Palestinian March 2007 National Unity Government
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politics and government of
Officeholders whose status is disputed are shown in italics
The 2007 Palestinian National Unity Government (Arabic: المجلس الفلسطيني لآذار 17 2007) was a Palestinian government headed by Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh and formed on 17 March 2007, following the 2006 Palestinian elections and consecutive negotiations in Mecca.
Israel immediately rejected the government and said it will deal with Abbas, but not with the new government unless it recognizes the Jewish state. Israeli officials said they would try to persuade the world not to deal with the government.
After the 2006 elections which Hamas won, Fatah developed a plan to replace the Hamas-government. According to the plan, a national unity government or a "government of technocrats" would be formed and prepare early presidential and legislative elections. If the establishment of a government meeting the Quartet conditions would fail, President Abbas would announce a state of emergency, dismiss the present cabinet and form an emergency government, or call for early elections. Initially, a Unity Government was formed, but failing to meet the Quartet conditions it was short-living and after a Fatah–Hamas battle dissolved by Abbas.
On 25 January 2006, Hamas won the parliamentary elections. Israel, the United States, the European Union and several Western states imposed sanctions suspending all foreign aid, upon which Palestinians depend.
In March 2006, the previous Government was installed.
On 8 February 2007, negotiations in Mecca produced agreement on a Palestinian national unity government signed by Mahmoud Abbas on behalf of Fatah and Khaled Mashal on behalf of Hamas. The new government was called on to achieve Palestinian national goals as approved by the Palestine National Council, the clauses of the Basic Law and the National Reconciliation Document (the "Prisoners' Document") as well as the decisions of the Arab summit.
On 17 March, the Palestinian Legislative Council established a national unity government, with 83 representatives voting in favor and three against. Government ministers were sworn in by President Mahmoud Abbas at a ceremony held simultaneously in Gaza and Ramallah. Israel rejected the new government, while Norway recognized it and other countries reacted with reserve. On that moment, 41 of 132 Members of Parliament, nearly a third of the PLC, were in Israeli detention.
On 14 June, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas announced the dissolution of the March 2007 unity government and the declaration of a state of emergency. Ismail Haniya has been dismissed, and Abbas will rule Gaza and the West Bank by presidential decree.
Following the takeover of the Gaza Strip Egypt and Israel largely sealed their border crossings with Gaza, on the grounds that Fatah had fled and was no longer providing security on the Palestinian side. Egypt fearing a spill-over of Hamas-style militancy into their territory assisted in the blockade.
Members of the Government
- Palestinians OK Unity Govt. Arab News, 18 March 2007
- Palestinian Vision for Resolving the Current PA Crisis (Draft #6). The Palestine Papers, 30 October 2006. On 
- The Palestinian National Unity Government. Shlomo Brom, Canada Free Press, 24 February 2007
- Haaretz/Associated Press, 10 June 2007, Palestinian gunmen target Haniyeh's home in Gaza. On web.archive.org
- Guardian, 15 June 2007, Hamas takes control of Gaza
- "Abbas Dissolves Palestinian Authority Government in Wake of Hamas-Fatah War". Fox News. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Levinson, Charles; Matthew Moore (14 June 2007). "Abbas declares state of emergency in Gaza". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- "Abbas sacks Hamas-led government". BBC News. 14 June 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
- Olmert aide supports free Gaza. By Dion Nissenbaum. McClatchy Newspapers. Published 8 December 2008
- Palestinians flood into Egypt after blowing up border wall, The Guardian, 23 January 2008.