia[207]

  • Actinophlebia abscissa
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Stenoteleuta[207]

  • Stenoteleuta lingulaeformis
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Actinoptilon[207]

  • Actinoptilon violatum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

A Silky Lacewing of the family Psychopsidae.

Panfilovia[180]

  • Panfilovia fasciata
  • Hondelange
  • Schandelah
  • Kerkhofen

Isolated Wings

A Lacewing of the family Panfiloviidae. A large genus with wings around 50 mm.

Epipanfilovia[180]

  • Epipanfilovia fasciata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Liassopsychops[180][208]

  • Liassopsychops curvata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Grassel, Braunschweig
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig
  • Kerkhofen

Isolated Wings

A Giant Lacewing (Kalligrammatidae) of the subfamily Liassopsychopinae and Kallihemerobiinae. It is one of the oldest known representatives of the Giant pollinator lacewings. The genus Liassopsychops was previously referred to Psychopsidae. Another specimen related, Specimen Hi 21 is regarded here as Kalligrammatidae incertae sedis. This along the occurrence of two distantly-related genera of Kalligrammatidae in the lower Toarcian is unexpected.[208] The Toarcian Kalligrammatidae lived in warm and dry conditions, as proven by its recovery from the zone of Hondelange but absence on Grimmen and other northern locations. Both genera where among the largest insects found on all the formation.[208]

Ophtalmogramma[208]

  • Ophtalmogramma klopschari
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig

Mesopsychopsis[207]

  • Mesopsychopsis liasina
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

A lance Lacewing of the family Osmylopsychopidae.

Tetanoptilon[180]

  • Tetanoptilon brunsvicense
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig (Boreale Zone)

Isolated Wings

Lance Lacewings of the family Osmylidae. Tetanoptilon is the largest non-Kalligrammatidae lacewing of the Jurassic, with a forewings length up to 470 mm and a wingspan estimated at 11 cm. Like the Kalligrammatids, this genus is limited to the southern zones, asbsent in northern deposits.[208]

Extant member of Osmylidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Mesosmylina[207]

  • Mesosmylina exornata
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Protoaristenymphes[209]

  • Protoaristenymphes bascharagensis
  • Bascharage

Isolated Wings

A lance Lacewing of the family Mesochrysopidae.

Liassocicada[180][210][196]

  • Liassocicada mueckei
  • Liassocicada antecedens
  • Rhine-Danube canal, Km 112
  • Beienrode

Isolated Wings

A Hairy Cicada of the family Tettigarctidae.

Extant member of Tettigarctidae, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Liassotettigarcta[196]

  • Liassotettigarcta mueckei
  • Kerkhofen

Adelocoris[180]

  • Adelocoris ambiguus
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Isolated Wings

Pentatomomorphans of the family Pachymeridiidae. Are related with the family Lygaeoidea, being possible ancestral forms of this last one.

Extant member of Lygaeoidea, Posidonia genera where probably similar

Stiphroschema[180]

  • Stiphroschema longealatum
  • Grassel, Braunschweig

Engerrophorus[180]

  • Engerrophorus nitidus
  • Schandelah, nr Braunschweig (Bode coll.)

Euraspidium[180]

  • Euraspidium granulosum
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Ischnocoris[180]

  • Ischnocoris bitoratus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Mesomphalocoris[180]

  • Mesomphalocoris obtusus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Trachycoris[180]

  • Trachycoris abbreviatus
  • Hondelage, Braunschweig

Xulsigia[211]

  • Xulsigia karetsa
  • Bommelscheier industrial area

Isolated Wings

A Sternorrhynchan of the family Pincombeomorpha. It is curious for its peculiar venation on its wings. Has been proposed its own family, Xulsigiidae.

Indutionomarus[212]

  • Indutionomarus treveriorum
  • Bommelscheier industrial area

Isolated Wings

A Coleorrhynchan of the family Progonocimicidae.

Xyelula[213]

  • Xyelula benderi
  • Misltelgau
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (PIN Collection 4779)

Isolated Wings

A Pseudo-Wasp of the family Sepulcidae.

Thilopterus[213]

  • Thilopterus lampei
  • Schandelah (Lampe coll)

Isolated Wings

A Wasp of the family Ephialtitidae.

Symphytopterus[214]

  • Symphytopterus liasinus
  • Schandelah, near Braunschweig (Zessin coll.)

Liadobracona[200]

  • Liadobracona raduhna
  • Schandelah (Vahldiek coll)

Pseudoxyelocerus[215]

  • Pseudoxyelocerus bascharagensis
  • Bascharage

Isolated Wings

A Wood Wasp of the family Xyelotomidae.

Echinodermata[edit]

Echinoderm debris is pretty abundant on the shale-free Unken and Salzburg members, including Crinoid skeleton elements, also that of the Ophiurida; the Echinoids take their place, where really blossomed at that time. That's why Pedicellaria are observed very often.[20]

Asterozoa[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Inexpectacantha[216]

  • Inexpectacantha acrobatica
  • Inexpectacantha ullmanni
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Euryophiurida.

Thanataster[216]

  • Thanataster desdemonia
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiomusina.

Barbaraster[216]

  • Barbaraster colbachi
  • Barbaraster muenzbergerae
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiomusina.

Ophiomusa[216]

  • Ophiomusa perezi
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiomusaidae.

Ophiogojira[216]

  • Ophiogojira andreui
  • Ophiogojira aliorbis
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiomusaidae.

Palaeocoma[216]

  • Palaeocoma kortei
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiopyrgidae.

Ophiotardis[216]

  • Ophiotardis tennanti
  • Ophiotardis astonensis
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange
  • Schömberg

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiopyrgidae.

Ophiomisidium[216]

  • Ophiomisidium pratchettae
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Astrophiuridae.

Lapidaster[216]

  • Lapidaster fasciatus
  • Lapidaster hougardae
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophioscolecidae.

Ophiohelus[216]

  • Ophiohelus sp. nov.
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiohelidae.

Ophiocopa[216]

  • Ophiocopa sp. nov.
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiotomidae.

Dermocoma[216]

  • Dermocoma sp.
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of incertade sedis family on the order Ophiodermatina.

Dermacantha[216]

  • Dermacantha reolidi
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of incertade sedis family on the order Ophionereididae.

Ophiopholis[217]

  • Ophiopholis trispinosa
  • Schömberg

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiactidae. Very rare on the layers.

Modern Specimen

Mesophiomusium[218][217]

  • Mesophiomusium scabrum
  • Schömberg

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiolepididae.

Enakomusium[219]

  • Enakomusium geisingense
  • Bachhausen
  • Articulated Specimens

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiolepididae.

Holotype specimens from the Sachrang Formation

Ophiarachna[217]

  • Ophiarachna liasica
  • Schömberg

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiacanthida. Very Common, related to non anoxic water sedimentation.

Sinosura[217][220]

  • Sinosura brodiei
  • Sinosura cf. brodiei
  • Sinosura dieschbourgae
  • Ohmden
  • Schömberg
  • Neischmelz near Dudelange
  • Articulated Specimens
  • Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophioleucidae. The Mostly know Arterozoan from the formation, including a single articulated specimen.

Fossil Specimen

?Ophiocten[217]

  • Ophiocten seeweni
  • Schömberg

Isolated Arm Plates

An Ophiuridan of the family Ophiuridae. Its relationships haven't been confirmed and it is based on very fragmentary remains.

?Pentasteria[217]

  • Pentasteria sp.
  • Banz

Single specimen

An Asteroidean of the family Astropectinidae. Only a relatively complete specimen is known from Banz Abbey.

Pentasteria sp. from Banz

Echinoidea[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Cidaris[221]

  • Cidaris sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Altforf
  • Banz

Specimens

A sea urchin of the family Cidaridae. Common on several layers. Cidaris is genus that still alive today. A bottom dweller, is commonly found associated with Belemnnite fossils, probably due to eating its carcasses.

Modern Specimen

Diademopsis[56][7]

  • Diademopsis crinifera
  • Diademopsis aequituberculata
  • Diademopsis behtensis
  • Diademopsis bowerbanki
  • Chalhac
  • Häufig in Obereggenen
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange

Specimens

A sea urchin of the family Pedinidae. It is the most common sea urchin in the formation, present on all the levels with specimens of various sizes. Vinculated to sea bottom sediments, before Gasteropods and Bivalves, Diademospsis was the third major colonizer of the bottom, in between anoxic changes.

Specimens from Holzmaden

Hemipedina[56]

  • Hemipedina sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Specimens

A sea urchin of the family Pedinidae

Eodiadema[222][223]

  • Eodiadema minutum
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Specimens

A sea urchin of the family Diadematidae

Specimens from Holzmaden

Pseudodiadema[56]

  • Pseudodiadema posidoniae
  • Pseudodiadema jurensis
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Specimens

A sea urchin of the family Pseudodiadematidae

Procidaris[7]

  • Procidaris edwardsi
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhaussen
  • Banz

Specimens

A sea urchin of the family Miocidaridae

Holothuroidea[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Theelia[56]

  • Theelia heptalampra
  • Theelia florealis
  • Achdorf
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Weilheim/Teck
  • Göppingen und Reichenbach
  • Bewegtwasserfazi
  • Obereggenen

Specimens

A sea cucumber of the family Chiridotidae. It is the only major genus of Sea Cucumbers reported locally on the Posidonienschiefer. It was identified originally as Chirodonta mesoliasicus and Chirodonta heptalmorpha. Represents a possible cosmopolitan holothurian that occupied all three types of deep-sea ecosystems as an organic-enrichment opportunist.

Achistrum[5]

  • Achistrum issleri
  • Achdorf
  • Aselfingen
  • Weilheim/Teck
  • Göppingen und Reichenbach
  • Bewegtwasserfazi
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau

Specimens

A sea cucumber of the family Achistridae inside Apodida. The "fishhooks" from this genus are only rarely found in the tenuicostatum zone

Specimen

Stichopites[5]

  • Stichopites mortenseni
  • Achdorf
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Heiningen
  • Weilheim/Teck
  • Göppingen und Reichenbach
  • Bewegtwasserfazi
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau

Specimens

A sea cucumber of the family Stichopitidae. Occurs sporadically in non-bituminous sediments of the upper bifrons zone

Mortensenites[5]

  • Mortensenites liasicus
  • Achdorf
  • Aselfingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Heiningen
  • Weilheim/Teck
  • Göppingen und Reichenbach
  • Obereggenen im Breisgau

Specimens

A sea cucumber of the family Calclamnidae inside Dendrochirotida. A Genus whose identification was originally complex.

Crinoidea[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Praetetracrinus[224]

  • Praetetracrinus kutscheri
  • Schömberg

Isolated Stems

A Crinoidean of the family Plicatocrinidae.

Procomaster[217]

  • Procomaster pentadactylus
  • Aichelberg

Isolated Stems

A Crinoidean of the family Isocrinida.

Isocrinus[225]

  • Isocrinus basaltiformis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Maurach

Isolated Stems

Type genus of Crinoidean of the family Isocrinida.

Close view of one specimen
Single specimen

Seirocrinus[55]

  • Seirocrinus subangularis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Maurach
  • Complete Specimens
  • Megaraft Colonies with +thousand associated specimens
  • Isolated Stemns

The largest known Crinoidean, from the family Pentacrinitidae. Among the tallest animals of its period, Seirocrinus is also one of the most famous fossils from the Sachrang Formation. It consists of fossils of colonies along large wood trunks, with specimens up to 14 m long, with the largest specimen reaching 26 m long,[226] what makes it among the tallest know Mesozoic organisms, one of the largest invertebrates know on the fossil record and one of the tallest know animals. It was an open ocean organism that lived in rafting woods, probably filtering food and serving as a refuge for other animals, such as ammonites.[227] The crinoids had a large colonization process, based on the status of the fossil wood found.[228][229] The large rafts were the home for a high variety of marine organisms, such as Balanoideans, Ammonites and other. It has been estimated that without the presence of modern raft wood predators (that appeared on the Bathonian) those rafts can last up to 5 years, being that the main reason the crinoids were able to reach such huge sizes. The large rafts were also probably essential to distribute animals along the Early Jurassic Seas.[230]

Close view of one specimen
Single specimen

Pentacrinites[56][231]

  • Pentacrinites fossilis
  • Pentacrinites briareus
  • Pentacrinites franconicus
  • Pentacrinites dichotomus
  • Pentacrinites quenstedti[232]
  • Chalhac
  • Häufig in Obereggenen
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Complete Specimens
  • Megaraft Colonies with +thousand associated specimens
  • Isolated Stems

Type genus of Crinoidean from the family Pentacrinitidae. Like Seirocrinus, Pentacrinites formed colonies on rafting wood, getting a different role than bigger crinoid and appearing on the first stages of the decomposition of the rafting wood. Was a smaller genus, with specimens of no more than 1 meter long, usually measuring 40–70 cm.

Close view of one specimen
Reconstruction

Vertebrata[edit]

Fishes[edit]

Chondrichthyes[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Synechodus[233]

  • Synechodus egertoni
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Teeth

Thype shark of the family Synechodontiformes.

Palidiplospinax[234]

  • Palidiplospinax smithwoodwardi
  • Holzmaden

Articulated vertebral column, girdles, both fin spines and clasper organ

A member of the family Palaeospinacidae.

Palaeospinax[235]

  • Palaeospinax priscus
  • Palaeospinax egertoni
  • Holzmaden

Anterior part of body with basicranium, palatoquadrates, Meckel's cartilage, ceratohyals, epihyals, teeth, traces of the branchial arches and the anterior finspine

Type member of the family Palaeospinacidae.

Crassodus[236]

  • Crassodus reifi
  • Dotternhausen

Meckelian Cartilages, Jaws, teeth, Palatoquadrates, placoid scales and dearticualted parts of the labial, hyoid and branchial skeleton.

A shark of the family Hybodontidae. The Type specimen belongs to a large hybodontid, with an estimated total length of up to 3 m.[236] It has a Meckelian Cartilage more robust than Hybodus hauffianus and an acrodontine dentition, as seen on Bdellodus.[236] Probably is related with "Hybodus" delabechei, very likely a junior synonym of Crassodus.[236]

Bdellodus[237]

  • Bdellodus bollensis
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Teeth.

A shark of the family Hybodontidae.

Hybodus[56][238][239]

  • Hybodus hauffianus
  • Hybodus delabechei
  • Hybodus pyramidalis
  • Hybodus reticulatus
  • Hybodus sp.
  • Banz
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dormettingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Aichelberg
  • Kerkhofen
  • Hondelange
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Altdorf
  • Articulated cranial fragment preserving the dentition, lower jaw, cephalic spines, palatoquadrate
  • SMNS 10062 - a complete skeleton with belemnites in the gastric mass
  • SMNS 15150 - a complete skeleton with the dentition
  • SMNS 80594 - (in three parts) a small cranial fragment with at least 12 associated teeth
  • SMNS 54048 - a disarticulated anterior part of a skeleton with well preserved teeth
  • SMNS 51949 - a virtually complete specimen
  • SMNS 52460 - a virtually complete skeleton with dentition
  • SMNS 51136 - a partial anterior skeleton with a single tooth exposed in labial view
  • Unnumbered Partial skull and articulated dentition
  • BMNH P.5880 - a disarticulated anterior part of a skeleton
  • SMNS 10062 - isolated parts of a skull
  • SMNS 8663 - a partial skeleton
  • SMNS 80595 - dorsal fin spine and scapulocoracoids plus associated skin and other cartilages
  • SMNS 51 135 - the partial skeleton of a juvenile
  • SMNS 58749 - virtually complete skeleton
  • SMNS 58748 - a fragment of a hyomandibula
  • SMNS 52222 - a partial skeleton with both dorsal fin spines
  • SMNS 50804 - a partial skeleton with both dorsal fin spines
  • Unnumbered Complete wall mounted specimen in left lateral view
  • Isolated Teeth
  • Isolated Fin spines

Type genus of the family Hybodontidae. It is the most abundant shark on the layers of the Sachrang Formation, with some of the best preserved specimens of the genus known. It was probably an open ocean hunter, with small horns over the eyes. With a size around 2 m, it was also one of the largest representatives of the Chondrichthyes on the formation.[240][241]

Hybodus Holzmaden specimen, among the best preserved of the genus, with Belemmnites inside.
Hybodus Another Holzmaden specimen

Acrodus[56]

  • Acrodus nobilis
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Altdorf
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Teeth

Type genus of the family Acrodontidae.

Pseudonotidanus[242]
  • Pseudonotidanus politus
  • Holzmaden
  • Partial, articulated specimen

A shark of the family Hexanchiformes. It was identified originally as a member of the genus Palaeospinax.

Bathytheristes[243]

  • Bathytheristes gracilis
  • Ohmden
  • Upper ("palatine") toothplate

A member of Callorhynchidae inside Chimaeriformes. Similar to Callorhinchus, among the oldest known of its type. It the first Modern lineage Chimaeras from the Toarcian.

Callorhinchus milii can be the closest relative of Bathytheristes

Acanthorhina[244]

  • Acanthorhina jaekeli
  • Holzmaden

Head and postcranial remains

A member of Myriacanthidae inside Chimaeriformes. An aberrant Chimaera with an extrange elongated nose and horns over the skull.

Metopacanthus[245][246]

  • Metopacanthus bollensis
  • Metopacanthus sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Isolated Dorsal Fin Spine
  • Chondrocranium, partial fin spine and length of vertebral column

A member of Myriacanthidae inside Chimaeriformes. An aberrant Chimaera with a second jaw-like structure on its head.

Recurvacanthus[247]

  • Recurvacanthus uniserialis
  • Holzmaden

Isolated Fin Spine

A member of Myriacanthidae inside Chimaeriformes.

Batoidea[248]

  • Batoidea Indeterminate
  • Holzmaden

SMNS 52666, Incomplete Specimen

A possible member of Rajidae inside Batoidea. It was originally identified as a member of Galeiformes. This Genus was found to be sister taxa to the extant genus Raja. It is probably the oldest described pelagic Rajiform. It wears an enlogated rostrum.

Actinopterygii[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Eomesodon[5]

  • Eomesodon fabrei
  • Nancy

Single left prearticular

A member of Pycnodontiformes. Identified originally as Gyrodus fabrei, it was found to be part of the genus Eomesodon. It is present in non-bituminous layers, probably linked to the sponge corals found near the vosges massif.

Example of Eomesodon specimen

Holzmadenfuro[249]

  • Holzmadenfuro rebmanni
  • Holzmaden

Complete Specimen

First ganoin-scaled Ophiopsiformes (Halecomorphi) from the Posidonienschiefer. The type specimen measures 51 cm, and has elongated and serrated body scales before the dorsal fin and tiny ganoid scales after it.[249]

Ohmdenfuro[249]

  • Ohmdenfuro bodmani
  • Ohmden

Nearly complete specimen with broken skull

First ganoin-scaled Ophiopsiformes (Halecomorphi) from the Posidonienschiefer. Elongated morphology, with a length of ~39 cm, covered by smooth, massive ganoin scales.[249]

Heterolepidotus[39]

  • Heterolepidotus sp.
  • Schandelah
  • Isolated Teeth
  • Isolated Scales
  • Isolated Jaws

A member of the family Furidae inside Ionoscopiformes

Caturus[250]

  • Caturus smithwoodwardi
  • Holzmaden
  • Würtenmberg

Various Complete and nearly complete Specimens

Type genus of the family Caturidae inside Amiiformes

Lycodus[56]

  • Lycodus gigas
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Isolated Skull Bones

A possible representative of the family Saurichthyidae. Is based on rather fragmentary specimens.

Saurorhynchus[251]

  • Saurorhynchus hauffi
  • Saurorhynchus brevirostris
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Maurach
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Skull Bones
  • Isolated Fin Spines
  • Isolated Teeth

The youngest representative of the family Saurichthyidae, known for its large jaws, similar to modern Belonidae.

Ptycholepis[252][253]

  • Ptycholepis bollensis
  • Ptycholepis barrati
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skull Bones

Type genus of the family Ptycholepididae inside Ptycholepiformes. It is one of the youngest representatives of its family.

Pholidophorus

  • Pholidophorus germanicus
  • Pholidophorus hartmanni
  • Pholidophorus bechei
  • Pholidophorus limbatus
  • Pholidophorus sp.
  • Chalhac
  • Häufig in Obereggenen
  • Aselfingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Mössingen
  • Gomaringen
  • Reutlingen
  • Ohmenhausen
  • Aselfingen
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Banz
  • Irlbach
  • Kerkhofen
  • Heiningen
  • Reichenbach
  • Wasseralfingen
  • Unterstürmig
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skull Bones

A member of the family Pholidophoridae. Is among the most abundant fishes on the late liassic of Europe, present on the sub-Mediterranean boreal, with specimens of several sizes.

Leptolepis[254]

  • Leptolepis jaegeri
  • Leptolepis antisiodorensis
  • Leptolepis coryphaenoides
  • Leptolepis bronni
  • Leptolepis normandica
  • Leptolepis sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Oedhof
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Aalen
  • Hemmikon
  • Nancy
  • Maurach
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skull Bones

A member of the family Leptolepididae. The most common member of its family, Leptolepis is commonly associated with crustaceans and small marine invertebrates, probably the main constituents of its diet. One on the most predated vertebrates on the formation, with abundance of larger fishes and reptiles with specimens associated.

Longileptolepis[255][256]

  • Longileptolepis wiedenrothi
  • SW of Braunschweig

MB. f.7612, nearly complete specimen.

A member of the family Leptolepididae. Was identified as Paraleptolepis, but this name is currently occupied by a Japanese fish genus of Early Cretaceous age.[256] It differs from Leptolepis coryphaenoides in the presence of a few autapomorphies and also in the retention of several primitive features not present on the last one.[255] Small genus, of about 14 cm length.[255]

Euthynotus[257]

  • Euthynotus incognitus
  • Euthynotus cf.incognitus
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmnetary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skull Bones

A member of the family Pachycormidae.

Saurostomus[258]

  • Saurostomus esocinus
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions

A member of the family Pachycormidae. Large representative of the family, reaching sizes up to 2.3 m.

Pachycormus[259][260]

  • Pachycormus macropterus
  • Pachycormus bollensis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Skin Impressions

Type member of the family Pachycormidae. Large representative of its family, with a size up to 1.5 m. One specimen preserved the alimentary canal, with the stomach filled by numerous hooklets that can be referred to the coleoid cephalopod Phragmoteuthis, implying a diet of cephalopods for this genus.[261]

Sauropsis[262][263]

  • Sauropsis latus
  • Sauropsis veruinalis[250]
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Skin Impressions

A large member of the family Pachycormidae.

Ohmdenia[264]
  • Ohmdenia multidentata
  • Ohmden

Single desarticulated Specimen

A large member of the family Pachycormidae, with a length of up to 2.5–3 m and an estimated weight over 200 kg.[264][265] Previously considered a junior synonym of Pachycormus, although the cranial bones suggest a different genus. Among the largest fish found on the formation, it is a key fossil in the transition to large filter feeding fishes.[265] Being coeval with another basal Pachycormiformes show the specialization of the group during the late lower jurassic.[265] Ohmdenia is the sister taxa to group of suspension-feeding Giant Middle-Late Jurassic Fishes (Including the famous Leedsichthys), showing alterations on its dental structure, with jaw indicates a diet based on soft body prey.[265] Its evolutionary significance is comparable to that of the genus Aetiocetus for the modern Baleen whale.[265]

Dapedium[266]

  • Dapedium pholidotum[267]
  • Dapedium punctatus
  • Dapedium caelatus
  • Dapedium stollorum[268]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Maurach
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Desarticulated Specimens
  • Speinballen Specimen
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Scales
  • Isolated Skull Bones
  • Isolated Fin Spines
  • Isolated Teeth

A deep-bodied neopterygian, the type genus of the family Dapediidae. Unpublished material indicates the presence of one or even two more still undescribed species of Dapedium in the Lower Toarcian.[267]

Lepidotes[269]

  • Lepidotes elvensis
  • Lepidotes gigas
  • Lepidotes sp.
  • Banz
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skull Bones

A common member of the Lepisosteiformes.

Tetragonolepis[270]

  • Tetragonolepis drosera
  • Tetragonolepis semicincta
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Aichelberg
  • Schandelah
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Maurach
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skull Bones

A common member of the Semionotidae.

Strongylosteus[271][272]
  • Strongylosteus hindenburgi
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Organ Traces?

A large member of the Chondrosteidae and the largest non-reptilian marine vertebrate of the Sachrang Formation, with a size between 3 and 4.5 m, and an estimated weight over 800 kg to 1 tonne.[271] Has been suggested as a junior synonym of Chrondrosteus, although there haven't been any new revision about the status of the genus. It is related to modern sturgeons, but with a different kind of mouth than common species, made for hunting prey in open waters, with a strong lower jaw, similar to modern beluga sturgeons.[273]

Sarcopterygii[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Trachymetopon[274][275]

  • Trachymetopon liasicum
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Fragmentary Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Organ Traces
  • Isolated Skull Bones

A large coelacanth of the family Mawsoniidae, related to the genera Axelrodichthys, Chinlea, Diplurus and the type, Mawsonia.[275] The largest specimen known from the Sachrang Formation is GPIT.OS.770 (Holotype), with a length over 1.6 m.[274] The specimen presents an ossified lung inside the abdominal cavity, and most of the body, being also one of the most complete coelacanths of the Jurassic found.[274][275] Some recent discoveries from the Middle Jurassic show specimens of up to 3.5 m long.[276] Trachymetopon precedes the presence of the family Mawsoniidae in Europe by about 120 Ma and the northernmost occurrence of a member of the group, implying an extensive geographical range during the Early Jurassic.[275] Due to the specimens being found on pelagic deposits suggest that probably was an open ocean swimmer.[274][275]

Trachymetopon GPIT.OS.770

Amniota[edit]

Ichthyosauria[edit]

Inderminate specimens are known.[7]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Temnodontosaurus[277][278]

  • Temnodontosaurus trigonodon
  • Temnodontosaurus burgundiae
  • Temnodontosaurus "sp. A"
  • Temnodontosaurus "sp. B"
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Fin Phalanges
  • Isolated Teeth

Type genus of the family Temnodontosauridae. A large macroraptorial ichthyosaur, apex predator of its environment. It ranges between 9 and the 12 m, being one of the largest known ichthyosaurs, characterized by skulls and jaws over 1 m in length, with the largest being over 1.9 m long. It has been found with fragments of young icthyosaur in his stomach.[279] Of 39 specimens of Temnodontosaurus studied, a 21% (8 Specimens) show pathologies along their body, with several injuries post traumatic, probably done by other marine reptiles.[280]

Temnodontosaurus hunting
Temnodontosaurus trigonodon specimen.

Stenopterygius[281][282][283][284]

  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schlierbach
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Beienrode
  • Schandelah
  • Aichelberg
  • Staffelstein
  • Pferdsfeld
  • Oedhof
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Gomaringen
  • Dotternhausen
  • Dörnten
  • Langenbrücken
  • Bascharange
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Complete Specimens Giving Birth
  • Skin Impressions
  • Coloration Impressions
  • Associated Mother-Embryo Specimens
  • Mass Mortality Assemblages
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Fin Phalanges
  • Isolated Teeth[281][282][283][284]

Type genus of the family Stenopterygiidae. A common Toarcian ichthyosaur, present in multiple layers. The rather exquisite level of preservation has led to know even the coloration, that exposes a clear countershading, with an upper part being more obscure than the lower, similar to modern killer whales, the Heaviside's dolphin or the Dall's porpoise. There is also evidence of changes in color with ontogenic changes, going from dark juveniles to countershaded adults. The skin was flexible & scaleless, as in dolphins.[285] The study of several specimens has revelated that Stenopterygius quadriscissus underwent a size-related trophic niche shift through ontogeny, shifting from a piscivorous diet to a teuthophagous diet, known thanks to exquisitely preserved stomach contents.[286] Stenopterygius was a relatively opportunistic feeder, as gut contents tend to track relative species abundance.[286]

Restoration
Fossil

Suevoleviathan[287][288]

  • Suevoleviathan disinteger
  • Suevoleviathan integer[289]
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Banz
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Skulls

Type genus of the family Suevoleviathanidae. Includes specimens up to 4 m long.

Suevoleviathan integer fossil

Hauffiopteryx[290]

  • Hauffiopteryx typicus
  • Hauffiopteryx altera[291]
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen

Complete Specimens

Small sized ichthyosaur, probably a member of Parvipelvia, sister group to Stenopterygius + Ophthalmosauridae.[292] A small- to mid-sized ichthyosaur, 2–3 m in length, with a relatively short and slender antorbital rostrum.[291]

Hauffiopteryx typicus fossil

Eurhinosaurus[293][294][295]

  • Eurhinosaurus longirostris
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Hondelange
  • Schandelah
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Fin Phalanges
  • Isolated Teeth

A large ichthyosaur of the family Leptonectidae with convergent evolution with modern swordfish. Like these fishes, Eurhinosaurus is believed to be a fast swimming predator, able to hunt fish schools on same way. Large specimens of up to 6 m are known.

Complete specimen from the Sachrang Formation
Eurhinosaurus restoration

Plesiosauria[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Plesiosauroidea[296][297]

  • Genus and species indet.
  • Holzmaden
  • SMNS 51945, an almost complete articulated skeleton lacking most of the skull
  • Skin Impressions
  • Phosphatised collagen fibres
  • Gastroliths

An indeterminate plesiosauroid plesiosaur. An impressively preserved immature specimen, different from Hydrorion brachypterygius and Seeleyosaurus guilelmiimperatoris, the most abundant plesiosaurs found locally, and its anatomical characters suggest it represents a new genus.[297] It fossilized buff-coloured material, identified as mainly composed of calcium phosphate and interpreted as phosphatised muscle tissues.[297] It also contains eumelanin and hence possibly corresponds to areas dark-coloured in life.[297] The stomach contains quartz grains that were most likely ingested during the animal's life, maybe used for food trituration. This gastroliths have importance for its exotic provenance compared with the surrounding lithology of the deposits (mostly shale), and as sandy turbidites have never been reported from the SW German Basin, the individual may have acquired the sand-sized grains many kilometres away from the burial site.[297] Strata containing fine sand ('Glaukonit und viel Feinsand') at Obereggenen im Breisgau (western side of the Black Forest between Freiburg and Basel), 200 km from Holzmaden suggest a nearshore deposit was allocated here, and that the black forest emerged at this time. Probably this young specimen reached that location in search for gastroliths.[297]

Plesiopterys[296][298][220]

  • Plesiopterys wildi
  • Holzmaden

Complete Specimen.

A basal Plesiosaur that has been linked with Cryptoclididae. It is one of the smallest from the Posidonia, with a complete skeleton measuring less than 2.5 m. It is considered a possible junior synonym of Seeleyosaurus.[299]

Seeleyosaurus[300][301][296]

  • Seeleyosaurus guilelmiimperatoris
  • Seeleyosaurus sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Schandelah
  • Banz?
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Fin Phalanges
  • Isolated Teeth

A Plesiosaur of the family Microcleididae. It was named originally "Plesiosaurus guilelmiimperatoris". It was a moderate‐sized plesiosauroid, measuring up to 3,5 m in length with a skull length of 170 mm.[301]

Microcleidus[302]

  • Microcleidus brachypterygius
  • Holzmaden
  • Several Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Juvenile Specimens
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Fin Phalanges
  • Isolated Teeth

Type member of the Plesiosaur family Microcleididae. Small Plesiosaur, with a length of less than 3 metres. It is characterised by a really enlongated neck, was probably an ichthyophagous form that occurred rarely in the Posidonienschiefer fauna.

Hydrorion[296][303][301][304]

  • Hydrorion brachypterygius
  • Hydrorion sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Grassel
  • Banz
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Juvenile Specimens
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Fin Phalanges
  • Isolated Teeth

A junior synonym of M. brachypterygius.[297]

Meyerasaurus[296][305]

  • Meyerasaurus victor
  • Holzmaden

Nearly complete specimen.

A Rhomaleosauridae Plesiosaur. Its detailed fossils have helped to study plesiosaur movement.[306]

Hauffiosaurus[296][307]

  • Hauffiosaurus zanoni
  • Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden

Complete specimen.

A Rhomaleosauridae Plesiosaur. A moderately sized (3.4 m) Rhomaleaosaurid, ecologically adapted to fish hunt, as has been observed due to comparing the long snouted skull with that of Peloneustes, Gharial Crocodiles or Dolphins.[307]

Sphenodontia[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Palaeopleurosaurus[308]

  • Palaeopleurosaurus posidoniae
  • Banz
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Kerkhofen
  • Complete specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Vertebrae?

An aquatic sphenodont of the family Pleurosauridae. Palaeopleurosaurus evidences that there was a slightly skeletal specialization for an aquatic lifestyle, achieved through the Jurassic gradually on pleurosaurs.[308] It has similarities with other marine reptiles, such with members of Sauropterygia the presence of a defined suture between the centrum and the neural arch, along with reduced sternum.[309] Probably had a semiaquatic style of life, although not as adapted as Pleurosaurus, as show limited morphological evidence of adaptation to a complete aquatic lifestyle, defined by no Osteosclerosis and the lack of Pachyostosis, except for a thicker shaft region in the humerus, that is as narrow as in terrestrial rhynchocephalians, such as the terrestrial Clevosaurus.[309] Palaeopleurosaurus probably was still able to walk on land, for example for Oviposition.[309] Recent studies suggest a shorter lifespan than modern Tuatara, based on irregular spacing of growth marks.[310]

Testudinata[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Eurysternidae[56][311]

  • Eurysternidae indeterminate
  • Altdorf
  • Isolated plastrons
  • Carapace
  • Indeterminate remains

A marine turtle of the superfamily Eurysternidae inside Thalassochelydia. Is the main formally identified fossil as Turtle from the Sachrang Formation, representing a rather basal genus. The pleurals resemble those of the genus Plesiochelys.[311] Being found in the zone of Franconia that on the Toarcian was at -80 km from the shore can suggest that early marine turtles lived in the epicontinental waters of the European shallow seas before reach richer ecosystem diversity on the Late Jurassic.[311] This would explain the serious lack of Turtle fossils on the formation, as mostly of the deposits are located far from the coast.[311]

Thalassochelydia[312]

  • Thalassochelydia Indeterminate
  • Hondelange
  • Partially Complete Specimen

A marine turtle of the clade Thalassochelydia inside Angolachelonia. The only testudine identified from the northern realm of the Sachrang Formation.[312]

Testudinata?[313][314][315][316]

  • Testudinata? Indeterminate
  • Altdorf
  • Banz
  • Schandelah
  • Possible Pleurals
  • Possible Fragments of the Cranium
  • Possible leg parts

Possible unclassified testudine remains. Münster (1834) cited: "there were also rare things at the quarries of Altdorf, among other remains there were ones of a turtle on lias limestone"". The remains are not catalogued and some specimens are in Private Collections.[317]

Crocodylomorpha[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Macrospondylus[318][319][115][320]

  • Macrospondylus bollensis
  • Macrospondylus cf.bollensis
  • Macrospondylus sp.
  • Banz
  • Bad Boll
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Hondenlange
  • Grassel
  • Schandelah
  • Berg
  • Schlierbach
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Juvenile Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Tissue Impressions
  • Coloration Impressions
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Fragmentary Cranial Remains
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Tibias
  • Isolated Femurs
  • Isolated Teeth

A longirostrine thalattosuchian of the family Machimosauridae. Was considered synonymous with Steneosaurus until in 2020 this last was recovered as invalid.[321] It reached large sizes, with specimens exceeding 5 m, being a generalist predator.[320]

Macrospondylus bollensis fossil with Skin Impressions

Mystriosaurus[322][323][320]

  • Mystriosaurus laurillardi
  • Mystriosaurus sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau[324]
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Schandelah[39]
  • Complete Specimens?
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Tibias
  • Isolated Teeth

A mesorostrine thalattosuchian of the family Teleosauridae. A marine crocodylomorph with a diet probably based on fish. Was considered synonymous with Steneosaurus until recently.[325] Due to this unusual placement of the external nares, Mystriosaurus was more terrestrial, or spent a greater amount of time on land, than other teleosauroids. This would explain its greater presence in zones of the formation more proximal to the emerged landmasses. Its morphology suggest it was a mesorostrine generalist.[325]

Platysuchus[326][320]

  • Platysuchus multiscrobiculatus
  • Platysuchus cf.multiscrobiculatus
  • Platysuchus sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Femurs
  • Isolated Teeth

A longirostrine thalattosuchian of the family Teleosauridae. Platysuchus was slightly more robust than its contemporaneous relatives, being probably adapted to hunt more voluminous fish. A heavily armoured, semi-terrestrial longirostrine generalist form, indicated by the extensive and tightly packed rows of dorsal osteoderms.[320]

Pelagosaurus[319][327]

  • Pelagosaurus typus
  • Pelagosaurus cf.typus
  • Pelagosaurus sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Ohmden
  • Holzmaden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Juvenile Specimens
  • Skin Impressions
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Femurs
  • Isolated Teeth

A thalattosuchian with a complex assignation, probably the basalmost metriorhynchoid. Pelagosaurus typus was a small-bodied thalattosuchian (∼1 m in length) considered to be an adept aquatic pursuit predator, with a long streamlined snout ideal for snapping at fast moving prey (one specimen was found with Leptolepis fishes inside) and large, anterolaterally placed orbits for increased visual acuity.[328]

Pterosauria[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Campylognathoides[329][330][331]

  • Campylognathoides zitteli[331]
  • Campylognathoides liasicus[331]
  • Campylognathoides cf. C. liasicus
  • Campylognathoides sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Hondelange
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Skull Remains
  • Isolated Wing Phalanges
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Femurs
  • Isolated Teeth

A Novialoidean Pterosaur, type genus of the family Campylognathoidea. Mark Witton suggests the construction of Campylognathoides' extremely robust forelimbs, with proportionally long wing fingers, could be a specialization for a fast aerial lifestyle comparable to those of Falcons and mastiff bats, being more probably an insect & vertebrate hunter and living on nearshore environments.[332]

Nearly complete Campylognathoides

"Schandelopterus"[39]

  • Novialoidea ("Schandelopterus") Indeterminate
  • Schandelah

Pelvis and several vertebrae.

A Novialoidean Pterosaur, probably a member of the family Campylognathoidea. Has been assigned to the genus Campylognathoides, although it is clearly different than any other pterosaur from the Sachrang Formation.[39] The name "Schandelopterus" is invalid and lacks any study, assigned without species to refer to the specimen on private German Fossil Groups. The pelvis indicates a laterally, slightly upwardly directed orientation of the acetabula which does not support a bird-like bipedal locomotion of this pterosaur as has been suggested on the past.[39]

Parapsicephalus[333]

  • cf. Parapsicephalus purdoni
  • Altdorf

Skull

A Rhamphorhynchinae Pterosaur. Has been assigned to the genus Dorygnathus. It has a really complete skull that can help to explain the status of the genus Parapsicephalus.[333]

Dorygnathus[315][334][335][336]

  • Dorygnathus banthensis[337]
  • Dorygnathus cf.banthensis
  • Dorygnathus mistelgauensis[338][339]
  • Dorygnathus sp.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Mistelgau
  • Schandelah
  • Hondelange
  • Beienrode
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Dotternhausen
  • Complete Specimens
  • Partial Specimens
  • Isolated Skulls
  • Isolated Skull Fragments
  • Isolated Jaws
  • Isolated Wing Phalanges
  • Isolated Arm Fragments
  • Isolated Tail Fragments
  • Isolated Ribs
  • Isolated Vertebrae
  • Isolated Femurs
  • Isolated Tibias
  • Isolated Leg Phalanges
  • Isolated Teeth
  • Non-mineralized tissues[340]
  • Fur/Feather-like filaments[341]
  • Possible coloration traces[341]

A Rhamphorhynchinae Pterosaur. It is one of the best known Early Jurassic Pterosaurs.[334] Unlike Campylognthoides, Dorygnathus was an oceanic hunter, with teeth disposed to catch marine prey, such as Belemnittes and several species of fishes. Dorygnathus mistelgauensis is considered a junior synonym until more data can be recovered from the specimen, held on a private collection.[334]

Dorygnathus on terrestrial pose
Nearly complete Dorygnathus

"Ohmdenodraco"[334]

  • Rhamphorhynchinae ("Ohmdenodraco") indeterminate
  • Ohmden

Femur and a broken tibia-fibula.

A possible Rhamphorhynchinae Pterosaur. Like "Schandelopterus", "Ohmdenodraco" is an invalid name, used on private fossil groups to refer to SMNS 80439, assigned as "?Dorygnathus sp." originally, although characters on the tibia and femur are distinct to any Pterosaur found on the Posidonia.[334]

Saurischia[edit]

Possible teeth from Dinosaurs are known from the Lias Clay pit of Unterstürmig (Referred as "Various Archosaur teeth").[7] "Dinosaur Fossils" are cited to be present on several levels on Schandelah.[39]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Neotheropoda[342]

  • Neotheropoda? Indeterminate
  • Schandelah
  • Altdorf
  • Cervical Vertebrae
  • Referred Teeth

An indeterminate possible Theropod dinosaur, possibly Neotheropoda. Hasn't been revised since 1984. The Cervical Vertebrae was found on Schandelah and was described as having a similar appearance and size to those found on the Triassic genus Pterospondylus (What would make it a late Coelophysidae member, with a length of 1.8 m).[342] But can be alternatively from a Plesiosaur.[342] A series of teeth found on Altdoft can include theropod teeths, probably from smaller specimens (speculated less than 60 cm animals).[7]

Sauropodiformes[343]

  • Sauropodiformes Indeterminate
  • Oedhof

3 cm long, tooth-studded fragment of a lower jaw

An indeterminate possible Sauropodomorph dinosaur, possibly a member of Sauropodiformes inside Anchisauria (Resemble Yunnanosaurus teeth).[343] The Fossil was reported from the Lias Epsilon level, that on Oedhof is occupied by the Sachrang Formation.[343] It was found with abundant Plant debris and Belemnite remains.[343] Hasn't been revised since 1956

The Oedhof jaw can belong to a creature similar to Yunnanosaurus

Ohmdenosaurus[344]

  • Ohmdenosaurus liasicus
  • Ohmden

Tibia and astragalus

A Gravisaurian Sauropod. One of the few formally described from the Toarcian. Has been related with Vulcanodon, although more recent studies placed it as a relative of Rhoetosaurus.[345] It has been claimed to be a small sauropod with a size of 4 m, although the tibia measures 405 to 410 mm, leading to a 6.7 m long sauropod. Molina Pérez & Larramendi, estimated a modern size of 6.2 to 6.7 m long, with a weight of 1.3 tonnes.[346]

Synapsida[edit]

Genus Species Location Material Notes Images

Cynodontia?[347][343]

  • Cynodontia? Indeterminate
  • Banz
  • Oedhof
  • Possible Teeth
  • Possible Molar

Possible Cynodont Remains, Incertade sedis inside Cynodontia. The specimens were listed on several notes on the 1800s (As "mammal teeth"), although its existence has not been proved. Can be related to the Trithelodontidae or other late surviving Cynodonts by related characters, such as Irajatherium, but also to the Mammaliaformes. If its presence is proved, it would be the first Synapsid found on the Sachrang Formation.

Morganucodon, example of Lower Jurassic Synapsid of Europe. The supposed synapsid teeth of the Sachrang Formation (in case of be proven to exist) maybe where related to this genus

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