Paleobiota of the Posidonia Shale

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18x6 m fossilized floating wood (Araucarioxylon), with Crinoids attached (Pentacrinites & Seirocrinus). It is one of the most emblematic fossils of the formation, where the anoxic seas of the lower toarcian lead to an exquisite preservation.

The Posidonia Shale is a geological formation of southwestern Germany, northern Switzerland, western Czech Republic, northwestern Austria and the Netherlands, that spans about 3 million years during the Early Jurassic period (early Toarcian stage). It is known for its detailed fossils, especially sea fauna, listed below.

Algae[edit]

Includes abundant variety of algae, such as the genus of colonial Green algae Botryococcus[1], or the unicellular algal bodies Tasmanites, and other small examples. Algae are a good reference for changes on the oxygen conditions along the Toarcian.[2]

Color key
Taxon Reclassified taxon Taxon falsely reported as present Dubious taxon or junior synonym Ichnotaxon Ootaxon Morphotaxon
Notes
Uncertain or tentative taxa are in small text; crossed out taxa are discredited.

Rhodophyta[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Cf. Rhodophyta[3]

  • Cf. Rhodophyta sp.

  • Banz
  • Holzmaden

Several Specimens

Possible affinities with Rhodophyta. Are among the few complete specimens of Algae found on lower Jurassic sediments, being called "Seegrasblatt" (Seagrass leaf), have more in common with modern Chondria dasyphylla, ranging from 25 cm to near 1 m long. It´s affinities haven´t been proved. There are several specimens that resemble the also modern Delesseria sinuosa.

Seegrasblatt, possible Cf.Rhodophyta exposed in Banz Abbey

Plantae[edit]

The main source of Terrestrial land for the origin of the flora comes from the Regensburg bight at the margin of the Bohemian Massif. The Environment was part of the coast called Vindelician Land, composed of large seashore environments, including River Deltas, Mangroves, Lagoons, Brackish deposits and other similar. The wood from the terrestrial margin hasn´t been studied, altrougth the ferns have been revieved.[4] The locality of Kerkhofen shows also influences of fluvial currents from the Massif.[5]

Equisetaceae[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Equisetites

  • Equisetites arenaceus
  • Equisetites sp.
  • Several locations.[6]

Leaves and Branches.

Affinities with Equisetaceae. Among the most common flora found on the Posidonia Shale, includes several specimens found on considered Blackish waters, being probably tolerant to high salinity environments.[7]

Equisetites arenaceus specimen

Neocalamites[8]

  • Neocalamites merianii
  • Neocalamites sp.
  • Several locations.

Leaves and Branches

Affinities with Equisetaceae.

Neocalamites merianii specimen

Filicopsida[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Cladophlebis[9]

  • Cladophlebis distans
  • Cladophlebis denticulata
  • Cladophlebis haiburnenss
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg

Mostly leaves.

Affinities with Osmundaceae. The main confirmed fern reported from the formation, being found on layers proximal to the Bohemian Massif, the dry land environment more proximal to the Posidonia Shale.

Cladophlebis distans specimen

Dictyophyllum[9]

  • Dictyophyllum acutilobum
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg

Mostly leaves.

Affinities with Dipteridaceae. It´s remains are rare.

Dictyophyllum acutilobum specimen

Peltaspermales[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Pachypteris[10]

  • Pachypteris sp.

  • Holzmaden

One specimen of pteridosperm frond.

Affinities with Umkomasiaceae. It is related to the large Tree ferns of the Triassic & Jurassic. Includes several species from the Triassic to the Cretaceous only on Europe. Posidonia Shale Specimen is characterized for it´s large size.

The only Pachypteris specimen know from the Posidonia Shale

Cycadeoidophyta[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Otozamites[11][12]

  • Otozamites gracilis
  • Otozamites bechei
  • Several locations.[6]

Leaves

Affinities with Bennettitales. It´s the most abundant medium-sized plant on the environment. Found specially on seashore depositional settings, but also on deltaic and lagoonar environments.

Otozamites gracilis specimen from the Posidonia Shale

Pterophyllum[11]

  • Pterophyllum acutifolium
  • Several locations.[6]

Leaves

Affinities with Bennettitales

Zamites[11]

  • Zamites mandelslohi
  • Zamites oblongifolius
  • Several locations.[6]

Leaves

Affinities with Bennettitales

Zamites mandelslohi specimen

Pinophyta[edit]

Genus Species Location Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Pagiophyllum[11][13]

  • Pagiophyllum kurri
  • Pagiophyllum araucarinum[14]
  • Pagiophyllum sp.
  • Several locations.[6]

Leaves

Affinities with Araucariaceae

Pagiophyllum kurri specimen from Banz

Cupressites

  • Cupressites sp.
  • Several locations.[6]

Leaves

Affinities with Cupressaceae

Widdringtonites[15]

  • Widdringtonites liasinus
  • Several locations.[6]

Leaves

A possible ancestral member of the Sequoioideae inside Cupressaceae. Was originally related to the genus "Quasisequoia" couttsiae, but then changed to a sister taxa to Sequoia jeholensis. The later studies still suggest affinities with large modern redwoods. Probably the earliest member of the Sequoia tribe, distinct from Sequoiadendron and Metasequoia.

Widdringtonites liasinus specimen from the Posidonia Shale

Circoporoxylon[16]

  • Circoporoxylon grandiporosum
  • Several locations.[6]

Fossil wood

Affinities with Podocarpaceae

Cupressinoxylon

  • Cupressinoxylon sp.
  • Banz[6]
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg

Fossil wood

Affinities with Sequoioideae inside Cupressaceae. Large wood with a morphology similar to the modern genus Sequoia sempervirens. Probably related to Widdringtonites liasinus, representing the earliest representatives of the Sequoia tribe.

Podocarpoxylon

  • cf. Podocarpoxylon sp.
  • Banz[6]
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg

Fossil Wood

Affinities with Podocarpaceae

Protocupressinoxylon[17]

  • Protocupressinoxylon catenatum
  • Protocupressinoxylon liasinum
  • Holzmaden.[6]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg
  • Bohemia

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Affinities with Podocarpaceae. Resembles Podocarpus totara, and includes large sized trunks up to 1.7 m tall and 45 cm wide. Large medium to large sized trees (25 m) that extent along the coastal lines of the Vindelician land. The wood from tose trunks shows insect activity, such as wood Vasps and Beetles, that had been found on the Posidonia Shale.

Protocupressinoxylon catenatum specimen from Regensburg

"Protopinaceae"[18]

  • Protopinaceae sp.
  • Holzmaden.[6]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Dubious genera with possible affinities with the triassic wood Woodworthia. Protopinaceae is an invalid group of mostly Paleozoic Woods.[19]

Woodworthia, example of Protopinaceae

Phyllocladoxylon[9]

  • Phyllocldoxylon sp.
  • Several locations.[9]

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Affinities with Podocarpaceae. Similar to the modern Phyllocladus aspleniifolius.

Protophyllocladoxylon[9]

  • Protophyllocladoxylon franconicum

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Affinities with Podocarpaceae. Resembles the modern Phyllocladus hypophyllus.

Taxodioxylon[20]

  • cf. Taxodioxylon
  • Holzmaden.[6]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Affinities with the Taxodioideae family inside Cupressaceae. Resembles the modern genus Cryptomeria. Large trees probably related to the coastal settings.

Araucarioxylon[21]

  • cf. Araucarioxylon

Fossil wood from trunk rafts. Includes the largest know rafting wood on the fossil record, with a length of 13 m. The rafts where populated with Crinoid colonies, and a wide variety of organisms.

Affinities with Araucariaceae

Araucarioxylon reconstruccion

Dadoxylon

  • Dadoxylon sp.
  • Holzmaden.[6]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Affinities with Araucariaceae, resembling the modern Wollemia.

Dadoxylon sp. from Banz

Agathoxylon

  • Agathoxylon agathiforme[22]
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg
  • Banz

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Affinities with Araucariaceae, resembling the modern Agathis.

Simplicioxylon[23][24][25]

  • Simplicioxylon wurtembergicum[26]
  • Simplicioxylon cf.hungaricum
  • Holzmaden.
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg

Fossil wood from trunk rafts

Affinities with Cheirolepidiaceae

Xenoxylon[27][28]

  • Xenoxylon cf. barberi
  • Xenoxylon ellipticum
  • Xenoxylon latiporosum
  • Xenoxylon cf. latiporosum
  • Holzmaden.[6][29]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Regensburg

Fossil wood

Affinities with Coniferales. It is the more abundant genus of wood present on the Posidonia Shale.

Invertebrata[edit]

Annelida[edit]

Polychaeta[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Serpula?[30]

  • Serpula sp.
  • Kernbohrung Wittnau
  • Banz

Multiple Specimens.

A sessile, marine annelid tube worm. It´s affinities with the genus Serpula are controversial, since the genus it´s know mostly since Creataceus strata. Altrougth there are other fossils assigned to the genus on same age deposits of France.[31]

Head of a modern Serpula vermicularis

Filogranula[32][33]

  • Filogranula tricristata
  • Holzmaden
  • Aldortf
  • Banz

Multiple Specimens.

A sessile, marine annelid tube worm.

Tetraserpula[34]

  • Tetraserpula quadrisulcata
  • Holzmaden
  • Banz

Multiple Specimens.

A sessile, marine annelid tube worm.

Glomerula[35]

  • Glomerula plexus
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A polychaete worm of the family Sabellidae.

Example of Glomerula specimen

Mollusca[edit]

Bivalvia[edit]

Bivalves added to a floating driftwood Agathoxylon
Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Meleagrinella

  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Oxytomidae Scallop.

Colony of specimens

Bositra[38]

  • Bositra buchii
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A "Posidoniidae" Ostreoidan. Is the type fossil of the Posidonia Shale. In fact, the layers have their name fue to it. Originally was named "Posidonia bronni", throught to be a new genus, and the strata was denominated the Posidonia layers after it. Years after turns out to be a junior synonym of Bositra, and thus, it was reassigned. Altrought, the name of the layers was left.

Thousands of specimens in one matrix

Pseudomytiloides[39]

  • Pseudomytiloides dubius
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Inoceramidae Clam.

Single specimen

Nicaniella[40][41]

  • Nicaniella (Nicaniella) pumila
  • Nicaniella striatosulcata
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Astartidae Clam.

Palaeonucula

  • Palaeonucula ungulella
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Nuculidae Nut Clam.

Goniomya[42]

  • Goniomya rhombifera
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Pholadomyidae Clam.

Chlamys

  • Chlamys textoria
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Pectinoidae Scallop.

Single specimen

Pleuromya

  • Pleuromya costata
  • Pleuromya ovata
  • Pleuromya unioides
  • Pleuromya uniformis
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Pleuromyidae Clam.

Pleuromya uniformis, two specimens

Propeamussium

  • Propeamussium nonarium
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Propeamussiidae mud Scallop.

Various specimens on the same rock

Gryphaea

  • Gryphaea arcuata
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Gryphaeidae mud Scallop.

Various specimens

Gastropoda[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Coelodiscus[43]

  • Coelodiscus minutus
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Coelodiscidae sea Snail. The most common of the sea snails of the Formation, it is also one of the most varied in size terms, with some of the biggest specimens of snail from the Lower Toarcian know. It has been related to large floating driftwood as one of the primary settlers.

Procerithium

  • Procerithium brandi
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Procerithiidae sea Snail.

Toarctocera[44]

  • Toarctocera subpunctata
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Aporrhaidae sea Snail. Among the latest described from the formation, is one of the earliest certain aporrhaidae. Characterised by large spines growing at the head of the cunch.

Cryptaulax

  • Cryptaulax armatum
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Cryptaulacidae sea Snail.

Neritaria

  • Neritaria papilio
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Neritariidae sea Snail.

Single specimen

Zygopleura

  • Zygopleura septemcincta
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Zygopleuridae sea Snail.

Specimens

Trochus

  • Trochus subduplicatus
  • All the Formation

Thousands of Specimens.

A Trochidae sea Snail.

Specimens

Cephalopoda[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Nautilidae[45]

  • Several Genera
  • Bavaria
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Nautilidae Nautilidan.

Lytoceras[46]

  • Lytoceras ceratophagum
  • Bavaria

Multiple Specimens.

A Lytoceratidae Ammonite.

Grammoceras[47]

  • Grammoceras thouarsense
  • Bavaria
  • Bohemia
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Grammoceras specimen from Banz

Harpoceras[48][49]

  • Harpoceras falciferum
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Harpoceras specimen

Hildoceras

  • Hildoceras (Hildaites) levisoni
  • Hildoceras (Hildaites) serpentinum
  • Bavaria

Multiple Specimens.

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Hildoceras specimen

Mercaticeras

  • Mercaticeras forte
  • Bavaria

Multiple Specimens.

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Mercaticeras specimen

Eleganticeras

  • Eleganticeras exaratum
  • Bavaria

Multiple Specimens.

A Hildoceratidae Ammonite.

Dactylioceras

  • Dactylioceras (Orthodactylites) semiannulatum
  • Dactylioceras (Dactylioceras) vermis
  • Dactylioceras athleticum
  • Bavaria
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Dactylioceratidae Ammonite.

Dactylioceras commune on Holzmaden

Loligosepia[50]

  • Loligosepia bucklandi
  • Holzmaden
  • Bavaria

Multiple Specimens.

A Loligosepiidae Loligosepiidan.[51]The Loligosepiidae is believed to be ancestral to the Recent vampire squid, Vampyroteuthis infernalis.[52]

Loligosepia Holzmaden specimen

Jeletzkyteuthis[53]

  • Jeletzkyteuthis coriaceus
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Loligosepiidae Loligosepiidan. Related to the modern Vampyroteuthis infernalis.

Geopeltis[54]

  • Geopeltis simplex
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Loligosepiidae Loligosepiidan. Related to the modern Vampyroteuthis infernalis.

Geopeltis specimen

Parabelopeltis[55]

  • Parabelopeltis flexuosa
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Loligosepiidae Loligosepiidan. Related to the modern Vampyroteuthis infernalis.

Chondroteuthis[56]

  • Chondroteuthis wunnenbergi
  • Bavaria

Multiple Specimens.

A Belemnotheutidae Belemnite.

Acrocoelites

  • Acrocoelites ilminstrensis
  • Acrocoelites pyramidalis
  • Bavaria
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Megateuthididae Belemnite. Includes some of the Biggest Know Belemnites, with stimated up to 3.5 m long in life.

Youngibelus[57][58]

  • Youngibelus giganteus
  • Bavaria
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Megateuthididae Belemnite. Includes really large specimens

Youngibelus Reconstruction

Passaloteuthis[59]

  • Passaloteuthis paxillosa
  • Passaloteuthis bisulcata
  • Bavaria
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Passaloteuthididae Belemnite.

Passaloteuthis Holzmaden specimen

Clarkeiteuthis[60]

  • Clarkeiteuthis conocauda
  • Holzmaden

Multiple Specimens.

A Diplobelidae Coleoidean. It has been found adult individuals of Clarkeiteuthis which caught small teleost fish of the species Leptolepis bronni. Further indirect evidence for the hunting behaviour comes from their body orientation in the water during life.[61]

Clarkeiteuthis Holzmaden specimen

Lioteuthis[62]

  • Lioteuthis problematica
  • Holzmaden

Various Specimens.

A Lioteuthididae Squid.

Teudopsis[63]

  • Teudopsis bollensis
  • Holzmaden

Various Specimens.

A Teudopseina Squid.

Teudopsis Holzmaden specimen

Geotheutis[64]

  • Geotheutis bollensis
  • Holzmaden

Various Specimens.

A possible primigenial Cuttlefish. Is one of the most important fossils of Cephalopods on the Posidonia Shale, due to be one of the Earliest examples of Pigments found on any species, also one of the first historically.[65] The pigments are preserved on various specimens with Eumelanin related to it´s ink sacs and include even phosphatized musculature.[66]

Arthropoda[edit]

Malacostraca[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Orhomalus[67]

  • Orhomalus arpi
  • Neumarkt

Partial Specimens.

A hermit crab. Hermit crabs are common of the marine layers of the lower Jurassic Europe, mostly on the Pliensbachian-Toarcian Boundary of France and Germany. Orthomalus is a small sized crab, probably inhabitant of nearshore waters, and even deltaic and beach environments, similar to modern genera.

Uncina[68][69]

  • Uncina posidoniae
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Partial Specimens.

A Uncinidae Decapodan.

Uncina posidoniae specimen

Juracyclus[70]

  • Juracyclus posidoniae
  • Holzmaden

Partial Specimens.

The First Cycloid Arthropod from the Jurassic.

Tonneleryon[71]

  • Tonneleryon schweigerti
  • Holzmaden

Partial Specimens and complete Specimens

A gregarious Polychelidan Lobster.

Proeryon[72][73]

  • Proeryon giganteus
  • Proeryon hauffi[74]
  • Proeryon hartmanni[75]
  • Proeryon laticaudatus[76]
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Partial Specimens.

A Coleiidae Decapodan. The largest Coeloid from the formation, P. giganteus is a species reaching a larger size than most other polychelidans, with up to 15 cm. On the Posidonia Shale there is the most abundant variety of species from the genus, ranging from different sizes and morphologies, that indicate different habitat & feeding adaptations on the genus. Some like P. hartmani show less adaptations to hunt for small nectobenthic preys than other relatives, being abundant on Oyster-filled waters. There is a relatively abundance of the genus in deep-water settings from the Toarcian onward.[77]

Proeryon hartmanni specimen from Banz
Proeryon sp. specimen from Schandelah

Antrimpos[78][79]

  • Antrimpos noricus
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Partial Specimens.

A Penaeidae Decapodan.

Antrimpos specimen

Palaeastacus[80][81]

  • Palaeastacus sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Partial Specimens.

A Erymidae Decapodan.

Palaeastacus specimen

Coleia[82][83]

  • Coleia theodorii
  • Coleia moorei
  • Coleia sinuata
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Complete Specimens. Includes specimens inside ammonites shells

A Erymidae Decapodan.

Glypheopsis[84]

  • Glypheopsis grandichela
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Partial Specimens.

A Glypheidae Decapodan.

Eryma[85][86][87]

  • Eryma amalthei
  • Eryma sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Complete Specimens

Type genus of the Erymidae Decapodan family. Originally, was named Glyphea amalthei,informally used by Quenstedt and housed on the Museum Naturkunde in Württemberg. A series of posterior revisions probe it was a different genus.[88]

Eryma specimen

Stenodactylina[89][90]

  • Stenodactylina liasina
  • Holzmaden

Complete Specimens

An Erymidae Decapodan.

Penaeus[91]

  • Penaeus sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Banz
  • Mistlegau
  • Altdorf

Complete Specimens

A Penaeidae Decapodan. Still alive today.

Penaeus diagram

Thoracica[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Toarcolepas[92]

  • Toarcolepas mutans
  • Aichelberg

Numerous disarticulated individuals, associated with fossil wood.

A phospatic-shelled Cirripede. Toarcolepas is provisionally interpreted as the oldest epiplanktonic cirripede known, and is thought to have lived attached to floating driftwood.

Arachnida[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Liassoscorpionides[93]

  • Liassoscorpionides schmidti
  • Niedersachsen

Single Incomplete Specimen.

Being the only Jurassic scorpion known, there is no evidence that L. schmidti was aquatic (which was suggested in the past) and in the absence of further, better preserved material it should be excluded from future considerations of broad patterns of scorpion evolution.[94]

Speculative Reconstruction

Insecta[edit]

Insects are a common terrestrial animals that where proabaly drifted to the sea due to Moonsonal conditions present on the Posidonia Shale.[95]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Heterophlebia[96][97]

  • Heterophlebia buckmani
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Braunschweig
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Heterophlebiidae. A relative abundant genus, present on most of the pits of the Posidonia Shale, even on Holzmaden.

Plagiophlebia[97]

  • Plagiophlebia praecostarea
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Heterophlebiidae.

Heterothemis[98]

  • Heterothemis brodiei
  • Holzmaden
  • Schandelah
  • Beienrode
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben
  • Hemmikon[99]

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Liassogomphidae. Second most abundant genus of Odonatan in the Formation.

Phthitogomphus[97]

  • Phthitogomphus angulatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Liassogomphidae.

Proinogomphus[97]

  • Proinogomphus bodei
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Liassogomphidae.

Ensphingophlebia[97]

  • Ensphingophlebia undulata
  • Braunschweig

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Sphenophlebiidae.

Liassostenophlebia[97]

  • Liassostenophlebia germanica
  • Rhine-Danube canal, Km 112

Specimens

A Dragonfly

Syrrhoe[97]

  • Syrrhoe commissa
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Dragonfly.

Strongylogomphus[97]

  • Strongylogomphus grasselianus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Dragonfly.

Myopophlebia[97]

  • Myopophlebia libera
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Myopophlebiidae.

Paraheterophlebia[97]

  • Paraheterophlebia wunnenbergi
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Myopophlebiidae.

Necrogomphus[97][100]

  • Necrogomphus brunswigae
  • Schandelah

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the Family Liassogomphidae.

Campterophlebia[97][100]

  • Campterophlebia elegans
  • Schandelah

Specimens

A Dragonfly of the family Campterophlebiidae.The largest Early Jurassic Insect Know, with a wings size up to 20 cm.[101]

Liadoblattina[102]

  • Liadoblattina blakei
  • Holzmaden
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Cockroach of the family Raphidiomimidae.

Ptyctoblattina[97]

  • Ptyctoblattina simplicior
  • Ptyctoblattina dilatata
  • Niedersachsen
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A Cockroach of the family Raphidiomimidae.

Caloblattina[97]

  • Caloblattina mathildae
  • Niedersachsen
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A Cockroach of the family Caloblattinidae.

Blattula[97]

  • Blattula langfeldti
  • Niedersachsen
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A Cockroach of the family Blattulidae.

Schesslitziella[103][104]

  • Schesslitziella haupti
  • Schesslitziella integra
  • Feuermühlenberg near Scheßlitz

Specimens

A Stick insect. One of the describe insects found more near the Bohemian Massif, where probably belong most of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna.

Chresmodella

  • Chresmodella fissa
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Stick insect of the family Aerophasmidae.

Compactofulgoridium[97]

  • Compactofulgoridium spoliatum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Grasshopper.

Protogryllus[97]

  • Protogryllus formosus
  • Protogryllus hattorfensis
  • Protogryllus praeacutus
  • Protogryllus symmetricus
  • Protogryllus multoramosus
  • Protogryllus multovenosus
  • Protogryllus laceratus
  • Protogryllus foliolum
  • Protogryllus implicatus
  • Protogryllus fissus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Grasshopper of the family Protogryllidae.

Panorpidium[97]

  • Panorpidium media
  • Panorpidium geinitzi
  • Panorpidium minima
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Grasshopper of the family Elcanidae.

Acridiopsis[97]

  • Acridiopsis spoliata
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Short-horned Grasshopper of the family Acrididae.

Locustopsis[97]

  • Locustopsis procera
  • Locustopsis bernstorffi
  • Locustopsis maculosa
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Grasshopper of the family Locustopsidae.

Liadolocusta[97]

  • Liadolocusta ornata
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Grasshopper of the family Locustopsidae.

Archijassus[97]

  • Archijassus heeri
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Archijassidae.

Elasmoscelidium[97]

  • Elasmoscelidium rectemarginatum
  • Elasmoscelidium promotum
  • Elasmoscelidium boreale
  • Niedersachsen
  • Braunschweig

Specimens

A Planthopper.

Fulgoridium[97]

  • Fulgoridium mancomarginatum
  • Fulgoridium semiperspicuum
  • Fulgoridium cubitoramosum
  • Fulgoridium cuneiforme
  • Fulgoridium infuscatum
  • Fulgoridium paulodilatatum
  • Fulgoridium exiguemaculatum
  • Fulgoridium reduncum
  • Fulgoridium fallerslebense
  • Fulgoridium hattorfense
  • Fulgoridium gottingense
  • Fulgoridium tenuimaculatum
  • Fulgoridium incurvatum
  • Fulgoridium praeobtusum
  • Fulgoridium raromaculatum
  • Fulgoridium cubitofurcatum
  • Fulgoridium basilaesum
  • Fulgoridium hondelanum
  • Fulgoridium fabri
  • Fulgoridium hildesheimense
  • Fulgoridium symmetricum
  • Fulgoridium latius
  • Fulgoridium posidonicum
  • Fulgoridium silvaticum
  • Niedersachsen
  • Flechtorf near Fallersleben

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Fulgoridulum[97]

  • Fulgoridulum egens
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Procerofulgoridium[97]

  • Procerofulgoridium verticillatum
  • Procerofulgoridium praefastigatum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Tetrafulgoria[97]

  • Tetrafulgoria parallelogramma
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Metafulgoridium[97]

  • Metafulgoridium praetruncatum
  • Metafulgoridium spatulaeforme
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Productofulgoridium[97]

  • Productofulgoridium filiferum
  • Productofulgoridium praeacutum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Margaroptilon[97]

  • Margaroptilon formosum
  • Margaroptilon cuneatum
  • Margaroptilon paucisinuatum
  • Margaroptilon detruncatum
  • Margaroptilon procerum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Compactofulgoridium[97]

  • Compactofulgoridium fronterotundum
  • Compactofulgoridium obesum
  • Compactofulgoridium aries
  • Compactofulgoridium decapitatum
  • Compactofulgoridium concameratum
  • Compactofulgoridium paenintegrum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Planthopper of the family Fulgoridiidae.

Procercopis[97]

  • Procercopis lacerata
  • Procercopis abscissa
  • Procercopis wunnenbergi
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Froghopper of the family Procercopidae.

Megalocoris[97]

  • Megalocoris laticlavus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Shore bug.

Eurynotis[97]

  • Eurynotis incisus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Shore bug of the family Archegocimicidae.

Somatocoris[97]

  • Somatocoris conservatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Shore bug of the family Archegocimicidae.

Corynecoris[97]

  • Corynecoris occultatus
  • Corynecoris semigranulatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Shore bug of the family Archegocimicidae.

Entomecoris[97]

  • Entomecoris minor
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Shore bug of the family Archegocimicidae.

Ensphingocoris[97]

  • Ensphingocoris parvulus
  • Ensphingocoris praerotundatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Shore bug of the family Archegocimicidae.

Engynabis[97]

  • Engynabis tenuis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Shore bug of the family Archegocimicidae.

Apicasia[97]

  • Apicasia inolata
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Pholipheron[97]

  • Pholipheron articulatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Grasselites[97]

  • Grasselites pusillus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Omogongylus[97]

  • Omogongylus ovatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Sideriosemion[97]

  • Sideriosemion punctolineatum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Metanastes[97]

  • Metanastes denudatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Diatrypamene[97]

  • Diatrypamene angulocollis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Aptilotitus[97]

  • Aptilotitus capitecarens
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Rhomaleus[97]

  • Rhomaleus ornatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Leptosolenophorus[97]

  • Leptosolenophorus brevicollis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Gastroratus[97]

  • Gastroratus dispertitus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Brachylaimon[97]

  • Brachylaimon striatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Pleuralocista[97]

  • Pleuralocista insculpta
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Mesoncus[97]

  • Mesoncus striatulus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Palaeotrachys[97]

  • Palaeotrachys laticollis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Hydroicetes[97]

  • Hydroicetes affictus
  • Schandelah

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Scalopoides[97]

  • Scalopoides inscissus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Peridosoma[97]

  • Peridosoma praecisum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Syntomopterus[97]

  • Syntomopterus latus
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Sphaerocantharis[97]

  • Sphaerocantharis striata
  • Sphaerocantharis defossa
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Rhysopsalis[97]

  • Rhysopsalis distorta
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Diplocelides[97]

  • Diplocelides minutus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Tripsalis[97]

  • Tripsalis praecisa
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Trochiscites[97]

  • Trochiscites capitapertus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Prosynactus[97]

  • Prosynactus gracilis
  • Prosynactus scissus
  • Prosynactus procerus
  • Beienrode
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A False Ground Beetle of the family Trachypachidae.

Coreoeicos[97]

  • Coreoeicos dilatatus
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A False Ground Beetle of the family Trachypachidae.

Aposphinctus[97]

  • Aposphinctus conservatus
  • Aposphinctus striatus
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A Water Scavenger Beetle of the family Hydrophilidae.

Zetemenos[97]

  • Zetemenos sexlineatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Amphoxyne[97]

  • Amphoxyne lineata
  • Amphoxyne minuta
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Tolype[97]

  • Tolype rotundata
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A basal Beetle.

Amblycephalonius[97]

  • Amblycephalonius tenuistriatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle of the family Coptoclavidae.

Ooperioristus[97]

  • Ooperioristus applanatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle of the family Coptoclavidae.

Camaricopterus[97]

  • Camaricopterus ovalis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Beetle of the family Schizophoridae.

Megachorites[97]

  • Megachorites brevicollis
  • Niedersachsen
  • Volkmarsdorf, Braunschweig

Specimens

A Giant Beetle. It is among the largest found on all the Jurassic.

Protobittacus[97]

  • Protobittacus desacuminatus
  • Niedersachsen
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Hangingfly of the family Bittacidae.

Parabittacus[97]

  • Parabittacus lingula
  • Niedersachsen
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Hangingfly of the family Bittacidae.

Haplobittacus[97]

  • Haplobittacus parvus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Hangingfly of the family Bittacidae.

Mesobittacus[97]

  • Mesobittacus clavaeformis
  • Mesobittacus marginelaesus
  • Beienrode
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Hangingfly of the family Bittacidae.

Orthophlebia[97]

  • Orthophlebia latipennisimilis
  • Orthophlebia fallerslebensis
  • Orthophlebia elongata
  • Niedersachsen
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Scorpionfly of the family Orthophlebiidae.

Parorthophlebia[97]

  • Parorthophlebia grasselensis
  • Niedersachsen
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Scorpionfly of the family Orthophlebiidae.

Mesopanorpa[97]

  • Mesopanorpa formosa
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A Scorpionfly of the family Orthophlebiidae.

Pseudopolycentropus[97]

  • Pseudopolycentropus obtusus
  • Niedersachsen
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Scorpionfly of the family Pseudopolycentropodidae.

Homoeoptychopteris[97]

  • Homoeoptychopteris incerta
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Amianta[97]

  • Amianta eurycephala
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Culiciscolex[97]

  • Culiciscolex gibberatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Liassonympha[97]

  • Liassonympha compacta
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Bodephora[97]

  • Bodephora arucaeformis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Apistogrypotes[97]

  • Apistogrypotes inflexa
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Amphipromeca[97]

  • Amphipromeca acuta
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Cyrtomides[97]

  • Cyrtomides maculatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Sphallonymphites[97]

  • Sphallonymphites decurtatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Propexis[97]

  • Propexis incerta
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Archipleciomima[105]

  • Archipleciomima germanica
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Protoplecia[97]

  • Protoplecia hattorfensis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly of the family Protopleciidae.

Mesorhyphus[105]

  • Mesorhyphus ulrichi
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Wood Gnat of the family Anisopodidae.

Metaraphidia[97]

  • Metaraphidia vahldieki
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Snakefly.

Heterorhyphus[97]

  • Heterorhyphus analivarius
  • Heterorhyphus anomalus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Amblylexis[97]

  • Amblylexis gibberata
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Ellipibodus[97]

  • Ellipibodus laesa
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Homoeoptychopteris[97]

  • Homoeoptychopteris incerta
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly.

Protorhyphus[97]

  • Protorhyphus ovisimilis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Fly of the family Protorhyphidae.

Praemacrochile[97]

  • Praemacrochile decipiens
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A primitive Crane fly of the family Tanyderidae.

Architipula[97]

  • Architipula bodeisimilis
  • Architipula formosa
  • Architipula basiminuta
  • Architipula robusta
  • Architipula clara
  • Architipula bodei
  • Architipula brunsvicensis
  • Architipula analiramosa
  • Architipula aequabilis
  • Architipula fragmentosa
  • Architipula veris
  • Architipula latealata
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Crane fly of the family Limoniidae.

Ozotipula[97]

  • Ozotipula tarda
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Crane fly of the family Limoniidae.

Haplotipula[97]

  • Haplotipula majalis
  • Haplotipula cubitoramosa
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Crane fly of the family Limoniidae.

Leptotipuloides[97]

  • Leptotipuloides fastigata
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Crane fly.

Mikrotipula[97]

  • Mikrotipula dixaeformis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Crane fly.

Eoptychoptera[106]

  • Eoptychoptera simplex
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Phantom Crane fly of the family Ptychopteridae.

Necrotaulius[97][107]

  • Necrotaulius parvulus
  • Holzmaden
  • Niedersachsen
  • Kerkhofen
  • Hattorf, Fallersleben

Specimens

A Caddisfly.

Prohemerobius[97][108]

  • Prohemerobius prodromus
  • Prohemerobius septemvirgatus
  • Prohemerobius mediolatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Lacewing of the family Prohemerobiidae.

Parhemerobius[97]

  • Parhemerobius dilatatus
  • Parhemerobius bodei
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Lacewing of the family Prohemerobiidae.

Paractinophlebia[97]

  • Paractinophlebia grasselensis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Lacewing of the family Prohemerobiidae.

Liassopsychops[97]

  • Liassopsychops curvata
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Lacewing of the family Prohemerobiidae.

Tetanoptilon[97]

  • Tetanoptilon brunsvicense
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A lance Lacewing of the family Osmylidae.

Liassocicada[97][109]

  • Liassocicada mueckei
  • Liassocicada antecedens
  • Rhine-Danube canal, Km 112
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A Hairy Cicada of the family Tettigarctidae.

Thilopterus[97]

  • Thilopterus lampei
  • Schandelah

Specimens

A Wasp of the family Ephialtitidae.

Symphytopterus[97]

  • Symphytopterus liasinus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Wasp of the family Ephialtitidae.

Liadobracona[97]

  • Liadobracona raduhna
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Wasp of the family Ephialtitidae.

Agmatozoon[97]

  • Agmatozoon articulatum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Campeulites[97]

  • Campeulites cylindricus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Tomeferusa[97]

  • Tomeferusa abdita
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Trimerocephalium[97]

  • Trimerocephalium incisum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Elasmoscolex[97]

  • Elasmoscolex hamatus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Epimetrophora[97]

  • Epimetrophora recta
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Oocephalina[97]

  • Oocephalina mutilata
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Platycorion[97]

  • Platycorion utroquelaesum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A non classified Insect.

Protomyrmeleon[97]

  • Protomyrmeleon grasselensis
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A Dicondylian, from the family Protomyrmeleontidae.

Dorniella[97]

  • Dorniella pulchra
  • Beienrode

Specimens

A basal Insect of the family Blattogryllidae.

Geinitzia[97][110]

  • Geinitzia latrunculorum
  • Geinitzia fasciata
  • Geinitzia dorni
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Insect of the family Geinitziidae.

Adelocoris[97]

  • Adelocoris ambiguus
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Insect of the family Pachymeridiidae.

Stiphroschema[97]

  • Stiphroschema longealatum
  • Niedersachsen

Specimens

A basal Insect of the family Pachymeridiidae.

Echinodermata[edit]

Asterozoa[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Ophiopholis[111]

  • Ophiopholis trispinosa
  • Holzmaden

Few Specimens.

A brittle star. Very rare on the layers.

Modern Specimen

Mesophiomusium[111]

  • Mesophiomusium geisingense[112]
  • Mesophiomusium scabrum
  • Holzmaden

Few Specimens.

A brittle star. Mesophiomusium geisingense is the most common of the two.

Ophiarachna[111]

  • Ophiarachna liasica
  • Holzmaden

Various Specimens.

A brittle star. Very Common.

Sinosura[111][113]

  • Sinosura brodiei
  • Holzmaden

Various Specimens.

A brittle star. Very Common.

Fossil Specimen

?Ophiura[111]

  • Ophiura astonensis
  • Holzmaden

Few Specimens.

A brittle star. Very Rare.

Apperance

?Ophiocten[111]

  • Ophiocten seeweni
  • Holzmaden

Few Specimens.

A brittle star. Rare.

?Pentasteria[111]

  • Pentasteria sp.
  • Banz

Few Specimens.

A sea star of the family Astropectinidae. Rare.

Pentasteria sp. from Banz

Echinoidea[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Cidaris[114]

  • Cidaris sp.
  • Holzmaden

Few Specimens.

A sea urchin. Common on several layers. Cidaris is genus that still alive today. A bottom daweller, is commonly found associated with Belemnnite fossils, probably due to be eating it´s carcases.

Modern Specimen

Diademopsis[46]

  • Diademopsis crinifera
  • Diademopsis sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden
  • Altforf
  • Banz
  • Regensburg

Docens of Specimens

A sea urchin of the family Pedinidae. It is the most common sea urchin in the formation, present on all the levels with specimens of various sizes. Vinculated to sea bottom sediments, before Gasteropods and Bivalves, Diademospsis was the tird major colonizator of the bottom, in between anoxic changes.

Specimens from Holzmaden

Procidaris[46]

  • Procidaris sp.
  • Holzmaden
  • Banz
  • Regensburg

Few Specimens.

A sea urchin of the family Miocidaridae

Holothuroidea[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Uncinulina[115]

  • Uncinulina parvispinosa
  • Maurach

Few Specimens.

A Sea Cucumber of the Family Elasipodida. Common on the Austrian realm, characterised due to been present of Pelagic environments, as is common on modern genera of it´s family, but not on the fossil record. Can be the oldest pelagic representative of the Sea Cucumber family. Can be also related to the modern deep sea genus Enypniastes.

Modern Species Enypniastes can be related to Uncinulina

Crinoidea[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Procomaster[116]

  • Procomaster pentadactylus
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A comatulid crinoid.

Praetetracrinus[117]

  • Praetetracrinus kutscheri
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A Plicatocrinid crinoid.

Shroshaecrinus[117]

  • ?Shroshaecrinus quedlinburgensis
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A Millericrinid crinoid.

Isocrinus[118]

  • Isocrinus basaltiformis
  • Holzmaden
  • Banz

Multiple specimens.

A Isocrinidae crinoid.

Close view of one specimen
Single specimen

Seirocrinus[21]

  • Seirocrinus subangularis
  • Nearly All the Formation

Multiple specimens. Fossilized rafts of +10 m long with complete colonies.

Among the tallest animals of its period, Seirocrinus is also one of the most famous fossils from the Posidonia Shale. It consists of fossils of colonies along large wood trunks, with specimens up to 14 m long, with the largest specimen reaching 26 m long[119], what makes it among the tallest know Mesozoic organisms, one of the largest invertebrates know on the fossil record and one of the tallest know animals. It was an open ocean organism that lived in rafting woods, probably filtering food and serving as a refuge for other animals, such as ammonites.[120] The crinoids had a large colonization process, based on the status of the fossil wood found.[121][122] The large rafts where the home for a high variety of marine organisms, such as Balanoideans, Ammonites and other. It has been stimated that without the presence of modern raft wood predators (that apperared on the Bathonian) those rafts can last up to 5 years, being that the main reason the crinoids where able to attach such huge sizes. The large rafts where also proabaly esential to distribute animals along the Early Jurassic Seas.[123]

Close view of one specimen
Single specimen

Pentacrinites[124]

  • Pentacrinites fossilis
  • Pentacrinites briareus
  • Pentacrinites dichotomus
  • Pentacrinites quenstedti[125]
  • Holzmaden
  • Bavaria
  • Banz

Multiple specimens. Fossilized rafts of +10 m long with complete colonies.

Like Seirocrinus, Pentacrinites formed colonies on rafting wood, getting a different role than bigger crinoid and appearing on the first stages of the descomposition of the rafting wood. Was an smaller genus, with specimens of no more than 1 meter long, usually measuring 40-70 cm.

Close view of one specimen
Reconstruction

Vertebrata[edit]

Fishes[edit]

Chondrichthyes[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Crassodus[126]

  • Crassodus reifi
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A shark of the family Hybodontidae.

Microtoxodus[127]

  • Microtoxodus gulakmani[127]
  • Schömberg, Württemberg

Multiple specimens.

A non clasified Elasmobranch.

Protospinax[127]

  • Protospinax sp.
  • Schömberg, Württemberg

Multiple specimens.

A member of the family Protospinacidae.

Mesiteia[127]

  • ? Mesiteia sp.
  • Schömberg, Württemberg

Multiple specimens.

A Carpet Shark of the family Orectolobiformes.

Chiloscyllium[127]

  • ? Chiloscyllium sp.
  • Schömberg, Württemberg

Multiple specimens.

A Carpet Shark of the family Hemiscylliidae.

Palaeobrachaelurus[127]

  • Palaeobrachaelurus sp.
  • Schömberg, Württemberg

Multiple specimens.

A Carpet Shark of the family Orectolobiformes.

Bdellodus[128]

  • Bdellodus bollensis
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A shark of the family Hybodontidae.

Hybodus[129][130]

  • Hybodus hauffianus
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

Type shark of the family Hybodontidae. It is the most abundant shark on the layers of the Posidonia Shale, with some of the best preserved specimens of the genus known. It was probably an open ocean hunter, with small horns over the eyes. With a size around 2 m, it was also one of the largest representatives of the Chondrichthyes on the formation.[131][132]

Hybodus Holzmaden specimen, among the best preserved of the genus, with Belemmnites inside.
Hybodus Another Holzmaden specimen

Pseudonotidanus[133]

  • Pseudonotidanus politus
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A shark of the family Hexanchiformes.

Synechodus[134]

  • Synechodus egertoni
  • Holzmaden
  • Schömberg

Multiple specimens.

Thype shark of the family Synechodontiformes.

Bathytheristes[135]

  • Bathytheristes gracilis
  • Holzmaden

SMNS 59754

A Chimaera similar to Callorhinchus, among the oldest known of it´s type.

Callorhinchus milii can be the closest relative of Bathytheristes

Acanthorhina[136]

  • Acanthorhina jaekeli
  • Holzmaden

Complete specimen

An aberrant Chimaera with an extrange elongated nose and horns over the skull.

Metopacanthus[137]

  • Metopacanthus bollensis
  • Holzmaden

Partial specimen.

An aberrant Chimaera with a second jaw-like structure on its head.

Actinopteri[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Saurorhynchus[138]

  • Saurorhynchus hauffi
  • Saurorhynchus brevirostris
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

The youngest representative of the family Saurichthyidae, known for its large jaws, similar to modern Belonidae.

Pholidophorus

  • Pholidophorus germanicus
  • Pholidophorus hartmanni
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A member of the family Pholidophoridae. Is among the most abundant fishes on the late liassic of Europe, present on the sub-mediterranean boreal, with specimens of several sizes.

Leptolepis[139]

  • Leptolepis jaegeri
  • Leptolepis coryphaenoides
  • Leptolepis bronni
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg
  • Maurach

Multiple specimens.

A member of the family Leptolepididae. The most common member of it´s family, Leptolepis is commonly associated with Crustaceans and small marine invertebrates, probably main creatures on it´s diet. One on the most predated vertebrates on the formation, with abundance of larger fishes and reptiles with specimens associated.

Saurostomus[140]

  • Saurostomus esocinus
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A member of the family Pachycormidae. Small sized member of the family, with specimens of less tan 30 cm long. Opean ocean swimmer.

Pachycormus[141]

  • Pachycormus macropterus
  • Pachycormus bollensis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A member of the family Pachycormidae. Large representative of it´s family, with a size up to 1.5 m.

Sauropsis[142]

  • Sauropsis latus
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

A large member of the family Pachycormidae.

Ohmdenia[143]

  • Ohmdenia multidentata
  • Holzmaden

Partial specimen.

A large member of the family Pachycormidae, with up to 2.5-3 m long and an stimated weigth over 200 kg. Considered originally a junior synonym of Pachycormus, altrougth the craneal bones suggest a new genus. Among the largest fish found on the formation it is a key fossil on the transition to large filter feeding fishes. Being Coeval with another basal Pachycormiformes show the specialization of the group during the late lower jurassic. Ohmdenia is the sister taxa to group of suspension-feeding Giant Middle-Late Jurassic Fishes (Including the famous Leedsichthys), showing alterations on it´s dental structure, with jaw indicates a diet based on soft body prey. It´s evolutinary significance it´s equiparable of that of the genus Aetiocetus for the modern Baleen whale.[144]

Dapedium[145]

  • Dapedium pholidotus
  • Dapedium punctatus
  • Dapedium caelatus
  • Dapedium stollorum[146]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg
  • Maurach

Multiple specimens.

A common member of the family Dapediidae.

Lepidotes[147]

  • Lepidotes elvensis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg
  • Maurach

Multiple specimens.

A common member of the Lepisosteiformes.

Tetragonolepis[148]

  • Tetragonolepis drosera
  • Tetragonolepis semicincta
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg
  • Maurach

Multiple specimens.

A common member of the Semionotidae.

Strongylosteus[149][150]

  • Strongylosteus hindenburgi
  • Holzmaden

Various Specimens

A large member of the Chondrosteidae and the largest non reptilian marine vertebrate of the Posidonia shale, with a size bewteen 3 and 4.5 m, and an stimated weigth over 800 kg to 1 tonne. Has been suggested as a junior Synonym of Chrondrosteus, altrougth there haven´t been any new revision about the status of the genus. It is related to modern sturgeons, but with a different kind of mouth than common species, made for hunting prey in open waters, with a strong lower jaw, similar to modern Beluga Sturgeons.[151]

Sarcopterygii[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Trachymetopon[152][153]

  • Trachymetopon liasicum
  • Holzmaden
  • Ohmden

Various Specimens with diverse degree of preservation.

A large coelacanth of the family Mawsoniidae, related with the genera Axelrodichthys, Chinlea, Diplurus and the type Mawsonia. The largest specimen know from the Posidonia Shale is GPIT.OS.770 (Holotype), with a length over 1.6 m. The specimen presents an ossified lung inside the abdominal cavity, and most of the body, being also one of the most complete Coelacanths of the Jurassic found. Some recent discoveries from the Middle Jurassic show specimens of up to 3.5 m long.[154] Trachymetopon precedes the presence of the family Mawsoniidae in Europe by about 120 Ma and the northernmost occurrence of a member of the group, impliying an extensive geographical range during the Early Jurassic. Due to the specimens being found on pelagic deposits suggest that probably was an open ocean swimmer.

Trachymetopon GPIT.OS.770

Reptiles[edit]

Ichthyosaurs[edit]

Inderminate specimens are known.[46]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Temnodontosaurus[155][156]

  • Temnodontosaurus trigonodon
  • Temnodontosaurus burgundiae
  • Temnodontosaurus "sp. A"
  • Temnodontosaurus "sp. B"
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Schlierbach
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg
  • Mistelgau

Multiple specimens with different degree of preservation.

Type genus of the family Temnodontosauridae. A large Macroraptorial Ichthyosaur, apex predator of its environment. It range on sizes between the 9 and the 12 m, being one of the largest know ichthyosaurs, characterized by skulls and jaws over 1 m in length, with the largest being over 1.9 m long. It has been found with fragments of young icthyosaur on his stomach.[157]Of 39 specimens of Temnodontosaurus studied, a 21% (8 Specimens) show pathologies along their body, with several injuries post traumatic, probably done by other marine reptiles.[158]

Temnodontosaurus hunting
Temnodontosaurus Banz specimen, 13.4 m long and possible near 10 tonne specimen.

Stenopterygius[159]

  • Stenopterygius megalorhinus[160][161]
  • Stenopterygius eos[162]
  • Stenopterygius intercedens
  • Stenopterygius incessus
  • Stenopterygius hauffianus
  • Stenopterygius cuneiceps
  • Stenopterygius promegacephalus
  • Stenopterygius sp
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg

Multiple specimens. Some of them are among the best preserved Ichthyosaur remains known.[163]

Type genus of the family Stenopterygiidae. A common Toarcian Ichthyosaur, present on multiple layers. The rather exquisite level of preservation has led to know even the coloration, that exposes a clear countershading, with an upper part being more obscure than the lower, similar to modern Killer Whales, the Heaviside's dolphin or the Dall's porpoise. The is also evidence of changes in color with ontogenic chnges, going from dark juveniles to countershaded adults. The skin was flexible & Scaless, as in Dolphins.[164]

Restoration
Fossil mother with embryo

Suevoleviathan[165][166]

  • Suevoleviathan disinteger
  • Suevoleviathan integer[167]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens.

Type genus of the family Suevoleviathanidae. Includes specimens up to 4 m long.

Suevoleviathan integer fossil

Hauffiopteryx[168]

  • Hauffiopteryx typicus
  • Holzmaden/Ohmden quarry.

Complete Specimen.

Small sized Ichthyosaur, probably a member of Parvipelvia.[169]

Hauffiopteryx typicus fossil

Eurhinosaurus[170][171][172]

  • Eurhinosaurus longirostris
  • Holzmaden/Ohmden quarry.

Complete and partial Specimens.

A large ichthyosaur of the family Leptonectidae with convergent evolution with modern Swordfish.

A 6.4 meter (21ft) Eurhinosaurus specimen from the Posidonia Shale
Complete specimen from the Posidonia Shale
Eurhinosaurus restoration

Plesiosaurs[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Meyerasaurus[173]

  • Meyerasaurus victor
  • Rohrbach Concrete, Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden, epsilon II-5

Nearly complete specimen.

A Rhomaleosaurid Plesiosaur. Its detailed fossils have helped to study plesiosaur movement.[174]

Hauffiosaurus[175]

  • Hauffiosaurus zanoni
  • Rohrbach Concrete, Dotternhausen
  • Holzmaden, epsilon II-5

Complete specimen.

A Rhomaleosaurid Plesiosaur.

Plesiopterys[176][177]

  • Holzmaden, epsilon II-5

Complete Specimen.

A basal Plesiosaur. It is one of the smallest from the Posidonia, with a complete skeleton measuring less than 2.5 m. It is considered a possible junior synonym of Seeleyosaurus[179]

Seeleyosaurus[180][181]

  • Seeleyosaurus guilelmiimperatoris
  • Holzmaden, epsilon II-5

Complete Specimens.

A Plesiosaur of the family Microcleididae.

Microcleidus[182]

  • Microcleidus brachypterygius
  • Holzmaden, epsilon II-5

Several Complete Specimens.

Type member of the Plesiosaur family Microcleididae. Small Plesiosaur, with a length of less than 3 m.

Hydrorion[183][184]

  • Hydrorion brachypterygius
  • Holzmaden, epsilon II-5

Complete Specimen.

A Plesiosaur of the family Plesiosauridae. It is characterised by a really enlongated neck.

Sphenodontia[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Palaeopleurosaurus[185]

  • Palaeopleurosaurus posidoniae
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg

Complete specimens.

An aquatic sphenodont of the family Pleurosauridae. Probably had a semiaquatic style of life; recent studies suggest a shorter lifespan than modern Tuatara.[186]

Testudinata[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Testudinata[187][188][189]

  • Testudinata indeterminate A
  • Testudinata indeterminate B
  • Testudinata indeterminate C
  • Altdorf, Bavaria

Various partial specimens, mostly pleurals.

Unclassified Testudine. Münster (1834) cited: " there were also rare things at the quarries of Altdorf, among other remains there where ones of a turtle on lias limestone"". The remains are not cataloged.[190]

Mesochelydia?[191]

  • Mesochelydia? indeterminate A
  • Mesochelydia? indeterminate B
  • Banz, Bavaria

Various partial specimens, mostly pleurals. Includes a left partial shell.

Assinged to Mesochelydia(?) due to resemblances for the authors to modern turtles. Unclassified and non cataloged.[190]

Perichelydia?[192]

  • Perichelydia? indeterminate A
  • Schandelah

Fragmentary Remains

Can be a more basal taxon or even not a turtle. If it is, can be the first Turtle remains found on the Posidonia Shale since the late 1800s. Now on a private collection.[192]

Crocodrylomorpha[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Steneosaurus[193]

  • Steneosaurus bollensis
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg

Complete specimens.

A marine crocodrylomorph with a diet probably based on fish.[194] It is the best known member of the family Teleosauriade.

Mystriosaurus[195][196]

  • Mystriosaurus laurillardi
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Holzmaden

Complete specimen.

A marine crocodrylomorph with a diet probably based on fish. Was considered synonymous with Steneosaurus until recently.[197]

Platysuchus[198]

  • Platysuchus multiscrobiculatus
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden
  • Regensburg

Complete specimen.

A marine crocodrylomorph with a diet probably based on fish.

Pelagosaurus[199][200]

  • Pelagosaurus typus
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Holzmaden

Complete specimen.

A marine crocodrylomorph with a diet probably based on fish (one fossil specimen was found with a Leptolepis in its stomach contents). Has been considered a basal Metriorhynchidae[201] or sister taxon to both Teleosauridae and Metriorhynchidae.[202]

Pholidosauridae?[203]

  • Indeterminate
  • Holzheim bei Göppingen

Partial specimen.

A marine crocodrylomorph. Can be a mistaken Teleosaurian. Has been included on Cf. Platysuchus, altrougth has characters that align it with Anglosuchus, that was also confused with a Teleosaurid.

Protosuchidae?[192]

  • Indeterminate
  • Schandelah

Fragmentary remains

A terrestrial, maybe semi-acuatic crocodrylomorph. Can be a mistaken juvenile Teleosaurian.

Pterosaurs[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Campylognathoides[204][205][206]

  • Campylognathoides zitteli[206]
  • Campylognathoides liasicus[206]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden

Several specimens with different degrees of preservation.

A Novialoidean Pterosaur, type genus of the family Campylognathoidea. Mark Witton suggests the construction of Campylognathoides' extremely robust forelimbs, with proportionally long wing fingers, could be a specialization for a fast aerial lifestyle comparable to those of Falcons and mastiff bats, being more probably a insect & vertebrate hunter and living on nearshore environments.[207]

Nearly complete Campylognathoides

Novialoidea[208]

  • Indeterminate
  • Schandelah

Pelvis and several vertebrae.

A Novialoidean Pterosaur. Has been assigned to the genus Campylognathoides, although it is clearly different than any other pterosaur from the Posidonia Shale.

Parapsicephalus[209]

  • cf. Parapsicephalus purdoni
  • Altdorf

Skull

A Rhamphorhynchinae Pterosaur. Has been assigned to the genus Dorygnathus. It has a really complete skull that can help to explain the estatus of the genus Parapsicephalus.

Dorygnathus[210][211]

  • Dorygnathus banthensis[212]
  • Dorygnathus mistelgauensis?[213]
  • Banz
  • Altdorf
  • Schandelah
  • Niedersachsen
  • Holzmaden

Multiple specimens with different degree of preservation.[214]

A Rhamphorhynchinae Pterosaur. It is one of the best known Early Jurassic Pterosaurs. Unlike Campylognthoides, Dorygnathus was a oceanic hunter, with teeth disposed to catch marine prey, such as Belemnittes and several species of fishes. Dorygnathus mistelgauensis is considered a junior synonym until more data can be recovered from the specimen, held on a private collection.

Dorygnathus on terrestrial pose
Nearly complete Dorygnathus

Sauropoda[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Ohmdenosaurus[215]

  • Ohmdenosaurus liasicus
  • Holzmaden

Tibia and astragalus

A Gravisaurian Sauropod. One of the few formally described from the Toarcian. Has been related with Vulcanodon, although more recent studies placed it as a relative of Rhoetosaurus.[216] It has been claimed to be a small sauropod with a size of 4 m, altrought the tibia measures 405 to 410 mm, leading to a 6.7 m long sauropod. Molina Pérez & Larramendi, stimated a modern size of 6.2 to 6.7 m long, with a weight of 1.3 tonnes.[217]

Synapsida[edit]

Genus Species Stratigraphic position Material Notes Images

Trithelodontidae?[218]

  • Trithelodontidae? Indeterminate
  • Banz

3 Tooth

The Specimens where listed on several notes on the 1800s, altrougth it´s existence haven´t been proved. Can be related to the Trithelodontidae by related characters, such as Irajatherium Left maxilla teeth. but that would imply a great gost lineage since the Sinemurian. If it´s presence is proved, it would be the first Mammaliform found on the Posidonia Shale.

References[edit]

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