Palestine Jewish Colonization Association
The Palestine Jewish Colonization Association, commonly known by its Yiddish acronym PICA (Hebrew: פיק"א), was established in 1924 and played a major role in supporting the Yishuv in Mandatory Palestine and later the State of Israel until its disbandment in 1957.
The Jewish Colonization Association (JCA or ICA) was founded by Bavarian philanthropist Baron Maurice de Hirsch in 1891 to help Jews from Russia and Romania to settle in Argentina. Baron de Hirsch died in 1896 and thereafter the JCA began to also assist the Palestinian colonies. At the end of 1899 Edmond James de Rothschild transferred title to his colonies in Palestine plus fifteen million francs to the JCA. In 1924 the JCA branch dealing with colonies in Palestine was reorganised by Baron de Rothschild as the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association, under the direction of his son James Armand de Rothschild.
James de Rothschild, who died in 1957, instructed in his will that PICA should transfer most of its land in Israel to the Jewish National Fund. On December 31, 1958 PICA agreed to vest its right to land holdings in Syria and Lebanon in the State of Israel.
- Brandeis, 1973, p. 499.
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- Avneri, 1984, p. 159.
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- Fishbach, 2003, pp. 163-164.
- Avneri, Arieh (1984). The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-settlement and the Arabs, 1878-1948. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-87855-964-7
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- Fischbach, Michael R. (2003). Records of Dispossession. Palestinian Refugee Property and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12978-5
- Norman, Theodore (1985). An Outstretched Arm: A History of the Jewish Colonization Association. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
- Halbrook, Stephen P. (1981). The Alienation of a Homeland: How Palestine Became Israel (PDF). Journal of Libertarian Studies V.
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- Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Redeemers of the Land, 18 October, 1999, accessed 1 June, 2007.
- UNISPAL, Report on Immigration, Land Settlement and Development, Sir John Hope Simpson, Presented by the Secretary of State for the Colonies to Parliament by Command of His Majesty, October, 1930.