Palestinian refugee camps

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1948 Palestinian exodus
Man see school nakba.jpg

Main articles
1948 Palestinian exodus


1947–48 civil war
1948 Arab–Israeli War
1948 Palestine war
Causes of the exodus
Nakba Day
Palestine refugee camps
Palestinian refugee
Palestinian right of return
Present absentee
Transfer Committee
Resolution 194

Background
Mandatory Palestine
Israeli Declaration of Independence
Israeli–Palestinian conflict history
New Historians
Palestine · Plan Dalet
1947 partition plan · UNRWA

Key incidents
Battle of Haifa
Deir Yassin massacre
Exodus from Lydda and Ramle

Notable writers
Aref al-Aref · Yoav Gelber
Efraim Karsh · Walid Khalidi
Nur-eldeen Masalha · Benny Morris
Ilan Pappé · Tom Segev
Avraham Sela · Avi Shlaim

Related categories/lists
List of depopulated villages

Related templates
Palestinians


"Palestine refugee camps" redirects here. For further information, see Palestinian and Palestine (disambiguation)

Palestinian refugee camps were established after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War to accommodate the Arab Palestine refugees who fled or were expelled during the 1948 Palestinian exodus. Arab refugees built their residual homes in refugee camps, have been absorbed into Jordanian society or the Palestinian territories. Palestinian refugees inherit their granted UNRWA refugee status from ancestral Arab Palestine refugees in paternal line.[1]

Palestine refugee camps were established since the 1930s to accommodate Jewish refugees and Holocaust survivors. Later, Jews who fled or were expelled during the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries, were initially resettled in refugee camps, Ma'abarot and development towns. Since 1948 they were granted Israeli citizenship and live with their descendents absorbed into mainstream Israeli society.

Palestine Refugees[edit]

United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) non-binding advisory[2][3] Resolution 194, Article 11 "resolves that the refugees" who wish to "live at peace with their neighbors … should be permitted" to return to their homes at the "earliest practicable date".[4]

The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) defines a "Palestine Refugee" as:

"persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict."[5]

Since after the Holocaust, and in the context of the Arab-Israeli conflict, Holocaust survivors, Jews from displaced persons camp and Cyprus internment camps, and Jewish refugees who fled or had been expelled during the Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries were initially resettled in refugee camps known variously as Immigrant camps, Ma'abarot, and "development towns" prior to absorption into mainstream Israeli society.

Conversely, Arab Palestine refugees remaine in Palestinian refugee camps, while others have been absorbed into Jordanian society or the Palestinian territories. The vast majority of Palestinian refugees today only inherited their refugee status in paternal line from ancestral Arab Palestine refugees, of which few are left.[1]

Since 1948, the State of Israel has guaranteed citizenship to Jews from anywhere in the world, while barring return of Palestinian refugees to their homes, due to the demographic threat that they pose. Druze and other non-Arabic minorities also live absorbed in democratic Israeli society.

Role of UNRWA[edit]

UNRWA recognizes facilities in 59 designated refugee camps in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. It also provided relief to displaced persons inside Israel following the 1948 conflict until the Israeli government took over responsibility for them in 1952.

For a camp to be recognized by UNRWA, there must be an agreement between the host government and UNRWA governing use of the camp. UNRWA does not itself run any camps, has no police powers or administrative role, but simply provides services to the camp. Designated refugee camps, which developed from tented cities to rows of concrete blockhouses to urban ghettos indistinguishable from their surroundings (effectively becoming urban developments within existing cities or by themselves), house around one third of all registered Palestine refugees. UNRWA also provides facilities in other areas where large numbers of registered Palestine refugees live outside of recognized camps.

UNRWA defines a Palestine refugee as:[6]

"persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict."

UNRWA's definition of a refugee also covers the descendants of refugee males.[6] The number of registered Palestine refugees (PR) has subsequently grown from 750,000 in 1950 to around 5 million in 2013.[6]

List of camps[edit]

This lists Palestine refugee camps with current population and year they were established.[7]

Mandatory Palestine[edit]

For the conversion of Mandatory Palestine Jewish refugee camps into transition camps, see Ma'abarot.

By the end of 1948 there were 20 immigrant camps across Israel. At the end of 1949 there had been 90,000 Jewish refugees housed in immigration camps; by the end of 1951 this population rose to over 220,000 people, in about 125 separate communities.[8] In the early 1950s additionally 130,000 Iraqi Jewish refugees arrived in Israel. Over 80% of the Ma'abarot residents were Jewish refugees from Arab and Muslim countries of Middle East and North Africa.

Israel[edit]

Further information: Ayarat Pitu'ach

Over time, the Ma'abarot metamorphosed into Israeli towns, or were absorbed as neighbourhoods of the towns they were attached to, and residents were provided with permanent housing. The number of people housed in Ma'abarot began to decline since 1952, and the last Ma'abarot were closed sometime around 1963.[8] Most of the camps transformed into Development Towns.

Gaza Strip[edit]

The Gaza Strip has 8 UNRWA refugee camps with 518,000 Palestine refugees, and 1,221,110 registered refugees in total (out of a population of 1,816,379).

West Bank[edit]

The West Bank has 19 UNRWA refugee camps with 188,150 Palestine refugees, and 741,409 registered refugees in total (out of a population of 2,345,107).

Syria[edit]

Syria has 10 UNRWA refugee camps with 154,758 official Palestine refugees, and 499,189 registered refugees in total (out of a population of 17,951,639).

Three camps with a total of 164,500 inhabitants are unofficial (*).

Lebanon[edit]

There are 12 UNRWA refugee camps in Lebanon with 188,850 Palestine refugees, and 448,599 registered refugees in total (out of a population of 4,467,000).

Jordan[edit]

There are 10 UNRWA refugee camps in Jordan with 355,500 Palestine refugees, and 2,034,641 registered refugees in total (out of a population of 5,611,202).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Consolidated Eligibility and Registration Instructions" (PDF). UNRWA. Persons who meet UNRWA’s Palestine Refugee criteria These are persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict. Palestine Refugees, and descendants of Palestine refugee males, including legally adopted children, are eligible to register for UNRWA services. The Agency accepts new applications from persons who wish to be registered as Palestine Refugees. Once they are registered with UNRWA, persons in this category are referred to as Registered Refugees or as Registered Palestine Refugees. 
  2. ^ CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS: CHAPTER IV: THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY: FUNCTIONS and POWERS: Article 10 Retrieved 7 June 21012
  3. ^ General Assembly of the United Nations: Functions and Powers of the General Assembly: Retrieved 7 June 2012
  4. ^ Resolution 194 (III) @unispal; 11 December 1948 (doc.nr. A/RES/194 (III)).; Votes: United Nations Dag Hammarskjold Library
  5. ^ "Consolidated Eligibility and Registration Instructions" (PDF). UNRWA. Persons who meet UNRWA’s Palestine Refugee criteria These are persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948, and who lost both home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict. Palestine Refugees, and descendants of Palestine refugee males, including legally adopted children, are eligible to register for UNRWA services. The Agency accepts new applications from persons who wish to be registered as Palestine Refugees. Once they are registered with UNRWA, persons in this category are referred to as Registered Refugees or as Registered Palestine Refugees. 
  6. ^ a b c "Who We Are - UNRWA". UNRWA. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  7. ^ "Where We Work - UNRWA". UNRWA. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  8. ^ a b (Hebrew) Ma'abarot by Miriam Kachenski, Israeli Center for Educational Technology

External links[edit]

Maps[edit]

  1. ^ "Camp Profiles". unrwa.org. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East. Retrieved 2 July 2015.