Paleoburrow

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A paleoburrow is an underground shelter (tunnel, burrow, lair, etc.) excavated by extinct paleo-vertebrate megafauna (i.e., giant mammals, such as ground sloths) that lived in the prehistoric era.[1][2][3]

A crotovina is a paleoburrow filled with sediments (sands, clays, etc.) that have been deposited over the centuries through rainfall and accumulated due to the porosity of the terrain. Generally, fossils found in crotovinas exhibit large proportions similar to known megafauna of their geological period.[4][5]

In Brazil, hundreds of paleontological sites characterized as paleoburrows exist,[6] such as in Ponta do Abunã, in Rondônia, within the Amazon region,[7] in the Serra do Gandarela National Park, in Minas Gerais,[8] in Monte Bonito, the southern Rio Grande,[9] as well as the Toca do Tatu in Santa Catarina.[10]

After the extinction of the megafauna about 10,000 years ago, some paleoburrows were reused by indigenous human populations. Recent searches indicate that these structures were used as temporary shelters as well as for ritual purposes. In the interior of some paleoburrows, researchers discovered stone tools, ceramic artifacts, human burials, and inscriptions engraved in the walls.

Paleoburrows are classified as paleontological sites; however, if the remains of ancient populations are also found, the site may become the object of research for both paleontologists and archaeologists[11][12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ II Congresso sobre Planejamento e Gestão das Zonas Costeiras dos Países de Expressão Portuguesa UFRGS - agosto/2015
  2. ^ ANAIS do 31º Congresso Brasileiro de Espeleologia Cavernas.org - agosto/2015
  3. ^ Jenner, Andrew (March 28, 2017). "Get Lost in Mega-Tunnels Dug by South American Megafauna". Discover. Kalmbach. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  4. ^ Casa de preguiça Ciência Hoje - agosto/2015
  5. ^ Paleotocas, Crotovinas e Abrigos Subterrâneos Projeto Paleotoca - UFRGS - agosto/2015
  6. ^ Lopes, Renato Pereira; Frank, Heinrich Theodor; et al. (15 Sep 2016). "Megaichnus igen. nov.: Giant Paleoburrows Attributed to Extinct Cenozoic Mammals from South America". Ichnos. doi:10.1080/10420940.2016.1223654.
  7. ^ Caverna escavada por mamíferos gigantes é descoberta na Amazônia O Globo- agosto/2015
  8. ^ Parque Nacional é criado em Minas Gerais, mas deixa área de Mata Atlântica desprotegida Rede Sustentabilidade.org- agosto/2015
  9. ^ O protagonista: um tatu gigante Boletim BR 116 - agosto/2015
  10. ^ "Revista Espeleotema" (PDF). 2012.
  11. ^ VICROSKI, Fabricio J. Nazzari; FRANK, Heinrich Theodor (2013). "A Problemática das Galerias Subterrâneas na Arqueologia do Sul do Brasil". Anais Eletrônicos do II Congresso Internacional de História Regional.
  12. ^ AZEVEDO, Leonardo Waisman de Azevedo; COPÉ,Silvia Moehlecke. "A Gênese das Galerias Subterrâneas no Planalto Sul-Brasileiro". Revista de Arqueologia.

Further reading[edit]