Palm Springs, California
Palm Springs, California
Downtown Palm Springs
Location within Riverside County
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Native American Reservation (partial)||Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians|
|Incorporated||April 20, 1938|
|• Mayor||Christy Holstege|
|• Total||94.68 sq mi (245.21 km2)|
|• Land||94.54 sq mi (244.85 km2)|
|• Water||0.14 sq mi (0.36 km2) 0.90%|
|Elevation||479 ft (146 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||513.21/sq mi (198.15/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−8 (Pacific)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−7 (PDT)|
|GNIS feature IDs||1652768, 2411357|
Palm Springs is a desert resort city in Riverside County, California, United States, within the Colorado Desert's Coachella Valley. The city covers approximately 94 square miles (240 km2), making it the largest city in Riverside County by land area. With multiple plots in checkerboard pattern, more than 10% of the city is part of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians reservation land and is the administrative capital of the most populated reservation in California. Traditionally the Cahuilla refer to the Palm Springs area as Sec-he or Se-Khi.
Although the population of Palm Springs was 44,552 as of the 2010 census, because Palm Springs is a retirement location, as well as a winter snowbird destination, the city's population triples between November and March.
The first humans to settle in the area were the Cahuilla people, who arrived 2,000 years ago. Cahuilla Indians lived here in isolation from other cultures for hundreds of years prior to European contact. They spoke Ivilyuat, which is a Uto-Aztecan language. Numerous prominent and powerful Cahuilla leaders were from Palm Springs, including Cahuilla Lion (Chief Juan Antonio). While Palm Canyon was occupied during winter months, they often moved to cooler Chino Canyon during the summer months.
The Cahuilla Indians had several permanent settlements in the canyons of Palm Springs, due to the abundance of water and shade. Various hot springs were used during wintertime. The Cahuilla hunted rabbit, mountain goat and quail, while also trapping fish in nearby lakes and rivers. While men were responsible for hunting, women were responsible for collecting berries, acorns and seeds. They also made tortillas from mesquite beans. While the Cahuillas often spent the summers in Indian Canyons, the current site of Spa Resort Casino in downtown was often used during winter due to its natural hot springs.
Native American petroglyphs can be seen in Tahquitz, Chino, and Indian Canyons. The Cahuilla's irrigation ditches, dams and house pits can also be seen here. Ancient petroglyphs, pictographs and mortar holes can be seen in Andreas Canyon. The mortar holes were used to grind acorns into meals.
The Agua Caliente ("Hot Water") Reservation was established in 1876 and consists of 31,128 acres (12,597 ha). Six thousand seven hundred acres (2,700 ha) are located by Downtown Palm Springs. The Native American land is on long lease land and next to one of California's high-end communities, making the tribe one of the wealthiest in California.
The first name for Palm Springs was given by the native Cahuilla: "Se-Khi" (boiling water). When the Agua Caliente Reservation was established by the United States government in 1876, the reservation land was composed of alternating sections (640 acres or 260 ha) of land laid out across the desert in a checkerboard pattern. The alternating non-reservation sections were granted to the Southern Pacific Railroad as an incentive to bring rail lines through the Sonoran Desert.
A number of streets and areas in Palm Springs are named for Native-American notables, including Andreas, Arenas, Amado, Belardo, Lugo, Patencio, Saturnino and Chino. All of these are common Cahuilla surnames.
Presently the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians are composed of several smaller bands who live in the modern day Coachella Valley and San Gorgonio Pass. The Agua Caliente Reservation occupies 32,000 acres (13,000 ha), of which 6,700 acres (2,700 ha) lie within the city limits, making the Agua Caliente natives the city's largest landowners. (Tribal enrollment as of 2010 was 410 people.)
As of 1821 Mexico was independent of Spain and in March 1823 the Mexican Monarchy ended. That same year (in December) Mexican diarist José María Estudillo and Brevet Captain José Romero were sent to find a route from Sonora to Alta California; on their expedition they first recorded the existence of "Agua Caliente" at Palm Springs, California.:30 With the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo after the Mexican-American war, the region became part of the United States in 1848.
Later 19th century
Early names and European settlers
One possible origin of palm in the place name comes from early Spanish explorers who referred to the area as La Palma de la Mano de Dios or "The Palm of God's hand". The earliest use of the name "Palm Springs" is from United States Topographical Engineers who used the term in 1853 maps. According to William Bright, when the word "palm" appears in Californian place names, it usually refers to the native California fan palm, Washingtonia filifera, which is abundant in the Palm Springs area. Other early names were "Palmetto Spring" and "Big Palm Springs".
The first European resident in Palm Springs itself was Jack Summers, who ran the stagecoach station on the Bradshaw Trail in 1862.:44, 149 Fourteen years later (1876), the Southern Pacific railroad was laid 6 miles (9.5 km) to the north, isolating the station.:17 In 1880, local Indian Pedro Chino was selling parcels near the springs to William Van Slyke and Mathew Bryne in a series of questionable transactions; they in turn brought in W. R. Porter to help market their property through the "Palm City Land and Water Company".:275 By 1885, when San Francisco attorney (later known as "Judge") John Guthrie McCallum began buying property in Palm Springs, the name was already in wide acceptance. The area was named "Palm Valley" when McCallum incorporated the "Palm Valley Land and Water Company" with partners O.C. Miller, H.C. Campbell, and James Adams, M.D.:280
Land development and drought
McCallum, who had brought his ill son to the dry climate for health, brought in irrigation advocate Dr. Oliver Wozencroft and engineer J. P. Lippincott to help construct a canal from the Whitewater River to fruit orchards on his property.:276–79 He also asked Dr. Welwood Murray to establish a hotel across the street from his residence. Murray did so in 1886 (he later became a famous horticulturalist).:280 The crops and irrigation systems suffered flooding in 1893 from record rainfall, and then an 11-year drought (1894–1905) caused further damage.:40
The city became a fashionable resort in the 1900s when health tourists arrived with conditions that required dry heat. Because of the heat, however, the population dropped markedly in the summer months. In 1906 naturalist and travel writer George Wharton James's two volume The Wonders of the Colorado Desert described Palm Springs as having "great charms and attractiveness":278–81 and included an account of his stay at Murray's hotel. As James also described, Palm Springs was more comfortable in its microclimate because the area was covered in the shadow of Mount San Jacinto to the west and in the winter the mountains block cold winds from the San Gorgonio pass. Early illustrious visitors included John Muir and his daughters, U.S. Vice President Charles Fairbanks, and Fanny Stevenson, widow of Robert Louis Stevenson; still, Murray's hotel was closed in 1909 and torn down in 1954.:45
Nellie N. Coffman and her physician husband Harry established The Desert Inn as a hotel and sanitarium in 1909. It was expanded as a modern hotel in 1927 and continued on until 1967.:Ch. 13 Coffman herself was a "driving force" in the city's tourism industry until her death in 1950.
James's Wonders of the Colorado Desert (above) was followed in 1920 by J. Smeaton Chase's Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the Sun, which also promoted the area. In 1924 Pearl McCallum (daughter of Judge McCallum) returned to Palm Springs and built the Oasis Hotel with her husband Austin G. McManus; the Modern/Art Deco resort was designed by Lloyd Wright and featured a 40-foot (12 m) tower.:68–69
The next major hotel was the El Mirador, a large and luxurious resort that attracted the biggest movie stars; opening in 1927, its prominent feature was a 68-foot-tall (21 m) Renaissance style tower.:Ch. 23 Silent film star Fritzi Ridgeway's 100-room Hotel del Tahquitz was built in 1929, next to the "Fool's Folly" mansion built by Chicago heiress Lois Kellogg. Golfing was available at the O'Donnell 9 hole course (1926) and the El Mirador (1929) course (see Golf below). Hollywood movie stars were attracted by the hot dry, sunny weather and seclusion—they built homes and estates in the Warm Sands, The Mesa, and Historic Tennis Club neighborhoods (see Neighborhoods below). About 20,000 visitors came to the area in 1922.
Palm Springs became popular with movie stars in the 1930s and estate building expanded into the Movie Colony neighborhoods, Tahquitz River Estates, and Las Palmas neighborhoods. Actors Charles Farrell and Ralph Bellamy opened the Racquet Club in 1934:Ch. 25 and Pearl McCallum opened the Tennis Club in 1937. Nightclubs were set up as well, with Al Wertheimer opening The Dunes outside of Palm Springs in 1934:254 and the Chi Chi nightclub opening in 1936.:206–07 Besides the gambling available at the Dunes Club, other casinos included The 139 Club and The Cove Club outside of the city.
Table of resorts
|Name||City||Year Established||Year Closed/Demolished||Notes and references|
|Agua Caliente Bathhouse||Palm Springs||1880s||Present day||Commercial use since the 1880s; bathhouse constructed 1916; site is now the Agua Caliente Spa Resort Casino, built in 1963:171|
|Southern Pacific Indio depot||Indio||1880s||Burned down in 1966||Contained a "rough resort/hotel":12|
|Hotel and tent houses||Palm Springs||1910s||Unknown||Operated by David Manley Blanchard (tent houses in the late 1800s)|
|Hotel Indio||Indio||1925||2004 (burned)||Opened by E.R. Cooper; had 60 rooms (40 with baths)|
|La Quinta Hotel||La Quinta||1927||Present day||Built by William Morgan; designed by Gordon Kaufmann; now the La Quinta Resort and Club|
|Goff Hotel||Palm Springs||c. 1928||—|||
|Pepper Tree Inn||Palm Springs||1924||—||Also described as the Dr. Reid's Sanitarium/Matthews-Andrea-Pepper Tree Inn|
|Ramona Hotel||Palm Springs||1910s||—||Renamed in 1921 as the Palm Springs Hotel by the Foldesy family, although not related to original Palm Spring Hotel|
|Sunshine Court||Palm Springs||1920s||2000s (razed)||Built by Dr. J. J. Crocker and used by golfers at the O'Donnell Golf Club|
|Hotel La Palma||Palm Springs||1910s||—||Depicted on Palm Canyon Drive in late teens/early 1920s;:118 later became the El Ray Hotel, and then razed when Chi Chi nightclub was built in 1936:143, 166|
|The Orchid Tree Inn||Palm Springs||1934||Present day||45 rooms:247|
|Estrella Resort and Spa||Palm Springs||1933||Present day||Now the Viceroy Palm Springs; 74 rooms:247|
|Ingleside Inn||Palm Springs||1935||Present day||Original estate built in the 1920s, and operated as the Ingleside Inn by Ruth Hardy. It was later owned and operated by Mel Haber, who died on October 25, 2016, and is now owned and managed by PlumpJack Investment Group, started by Gavin Newsom in 1992. It is currently overseen by Newsom's sister Hilary.|
|Palm Springs Tennis Club||Palm Springs||1937||Present day||Area is now the Tennis Club Condominiums|
|La Bella Villas||Palm Springs||1939||Present day||Six Southwest-style villas:247|
|Desert Hot Springs Mineral Bathhouse||Desert Hot Springs||1941||Demolished||Developed by L.W. & Lillian T. Coffee; burned in 1947 and rebuilt|
|The Oasis Hotel||Palm Springs||1925||Present day||Built on grounds owned by the late John Gutherie McCallum; concrete structure designed by Lloyd Wright|
|Hotel del Tahquitz||Palm Springs||1929||1958||Built by movie star Fritzi Ridgeway; had 100 rooms|
|Deep Well Guest Ranch||Palm Springs||1929||1948||Operated by Frank and Melba Bennet; converted to housing development:148|
|Smoke Tree Ranch||Palm Springs||1925||—|||
|Monte Vista Apartments||Palm Springs||1921||2005||Operated as a hotel by John and Freda Miller, and then their sons, Frank and John.|
|El Mirador Hotel||Palm Springs||1927||(converted)||Had 200+ rooms; went bankrupt in 1930, bought by new owners; later taken over and converted into the Army Torney General Hospital in 1942; reopened as a hotel in 1952; became the Desert Regional Medical Center in 1972. Popular destination for Hollywood elite and other celebrities.|
|The Desert Inn||Palm Springs||1909||1967||Built by Nellie Coffman; originally a tent-house resort and sanitarium, developed into 35 buildings and bungalows; owned by actress Marion Davies from 1955 to 1960; original building demolished in 1960; officially closed in 1953. Child actress Shirley Temple was a frequent and publicized guest.|
|Colonial House||Palm Springs||1936||Present day||With 56 rooms, was built by Purple Gang member Al Wertheimer with a reputed speakeasy and brothel; once known as the Howard Manor; now the Colony Palms Hotel|
|Welwood Murray's Palm Springs Hotel||Palm Springs||1886||1909||Demolished in 1954|
Bullock's, a large upscale department store on Broadway in Los Angeles, opened a Spanish Colonial-style "resort store" within the Desert Inn complex in 1930. When Bullock's opened a full department store at 151 Palm Canyon Drive in 1947, J. W. Robinson's, another large L.A. store, took the former Bullock's location and opened its own resort store there.
Southern California's first self-contained shopping center was in Palm Springs, La Plaza (originally Palm Springs Plaza), and on-street, open air center anchored by a small Desmond's department store, in 1936. The three-level parking garage for 141 cars was an innovation and the largest in Riverside County at that time. In the mid-twentieth century across the street on Palm Canyon Drive were department stores like Bullock's/Bullocks Wilshire (No. 151, 1947–1990), J. W. Robinson's (No. 333, 1958–1987), and Saks Fifth Avenue (opened October 16, 1959 at No. 490), forming a large shopping district. In 1967 the Desert Fashion Plaza mall was built, I. Magnin opened there (closed 1992) and Saks closed its previous location and moved into a new larger store in the mall. Joseph Magnin Co. opened a 26,000-square-foot (2,400 m2) department store in the mall in 1969, meaning that together with a Sears at 611 Palm Canyon Dr., for two decades, downtown boasted seven department stores, plus the Palm Springs Mall 1.5 miles (2.5 km) to the east operating from 1959 to 2005.
World War II
When the United States entered World War II, Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley were important in the war effort. The original airfield near Palm Springs became a staging area for the Air Corps Ferrying Command's 21st Ferrying Group in November 1941 and a new airfield was built 1⁄2 mile (0.8 km) from the old site. The new airfield,:43 designated Palm Springs Army Airfield, was completed in early 1942. Personnel from the Air Transport Command 560th Army Air Forces Base Unit stayed at the La Paz Guest Ranch and training was conducted at the airfield by the 72nd and 73rd Ferrying Squadrons. Later training was provided by the IV Fighter Command 459th Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron.
Eight months before Pearl Harbor Day, the El Mirador Hotel was fully booked and adding new facilities. After the war started, the U.S. government bought the hotel from owner Warren Phinney for $750,000, just over $13,000,000 if including inflation in 2020, and converted it into the Torney General Hospital, with Italian prisoners of war serving as kitchen help and orderlies in 1944 and 1945. Through the war it was staffed with 1,500 personnel and treated some 19,000 patients.:55
General Patton's Desert Training Center encompassed the entire region, with its headquarters in Camp Young at the Chiriaco Summit and an equipment depot maintained by the 66th Ordnance in present-day Palm Desert.:40
Post-World War II
Architectural modernists flourished with commissions from the stars, using the city to explore architectural innovations, new artistic venues, and an exotic back-to-the-land experiences. Inventive architects designed unique vacation houses, such as steel houses with prefabricated panels and folding roofs, a glass-and-steel house in a boulder-strewn landscape, and a carousel house that turned to avoid the sun's glare.
In 1946, Richard Neutra designed the Kaufmann Desert House. A modernist classic, this mostly glass residence incorporated the latest technological advances in building materials, using natural lighting and floating planes and flowing space for proportion and detail. In recent years an energetic preservation program has protected and enhanced many classic buildings.
Culver (2010) argues that Palm Springs architecture became the model for mass-produced suburban housing, especially in the Southwest. This "Desert Modern" style was a high-end architectural style featuring open-design plans, wall-to-wall carpeting, air-conditioning, swimming pools, and very large windows. As Culver concludes, "While environmentalists might condemn desert modern, the masses would not. Here, it seemed, were houses that fully merged inside and outside, providing spaces for that essential component of Californian—and indeed middle-class American—life: leisure. While not everyone could have a Neutra masterpiece, many families could adopt aspects of Palm Springs modern."
Hollywood values permeated the resort as it combined celebrity, health, new wealth, and sex. As Culver (2010) explains: "The bohemian sexual and marital mores already apparent in Hollywood intersected with the resort atmosphere of Palm Springs, and this new, more open sexuality would gradually appear elsewhere in national tourist culture." During this period, the city government, stimulated by real estate developers systematically removed and excluded poor people and Indians.
Palm Springs was pictured by the French photographer Robert Doisneau in November 1960 as part of an assignment for Fortune on the construction of golf courses in this particularly dry and hot area of the Colorado desert. Doisneau submitted around 300 slides following his ten-day stay depicting the lifestyle of wealthy retirees and Hollywood stars in the 1960s. At the time, Palm Springs counted just 19 courses, which had grown to 125 by 2010.
Similar to the pre-war era, Palm Springs remained popular with the rich and famous of Hollywood, as well as retirees and Canadian tourists. Between 1947 and 1965, the Alexander Construction Company built some 2,200 houses in Palm Springs effectively doubling its housing capacity.
As the 1970s drew to a close, increasing numbers of retirees moved to the Coachella Valley. As a result, Palm Springs began to evolve from a virtual ghost town in the summer to a year-round community. Businesses and hotels that used to close for the months of July and August instead remained open all summer. As commerce grew, so too did the number of families with children.
The recession of 1973–1975 affected Palm Springs as many of the wealthy residents had to cut back on their spending. Later in the 1970s numerous Chicago mobsters invested $50 million in the Palm Springs area, buying houses, land, and businesses. While Palm Springs faced competition from the desert cities to the east in the later 1980s, it has continued to prosper into the 21st century.
Since the early 1950s the city had been a popular spring break resort. Glamorized as a destination in the 1963 movie Palm Springs Weekend, the number of visitors grew and at times the gatherings had problems. In 1969 an estimated 15,000 people had gathered for a concert at the Palm Springs Angel Stadium and 300 were arrested for drunkenness or disturbing the peace. In the 1980s, 10,000 or more college students would visit the city and form crowds and parties—and another rampage occurred in 1986 when Palm Springs Police in riot gear had to put down the rowdy crowd. In 1990, due to complaints by residents, mayor Sonny Bono and the city council closed the city's Palm Canyon Drive to spring breakers and the downtown businesses, normally filled with tourists, lost money.
Tourism is a major factor in the city's economy with 1.6 million visitors in 2011. The city has over 130 hotels and resorts, numerous bed and breakfasts, and over 100 restaurants and dining spots. Events such as the Coachella and Stagecoach Festivals in nearby Indio attract younger people, making greater Palm Springs a more attractive area to retire.
Following the 2008 recession Palm Springs revitalized its Downtown, "the Village". Rebuilding started with the demolition of the Bank of America building in January 2012, with the Desert Fashion Plaza scheduled for demolition in 2013.
The movement behind mid-century modern architecture (1950s/60s era) in Palm Springs is backed by architecture enthusiasts, artistic designers and local historians to preserve many of Central Palm Springs' buildings and houses of famous celebrities, businessmen and politicians.
Palm Springs is located in the Sonoran Desert. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 95.0 square miles (246 km2), of which 94.1 square miles (244 km2) is land and 0.9 square miles (2.3 km2) (1%) is water. Located in the Coachella Valley desert region, Palm Springs is sheltered by the San Bernardino Mountains to the north, the Santa Rosa Mountains to the south, by the San Jacinto Mountains to the west and by the Little San Bernardino Mountains to the east.
Palm Springs has a hot desert climate, with over 300 days of sunshine and 4.93 inches (125.2 mm) of precipitation annually. The winter months are warm, with a majority of days reaching 70 °F (21 °C) and in January and February days often see temperatures of 80 °F (27 °C) and on occasion reach over 90 °F (32 °C), while, on average, there are 17 nights annually dipping to or below 40 °F (4 °C); freezing temperatures occur in less than half of years. The lowest temperature recorded is 19 °F (−7 °C), on January 22, 1937.
Summers are extremely hot, with daytime temperatures consistently surpassing 110 °F (43 °C) while overnight temperatures often remain above 80 °F (27 °C). The mean annual temperature is 75.6 °F (24.2 °C). There are on average 180 days with a high reaching 90 °F (32 °C), and 100 °F (38 °C) can be seen on 116 days. The highest temperature on record in Palm Springs is 123 °F (51 °C), most recently achieved on July 28 and 29, 1995. The climate year-round is suitable for many palm trees in this area of California due to the amount of sunny days annually, the average high temperatures, and daily low temperatures.
|Climate data for Palm Springs, CA (1991-2020 Normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||95
|Average high °F (°C)||70.5
|Daily mean °F (°C)||59.0
|Average low °F (°C)||47.6
|Record low °F (°C)||19
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.16
|Average precipitation days||3.8||3.5||2.4||0.7||0.4||0.2||0.7||1.1||1.0||0.8||1.0||2.6||18.2|
Movie Colony neighborhoods
The Movie Colony is just east of Palm Canyon Drive. The Movie Colony East neighborhood extends further east from the Ruth Hardy Park. These areas started growing in the 1930s as Hollywood movie stars built their smaller getaways from their Los Angeles area estates. Bob Hope, Frank Sinatra, Estée Lauder, Carmen Miranda and Bing Crosby built homes in these neighborhoods.
El Rancho Vista Estates
In the 1960s, Robert Fey built 70 homes designed by Donald Wexler and Ric Harrison in the El Rancho Vista Estates. Noted residents included Jack LaLanne and comic Andy Dick.
Historic homes in the Warm Sands area date from the 1920s and many were built from adobe. It also includes small resorts and the Ramon Mobile Home Park. Noted residents have included screenwriter Walter Koch, artist Paul Grimm, activist Cleve Jones and actor Wesley Eure.
The Mesa started off as a gated community developed in the 1920s near the Indian Canyons. Noted residents have included King Gillette, Zane Grey, Clark Gable, Carole Lombard, Suzanne Somers, Herman Wouk, Henry Fernandez, Barry Manilow and Trina Turk. Distinctive homes include Donald Wexler's "butterfly houses" and the "Streamline Moderne Ship of the Desert".
Tahquitz River Estates
Some of the homes in this neighborhood date from the 1930s. The area was owned by Pearl McCallum McManus and she started building homes in the neighborhood after World War II ended. Dr. William Scholl (Dr. Scholl's foot products) owned a 10-acre (4.0 ha) estate here. Today the neighborhood is the largest neighborhood organization with 600 homes and businesses within its boundaries.
During World War II, the original Sunmor Estates area was the western portion the Palm Springs Army Airfield. Homes here were developed by Robert Higgins and the Alexander Construction Company. Actor and former mayor Frank Bogert bought his home for $16,000 and lived there for more than 50 years.
Historic Tennis Club
Impoverished artist Carl Eytel first set up his cabin on what would become the Tennis Club in 1937. Another artist in the neighborhood, who built his Moroccan-style "Dar Marrac" estate in 1924, was Gordon Coutts. Other estates include Samuel Untermyer's Mediterranean style villa (now the Willows Historic Palm Springs Inn), the Casa Cody Inn, built by Harriet and Harold William Cody (cousin of Buffalo Bill Cody) and the Ingleside Inn, built in the 1920s by the Humphrey Birge family. The neighborhood now has about 400 homes, condos, apartments, inns and restaurants.
Las Palmas neighborhoods
To the west of Palm Canyon Drive are the Vista Las Palmas, Old Las Palmas, and Little Tuscany neighborhoods. These areas also feature distinctive homes, celebrity estates, and Albert Frey's private residential complex Villa Hermosa.
Racquet Club Estates
Historic Racquet Club Estates, located north of Vista Chino, is home to over five hundred mid-century modern homes from the Alexander Construction Company. "Meiselman" homes, and the famed Donald Wexler steel homes (having Class One historic designation) are also prominent in the area. Racquet Club Estates was Palm Springs' first middle income neighborhood and became popular with Hollywood's elite in the 1950's and 60's.:41
Deepwell Estates, the eastern portion of the square mile (2.6 km2) defined by South/East Palm Canyon, Mesquite, and Sunrise, contains around 370 homes, including notable homes architecturally and of celebrity figures. Among the celebrities who lived in the neighborhood are Jerry Lewis, Loretta Young, Liberace, and William Holden.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The 2010 United States Census reported that Palm Springs had a population of 44,552. The population density was 469.1 inhabitants per square mile (181.1/km2). The racial makeup of Palm Springs was 33,720 (75.7%) White (63.6% Non-Hispanic White), 1,982 (4.4%) African American, 467 (1.0%) Native American, 1,971 (4.4%) Asian, 71 (0.2%) Pacific Islander, 4,949 (11.1%) from other races, and 1,392 (3.1%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11,286 persons (25.3%).
The Census reported that 44,013 people (98.8% of the population) lived in households, 343 (0.8%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 196 (0.4%) were institutionalized.
There were 22,746 households, out of which 3,337 (14.7%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,812 (25.6%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,985 (8.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 868 (3.8%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,031 (4.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 2,307 (10.1%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 10,006 households (44.0%) were made up of individuals, and 4,295 (18.9%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.93. There were 8,665 families (38.1% of all households); the average family size was 2.82.
The population was spread out, with 6,125 people (13.7%) under the age of 18, 2,572 people (5.8%) aged 18 to 24, 8,625 people (19.4%) aged 25 to 44, 15,419 people (34.6%) aged 45 to 64, and 11,811 people (26.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 51.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 129.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 133.8 males.
There were 34,794 housing units at an average density of 366.3 per square mile (141.4/km2), of which 13,349 (58.7%) were owner-occupied, and 9,397 (41.3%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 6.7%; the rental vacancy rate was 15.5%. 24,948 people (56.0% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 19,065 people (42.8%) lived in rental housing units.
During 2009–2013, Palm Springs had a median household income of $45,198, with 18.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line.
As of the census of 2000, there were 42,807 people, 20,516 households, and 9,457 families residing in the city. The population density was 454.2 inhabitants per square mile (175.4/km2). There were 30,823 housing units at an average density of 327.0 per square mile (126.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 78.3% White, 3.9% African American, 0.9% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.8% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23.7% of the population.
There were 20,516 out of which 16.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.0% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 53.9% were non-families. 41.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 18.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.1 and the average family size was 2.9.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 17.0% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, and 26.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 107.4 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $35,973 and the median income for a family was $45,318. Males had a median income of $33,999 versus $27,461 for females. The per capita income for the city was $25,957. About 11.2% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.2% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Palm Springs has one of the highest concentrations of same-sex couples of any community in the United States. In 2010, 10.1% (2,307) of the city's households belong to same-sex married couples or partnerships, compared to the national average of 1%. Palm Springs has the fifth-highest percentage of same-sex households in the nation.:27 Former mayor Ron Oden estimated that about a third of Palm Springs is gay. Over various times, the city has catered to LGBT tourists with an increasing number of clothing-optional resorts and events. Palm Springs is host to the Greater Palm Springs Pride Celebration. This celebration, held every year in November, includes events such as the Palm Springs Pride Golf Classic, the Stonewall Equality Concert, and a Broadway in Drag Pageant. The city also held same-sex wedding ceremonies at the iconic Forever Marilyn statue located downtown, before its relocation in 2014. In January 2018, Palm Springs ushered in America's first all-LGBTQ city government.
Though celebrities still retreat to Palm Springs, many today establish residences in other areas of the Coachella Valley. The city's economy now relies on tourism, and local government is largely supported by related retail sales taxes and the TOT (transient occupancy tax). It is a city of numerous festivals, conventions, and international events including the Palm Springs International Film Festival.
The world's largest rotating aerial tramcars (cable cars) can be found at the Palm Springs Aerial Tramway. These cars, built by Von Roll Tramways, ascend from Chino Canyon two and a half miles (4 km) up a steep incline to the station at 8,516 feet (2,596 m). The San Jacinto Wilderness is accessible from the top of the tram and there is a restaurant with notable views.
The Palm Springs Convention Center underwent a multimillion-dollar expansion and renovation under Mayor Will Kleindienst. The City Council Sub-Committee of Mayor Kleindienst and City Council Member Chris Mills selected Fentress Bradburn Architects from Denver, Colorado for the redesign.
Numerous hotels, restaurants and attractions cater to tourists, while shoppers can find a variety of high-end boutiques in downtown and uptown Palm Springs. The city is home to 20 clothing-optional resorts including many catering to gay men. Downtown Palm Springs shopping is anchored by historic La Plaza, built in 1936.
- Ace Hotel & Swim Club – a renovated mid-20th century motel.
- Bird Medical Technologies
- Colony Palms Hotel – opened in 1936 as The Colonial House by Las Vegas casino owner Al Wertheimer.
- KGAY, LGBT-themed radio station.
- KQPS, LGBT-themed radio station.
- Raven Productions – a television production company based in Palm Springs.
Arts and culture
Annual cultural events
- The Palm Springs International Film Festival and Palm Springs International Festival of Short Films ("ShortFest") present movie star-filled, red-carpet affairs in January and June respectively.
- Modernism Week, in February, is an 11-day event featuring mid-century modern architecture through films, lectures, tours and its Modernism Show & Sale. A four-day Modernism Week Preview is held in mid-October.
- Agua Caliente Cultural Museum presents its annual Festival of Native Film & Culture at the Camelot Theaters in central Palm Springs.
- The Club Skirts Dinah Shore Weekend, known as "The Dinah", is a LGBT event billed as the "Largest Girl Party in the World" held each March.
- A circuit White Party is held in April, attracting 10,000 visitors.
- The Palm Springs Cultural Center hosts a number of annual events, including Cinema Diverse: The Palm Springs LGBTQ Film Festival, The Arthur Lyons Film Noir Festival, the Certified Farmers' Markets and more.
- Palm Springs Desert Resorts Restaurant Week is held every June, featuring 10 days of dining at over 100 restaurants in the Coachella Valley.
- The Caballeros, a gay men's chorus and member of GALA Choruses, has presented concerts since 1999.
The following three parades, held on Palm Canyon Drive, were created by former Mayor Will Kleindienst:
- Palm Springs Annual Homecoming Parade is held on the Wednesday prior to the Friday night Palm Springs High School Homecoming Game.
- The city sponsors a Veterans Day parade, concert and fireworks display since 1996. It is one of 54 US Department of Veterans Affairs designated Regional Sites for the national observance of Veterans Day.
- Since 1992 the Palm Springs Festival of Lights Parade is held on the first Saturday of December.
Ongoing cultural events
For many years, The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies was a stage-show at the historic Plaza Theatre featuring performers over the age of 55. Still Kicking: The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies is a 1997 Mel Damski short documentary film about the Follies. The Palm Springs Follies closed for good after the 2013–14 season.
Starting in 2004, the city worked with downtown businesses to develop the weekly Palm Springs VillageFest. The downtown street fair has been a regular Thursday evening event, drawing tourists and locals alike to Palm Canyon Drive to stroll amid the food and craft vendors.
Numerous galleries and studios are located in the city and region. The California Art Club has a chapter in Palm Springs. The Desert Art Center of Coachella Valley was established in Palm Springs in 1950.
Museums and other points of interest
- Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians
- Agua Caliente Cultural Museum (presently located downtown at the Village Green)
- Indian Canyons (Palm Canyon, Andreas Canyon, Murray Canyon)
- Tahquitz Canyon, wildlife area and one-time staging place for the outdoor "Desert Plays" in the 1920s
- Tahquitz Falls, 60-foot (18 m) waterfall used as a scene in Frank Capra's 1937 film, Lost Horizon.
- Agua Caliente Casino in Rancho Mirage
- Spa Resort Casino, which is based on the original hot springs of the town
- Forever Marilyn sculpture by Seward Johnson in downtown Palm Springs (presently in Latham Park, Stamford, Connecticut)
- Moorten Botanical Garden and Cactarium
- Palm Springs Historical Society Museums (and Village Green)
- Palm Springs Air Museum – located at the Palm Springs International Airport
- Palm Springs Art Museum – originally developed as the Desert Museum
- Annenberg Theater
- Palm Springs Walk of Stars
- San Jacinto Mountains
- Children's Discovery Museum of the Desert – in Rancho Mirage
- Living Desert Zoo and Gardens – in Palm Desert, California
- Joshua Tree National Park
This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2012)
Palm Springs is home to the Palm Springs POWER, a semi-pro collegiate league baseball team composed of college all-stars of the Southern California Collegiate Baseball Association. It has a winter league baseball team, the POWER winter team and Palm Springs Chill of the California Winter League (2010) consists of 12 other teams as of 2016. The League plays its games in Palm Springs Stadium and also on the baseball field in nearby Palm Springs High School. Both sites feature 6 teams of the Palm Springs Collegiate League in the summer.
The Palm Springs stadium was once the spring training site of the Major League Baseball California Angels (now the Los Angeles Angels) of the American League from 1961 to 1993. The stadium also hosted spring training of the Chicago White Sox in the late 1940s-1950s, the Oakland A's in the 1970s, and the 1950s minor league Seattle Rainiers of the Pacific Coast League also trained there.
In 2019, Palm Springs was approved to become the home to an expansion team in the American Hockey League announced to begin play in the 2022–23 season. The team is the affiliate of the Seattle Kraken and will play in a privately funded arena in nearby Palm Desert, California.
The Palm Springs area features numerous major sports events, including the annual BNP Paribas Open in March, voted by professional players over several years in the early 21st century as the premier mandatory Tournament of the Year. The Easter Bowl, sponsored by the United States Tennis Association is a showcase tournament for junior tennis players (girls and boys aged 12 to 18 years) held annually in March among several tennis centers of the Palm Springs area.
With more golf courses than any other region in California, Coachella Valley is the most popular golf vacation destination in California. Early golf courses in Palm Springs were the O'Donnell Golf Club (built by oil magnate Thomas A. O'Donnell) and the El Mirador Hotel course, both of which opened in the 1920s.:120 After the Cochran-Odlum (Indio) and Shadow Mountain pitch and putt courses were built after World II, the first 18-hole golf course in the area was the Thunderbird Country Club, established 1951 in Rancho Mirage. Thunderbird was designed by golf course architects Lawrence Hughes and Johnny Dawson and in 1955 it hosted the 11th Ryder Cup championship.
In the 1970s the area had over 40 courses and in 2001 the 100th course was opened.:121 The area is also home to the PGA Tour's Humana Challenge in partnership with the Clinton Foundation (formerly the Bob Hope Chrysler Classic), the LPGA's ANA Inspiration and the Canadian Tour's Desert Dunes Classic.
Parks and recreation
- The Palm Springs Desert Ice Palace ice skating rink opened in nearby Cathedral City in October 2011.
- Boomers! is a family entertainment center in Cathedral City.
- A city skatepark was designed after the noted Nude Bowl.
- CNL Financial Group operates the Wet'n'Wild Palm Springs water park in the summer. (Formerly operated as Knott's Soak City by Cedar Fair Entertainment Company.)
In 1931 the Desert Riders was established. Starting off as a social organization for the cream of Palm Springs society, the group sponsors horseback riding and trail building for equestrians, hikers, and bicyclists. The Desert Riders were also significant in providing combination chuckwagon meals and rides through nearby canyons to hotel guests as Palm Springs developed its tourist industry.
Business owners in the village first established a Palm Springs Board of Trade in 1918, followed by a chamber of commerce; the city itself was established by election in 1938 and converted to a charter city, with a charter adopted by the voters in 1994.
Presently the city has a council-manager type government, with a five-person city council that hires a city manager and city attorney. The mayor is directly elected and serves a four-year term. The other four council members also serve four-year terms, with staggered elections. The city is considered a full-service city, in that it staffs and manages its own police and fire departments including parks and recreation programs, public library, sewer system and wastewater treatment plant, international airport, and planning and building services.
The current mayor is Christy Holstege, who took office in December, 2020. Holstege is the first female and the first openly bisexual mayor in the city's history, and the first openly bisexual mayor in American history.
Palm Springs is the seat of government and the administrative capital for the tribal council of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians. The tribal government governs over parts of the city where reservation jurisdictions overlap.
Public education in Palm Springs is under the jurisdiction of the Palm Springs Unified School District, an independent district with five board members. The Palm Springs High School is the oldest school in the district, built in 1938. Originally it was a K–12 school in the 1920s and had the College of the Desert campus from 1958 to 1964. And Raymond Cree Middle School in its current site since the mid 1960s.
Elementary schools in Palm Springs include:
- Cahuilla Elementary School
- Cielo Vista Charter School (received a U.S. Department of Education National Blue Ribbon award in 2011, and U.S. Department of Education National Gold Ribbon Award in 2016)
- Katherine Finchy Elementary School (received a U.S. Department of Education National Blue Ribbon award in 2011, and U.S. Department of Education National Gold Ribbon Award in 2016)
- Vista del Monte Elementary School
Private schools in Palm Springs and nearby communities include Desert Chapel Christian School (K-12), Desert Adventist Academy (K–8), Sacred Heart School (PS-8), St. Theresa (PreK–8), King's School – formerly known as Palm Valley School (K–8), Desert Christian (K–12), Marywood-Palm Valley School, and The Academy.
The Desert Community College District, headquartered with its main campus, College of the Desert, is located in Palm Desert. California State University, San Bernardino and University of California, Riverside used to have satellite campuses available within the College of the Desert campus, but now have their own buildings in Palm Desert.
Private post-secondary education institutions include Brandman University (branch in Palm Desert), California Desert Trial Academy College of Law (in Indio), Kaplan College (Palm Springs), University of Phoenix (Palm Desert), Mayfield College (Cathedral City), and California Nurses Educational Institute (Palm Springs).
Radio and television
Palm Springs is the 144th largest TV market as defined by AC Nielsen. The Palm Springs DMA is unique among TV markets as it is entirely located within only a small portion of Riverside County. Also, while most areas received their first local television stations during the 1950s, Palm Springs did not receive its first TV stations until October 1968 when stations KPLM-TV (now KESQ) and KMIR-TV debuted. Prior to that time, Palm Springs was served by TV stations from the Los Angeles market, which were carried on the local cable system that began operations in the 1950s and which predated the emergence of local broadcast stations by more than a decade.
TV stations serving the Palm Springs and Coachella Valley area include:
- KCWQ-LD CW
- KESQ-TV ABC, Channel 42 (Channel 3 on cable)
- KMIR-TV NBC, Channel 36 (Channel 13 on cable)
- KPSP-CD CBS, Channel 38 (Channel 2 on cable)
Additionally, Palm Springs and the surrounding area are served by AM and FM radio stations including the following:
Newspapers and magazines
- The Desert Sun is the local daily newspaper serving Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley region. It is owned by the Gannett Corporation, parent company of USA Today.
- Desert Magazine is a monthly lifestyle magazine delivered to 40,000 homes.
- The Desert Star Weekly (formerly the Desert Valley Star) is published in Desert Hot Springs, California.
- The Desert Daily Guide is a weekly LGBT periodical.
- Palm Springs Life is a monthly magazine; it also has publications on El Paseo Drive shopping in Palm Desert, desert area entertainment, homes, health, culture and arts, golf, plus annual issues on weddings and dining out.
- The Palm Springs Villager was published in the early 20th century until 1959.
- The Palm Canyon Times was published from 1993–1996.
- The Desert Post Weekly – Cathedral City.
- The Public Record – Palm Desert, is a business and public affairs weekly.
The city's library was started in 1924 and financed by Martha Hitchcock. It expanded in 1940 on land donated to the newly incorporated city by Dr. Welwood Murray and was financed through the efforts of Thomas O'Donnell. The present site now operates as a branch library, research library for the Palm Springs Historical Society, and tourism office for the Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism.
One of the first transportation routes for Palm Springs was on the Bradshaw Trail, an historic overland stage coach route from San Bernardino to La Paz, Arizona. The Bradshaw Trail operated from 1862 to 1877. In the 1870s the Southern Pacific Railroad expanded its lines into the Coachella Valley.
Modern transportation services include:
- Palm Springs International Airport serves Palm Springs and the Coachella Valley.
- Historical note: during World War II it was operated as the Palm Springs Army Airfield.
- SunLine Transit Agency provides bus service in the Coachella Valley.
- Morongo Basin Transit Authority provides bus service to and from Morongo Basin communities.
- Amtrak's Sunset Limited and Texas Eagle form a single train which stops thrice weekly at the Palm Springs Amtrak station.
- Amtrak's Thruway Motorcoach connects Palm Springs to Bakersfield, Claremont, Indio, La Crescenta, Ontario, Pasadena, Riverside and San Bernardino. A city curbside Thruway bus stop is located at 3400 East Tahquitz Canyon Way.
- Historical note: the Southern Pacific Railroad Argonaut served Palm Springs from 1926 to 1961; and its Imperial served the city from 1931 to 1967.
- Greyhound Bus Lines has a stop (no ticketing) at the Palm Springs Amtrak station.
- Flixbus provides service between Palm Springs and several destinations in Southern California and Arizona.
- SR 111 – California State Route 111, which intersects the city.
- I-10 – Interstate 10 generally runs north of the city.
- SR 74 – The Pines to Palms Scenic Byway (California State Route 74) runs from the coast, over the San Jacinto Mountains to nearby Palm Desert.
- SR 62 – California State Route 62 (a Blue Star Memorial Highway) intersects I-10 northwest of the city and runs north to San Bernardino County and the Colorado River.
The Welwood Murray Cemetery was started by hotel operator Welwood Murray in 1894 when his son died.:46 It is maintained by the Palm Springs Cemetery District, which also maintains the Desert Memorial Park in Cathedral City.
Over 400 Palm Springs and Coachella Valley residents have been recognized on the Palm Springs Walk of Stars.
Besides its tradition of mid-century modern architecture, Palm Springs and the region features numerous noted architects. Other (non-Mid-Century Modern) include Edward H. Fickett, Haralamb H. Georgescu, Howard Lapham, and Karim Rashid.
Palm Springs in popular culture
The fauna of Palm Springs is mostly species adapted to desert, temperature extremes and to lack of moisture. It is located within the Nearctic faunistic realm in a region containing an assemblage of species similar to Northern Africa. Native fauna includes pronghorns, desert bighorn sheep, desert tortoise, kit fox, desert iguanas, horned lizards, chuckwalla, bobcats, mountain lions and Gila monsters. Other animals include ground squirrels, rock squirrels, porcupines, skunks, cactus mice, kangaroo rats, pocket gophers and raccoons. Desert birds here include the iconic roadrunner, which can run at speeds exceeding 15 mph (24 km/h). Other avifauna includes the ladder-backed woodpecker, flycatchers, elf owls, great horned owls, sparrow hawks and a variety of raptors.
The Sonoran Desert has more species of rattlesnakes (11) than anywhere else in the world. The most common species is the extremely venomous Mojave rattler, which is considered the world's most dangerous rattlesnake. The largest rattle snake species here is the western diamondback rattlesnake, while other species include the black-tailed rattlesnake, tiger rattler and sidewinder rattler. Palm Springs is home to tarantulas and various scorpion species, including the vinegaroon.
- Leonore Annenberg and Walter Annenberg – Rancho Mirage residents involved in Palm Springs activities. Their Sunnylands estate hosted many dignitaries and celebrities.
- History of the Jews in the U.S. – Palm Springs – for information about the Jewish community in Palm Springs.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Riverside County – includes listings in Palm Springs and nearby cities
- Pumilia novaceki – an extinct iguanid from the Palm Springs area.
- United States cities by crime rate (40,000–60,000) – for a comparative table on crime rates in Palm Springs
- Desert Regional Medical Center
- "Palm Springs". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
- "California Cities by Incorporation Date". California Association of Local Agency Formation Commissions. Archived from the original (Word) on November 3, 2014. Retrieved August 25, 2014.
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- "Palm Springs (city) QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2015.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- Seiler, Hansjakob; Hioki, Kojiro (1979). Cahuilla Dictionary. Malki Museum Press. p. 183.
- Siva Sauvel, Katherine; Munro, Pamela (1982). Chem'ivillu' (Let's Speak Cahuilla). Malki Museum Press.
- Mathews, Joe (February 1, 2018). "Canadians love the California desert. Why not let them have it, eh?". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved September 8, 2018.
- "Parks & Recreation". City of Palm Springs. Archived from the original on August 16, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-1581570489.
- Vechten, Ken Van (2010). Insider's Guide to Palm Springs. Roman & Littlefield. p. 17. ISBN 978-0762761579.
- Smolinski, Dick and Craig A. Doherty (1994). The Cahuilla. Rourke Publications. p. 4. ISBN 978-0866255271.
- Palmer, Roger C. (2012). Palm Springs. Arcadia Publishing. p. ix. ISBN 978-0738589138.
- Gray-Kanatiiosh, Barbara A. (2010). Cahuilla. ABDO Publishing Company. p. 4. ISBN 978-1617849077.
- Niemann, Greg (2006). Palm Springs Legends: Creation of a Desert Oasis. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. p. 15. ISBN 978-0932653741.
- Bean, Lowell L. (1974). Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California. University of California Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0520026278.
- Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-1581570489.
- Whitley, David S. (1996). A Guide to Rock Art Sites: Southern California and Southern Nevada. Mountain Press Publishing. pp. 94–96. ISBN 978-0878423323.
- Baker, Christopher P. (2008). Explorer's Guide Palm Springs & Desert Resorts: A Great Destination. The Countryman Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-1581570489.
- Niemann, Greg (2006). Palm Springs Legends: Creation of a Desert Oasis. Sunbelt Publications, Inc. p. 259. ISBN 978-0932653741.
- Eargle, Dolan H. (2008). Native California: An Introductory Guide to the Original Peoples From Earliest to Modern Times. Trees Company Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0937401118.
- Wilkerson, Lyn (2009). Slow Travels – California. Lulu Press, Inc. p. 96. ISBN 978-0557088072.
- Wares, Donna (2008). Great Escapes: Southern California. The Countryman Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0881507799.
- Niemann, Greg (2006). Palm Springs Legends: creation of a desert oasis. San Diego, CA: Sunbelt Publications. p. 286. ISBN 978-0932653741. OCLC 61211290. (here for Table of Contents)
- Lech, Steve (2004). Along the Old Roads: A History of the Portion of Southern California that became Riverside County: 1772–1893. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. p. 902. OCLC 56035822.
- Gittens, Roberta (November 1992). "A Palm-filled Oasis: Palm Springs and the Desert Communities of the Coachella Valley". Art of California. Vol. 5 no. 5. p. 45. ISSN 1045-8913. OCLC 19009782.
- "City of Palm Springs: History". Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2010.
- Bright, William (1998). Fifteen Hundred California Place Names. University of California Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0520212718. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
- Gudde, Erwin Gustav; Bright, William (1998). California Place Names: The Origin and Etymology of Current Geographical Names (4th ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 277. ISBN 978-0520242173. LCCN 97043168.
'The fine large trees which mark the course of the run have furnished the name ...' (Whipple 1849:7–8). The place is shown as Big Palm Springs on the von Leicht-Craven map of 1874.
- Wild, Peter (2007). Tipping the Dream: A Brief History of Palm Springs. Johannesburg, CA: The Shady Myrick Research Project. p. 228. OCLC 152590848.
- Colacello, Bob (June 1999). "Palm Springs Weekends" (PDF). Vanity Fair. Becker, Jonathan (photographs). pp. 192–211. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 11, 2013.
- Palm Valley Land Co. (c. 1888). Views in Palm Valley...: The earliest fruit region in the state...now on sale by Biggs, Fergusson & Co. San Francisco. OCLC 82950785.
- Two early, but fictional, visitors were six-year-old Mary and her cousin Jack. See: Foster, Ethel T. (1913). "A Visit to Palm Springs". Little Tales of the Desert. Villa, Hernando G. (illustrations). Los Angeles: Kingsley, Mason and Collins Co. p. 23. ISBN 978-1176787933. LCCN 13025440. OCLC 3726918.
Just beyond [the Indian village] was Palm Springs settlement itself, with lots of tents, several houses, a store and [Dr. Murray's Hotel]....They visited the funny little cottages with their roofs and sides all covered with big palm leaves instead of boards. Then they went up to the hot springs.
- Brown, Renee (July 24, 2014). "Palm Springs History: Pioneers survived summer". The Desert Sun. Palm Springs: Gannett.[permanent dead link]
- James, George Wharton; Eytel, Carl (illustrator) (1906). The Wonders of the Colorado Desert (Southern California). Boston: Little, Brown and Company. p. 547. ISBN 978-1103733613. LCCN 06043916. OCLC 2573290. (Available as a pdf file through the HathiTrust Digital Library.)
- Wonders is illustrated with over 300 drawings by desert artist Carl Eytel. Many of those drawings, including the Title Page figure, are used throughout Steve Lech's extensive history of early Riverside County. See: Along the Old Roads (cited above).
- Reviews of Wonders included:
- Adams, Cyrus C. (March 2, 1907). "Wonders of the Far West: George Wharton James's New Book on the Colorado Desert" (PDF). The New York Times Saturday Review of Books. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
- "A Guide to the New Books". The Literary Digest. Vol. XXXIV no. 7. February 16, 1907. pp. 263–64.
This elaborate treatise is a distinct contribution to the literature of the natural wonders of our country.
- Gilmour, John Hamilton (February 3, 1907). "The Wonders of the Colorado Desert, California". San Francisco Call. Vol. 101 no. 65. p. Magazine, 3.
He has written admirably and knowingly ... and this ... is in line with his previous works.
- Starr, Kevin (1997). "1. Good Times on the Coast: Affluence and the Anti-Depression". The Dream Endures: California Enters the 1940s. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 512. ISBN 978-0195100792.
- Desert Inn (1923). The Desert Inn: Where Desert and Mountains Meet, Palm Springs, California. Los Angeles: Times-Mirror Print & Binding House. p. 24. OCLC 82839637.
- "Historic Sites: Desert Inn". Palm Springs Life. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
County of Riverside Historical Marker No. 044; 123 North Palm Canyon (image of marker with 1908 date)
- Bright, Marjorie Belle (1981). Nellie's Boardinghouse: a dual biography of Nellie Coffman and Palm Springs. Palm Springs: ETC Pub. p. 247.
- Janss, Betty; Frashers Inc. (1933). Palm Springs California: presented with the compliments of the Desert Inn. Palm Springs: Desert Inn. p. 34. OCLC 427216166.
- Brown, Renee (March 28, 2015). "Nellie Coffman's hospitality helped Palm Springs grow". The Desert Sun. Gannett.
- Chase, J. Smeaton (1987) . Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the Sun. Pasadena, CA: Star-News Publishing Co. p. 83. ISBN 978-0961872403. LCCN 24010428. OCLC 6169840.
- Bowhart, W. H.; Hector, Julie; McManus, Sally Mall; Coffman Kieley, Elizabeth (April 1984). "The McCallum Centennial – Palm Springs' founding family". Palm Springs Life. Archived from the original on August 14, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2012.; and, Ainsworth, Katherine (1996) [1973 Palm Springs Desert Museum]. The McCallum Saga: The Story of the Founding of Palm Springs. Palm Springs: Palm Springs Public Library. p. 245. ISBN 978-0961872410. LCCN 96052785. OCLC 36066124. OCLC 799840
- During World War II, the hotel was taken over and operated as a United States Army General Hospital, named in honor of Surgeon General George H. Torney.
- Wild, Peter (2011). Heiress of Doom: Lois Kellogg of Palm Springs. Tucson, AZ: Estate of Peter Wild. p. 449. OCLC 748583736.
- Palmer, Roger C. (2011). Palm Springs (Then & Now). Charleston, SC: Arcadia. p. 95. ISBN 978-0738589138. LCCN 2011932500. OCLC 785786600.
- Brown, Renee (May 21, 2016). "Movie stars began flocking to Palm Springs in the 1930s". The Desert Sun. Palm Springs. Gannett.
- Rippingale, Sally Presley (1985) . The History of the Racquet Club of Palm Springs. Yucaipa, CA: US Business Specialties. p. 146. LCCN 85226534. OCLC 13526611.. Also see: Turner, Mary L. and Turner, Cal A. (photography) (2006). The Beautiful People of Palm Springs. Sedona, AZ: Gene Weed. 154 pp. ISBN 978-1411634886 OCLC 704086361. The Racquet Club would cater to the Hollywood elite for decades.
- Carr, Jim (1989). Palms Springs and the Coachella Valley. Helena, MT: American Geographic Publishing. p. 112. ISBN 978-0938314684. LCCN 91166185. OCLC 25026437.
- Kleinschmidt, Janet (September 2005). "Remembering The Chi Chi: 'A hip little place to come for wealthy people.'". Palm Springs Life.; and, Johns, Howard (September 2007). "In the Swing: Dinner clubs and lounges echo the days (and nights) of Palm Springs' famed Chi Chi club". Palm Springs Life.
- Meeks, Eric G. (2014) . The Best Guide Ever to Palm Springs Celebrity Homes. Horatio Limburger Oglethorpe. ISBN 978-1479328598.
- Fessier, Bruce. "Mob looks to win big with casinos in valley". The Desert Sun. Gannett.
- Brown, Renee (April 9, 2016). "Gambling in desert was 'economic driver' in 1930s". The Desert Sun. Palm Springs: Gannett.
- Except where noted, most data is from: Lech, Steve (2005). "Six: Palm Springs, Desert Hot Springs, Indio, and La Quinta". Resorts of Riverside County. Charleston, SC: Arcadia. p. 128. ISBN 978-0738530789. OCLC 62790503.
- Bogert, Frank M. (2003) . Palm Springs: First Hundred Years. Palm Springs: Palm Springs Library. p. 288. ISBN 978-0961872427. OCLC 17171891.
- "Coachella Valley History Museum: Exhibits". Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. Retrieved September 25, 2012.
- Nordland, Ole J. (1978) . Coachella Valley's Golden Years: History of the Coachella Valley County Water District (PDF). Coachella, CA: Coachella Valley Water District. p. 120. OCLC 4511277. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 1, 2015.
- Desert Memories: Historic Images of the Coachella Valley. Palm Springs: The Desert Sun. 2002. p. 128. ISBN 978-1932129014. OCLC 50674171.
- Robinson, Nancy (1992). Palm Springs History Handbook. Palm Springs: Palm Springs Public Library. p. 41. OCLC 31595834.
- Henderson, Moya; Palm Springs Historical Society (2009). Images of America: Palm Springs. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 127. ISBN 978-0738559827. LCCN 2008931760. OCLC 268792707.
- Scharkey, Kristin. "Melvyn's purchased for $7.25 million, buyers to 'carry on' Mel Haber's legacy". Desert Sun.
- "Desert Hot Springs" (PDF) (Brochure). Desert Hot Springs Historical Society. 1952. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2011. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- Abbott, Maggie. "Jerry Skuse". Desert Hot Springs Historical Society. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- "Palm Springs Life: Palm Spring Historical Sites – Building and Land Markers – Oasis Hotel". Archived from the original on November 16, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2012.
- Palm Springs, California. Palm Springs: The Hotels. 1929. p. 34.
WorldCat note: sponsored and distributed by the four leading hotels of Palm Springs: the Desert Inn, El Mirador, the Oasis, Deep Well Guest Ranch; OCLC 29907656, 228699240
- Brown, Renee (September 25, 2015). "History: Torney general hospital's contribution in WWII". The Desert Sun. Palm Springs: Gannett.
- Burke, Anthony [Tony] (1978). Palm Springs, Why I Love You. Palm Desert, CA: Palmesa, Inc. OCLC 5346893.
- The 1918 flu pandemic produced an influx of patients. Pyle, Ernie (March 27, 1942). "Palatial Palm Springs Monument To the Faith and Work of One Woman". St. Petersburg Times. p. 6. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
In 1917 the new crop of war millionaires looked afield for vacation places, and came to Palm Springs....But the flu epidemic filled the place up.
- Wenzell, Nicolette (February 20, 2014). "Palm Springs History: Shirley Temple tap-danced into our hearts". The Desert Sun. Gannett.
- Holmes, Elmer Wallace; Bird, Jessica (1912). "XX: San Gorgonio Pass". History of Riverside County, California. Los Angeles: Historic Record Company. p. 783. OCLC 7951260.
- "21 Nov 1930, 40 – The Los Angeles Times at Newspapers.com". Newspapers.com.
- Howser, Huell; Bogert, Frank; McManus, Sally; Pitts, Larry (September 27, 2010). "Palm Springs Plaza Update – Palm Springs Week (35)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2013.
- Murphy, Gavin (October 28, 1988). "World Market Plan Dies". Desert Sun (Palm Springs, CA).
- "Clipped From The Desert Sun". January 9, 1958. p. 22 – via newspapers.com.
- Murphy, Gary (March 6, 1992). "Merchants bemoan loss in Palm Springs of I. Magnin Store". Desert Sun (Palm Springs, CA).
- "Saks will open here tomorrow". Desert Sun (Palm Springs, CA). October 15, 1959.
- Staff writer(s) (October 16, 1967). "'New Era' Launched as I. Magnin Opens". The Desert Sun. 41 (62). Retrieved December 27, 2019.
- Staff writer(s) (March 6, 1969). "Ground Broken Today for New Major Store". The Desert Sun. 42 (183). Retrieved December 27, 2019.
- "Palm Springs Army Air Field (historical)". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
- "Palm Springs Visitors Set Fashion Pace: Desert Resort Hotels And Clubs Are Crowded To Capacity". The Pittsburgh Press. March 26, 1941. p. 28. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
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- "Torney General Hospital". Historic California Posts. The California State Military Museum.
- Wills, Eric (May/June 2008). "Palm Springs Eternal", Preservation, Vol. 60, Issue 3, pp. 38–45
- Goldberger, Paul (May–June 2008). "The Modernist Manifesto". Preservation. Vol. 60 no. 3. pp. 30–35.
- Culver, Lawrence (2010). "Chapter 5: The Oasis of Leisure – Palm Springs before 1941; and Chapter 6: Making of Desert Modern – Palm Springs after World War II". The Frontier of Leisure: Southern California and the Shaping of Modern America. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 317. ISBN 978-0195382631. LCCN 2009053932. OCLC 620294456, 464581464
- Kray, Ryan M. (February 2004). "The Path to Paradise: Expropriation, Exodus and Exclusion in the Making of Palm Springs". Pacific Historical Review. 73 (1): 85–126. doi:10.1525/phr.2004.73.1.85. ISSN 0030-8684. JSTOR 10.1525/phr.2004.73.1.85. OCLC 4635437946, 361566392 (subscription required)
- Kray, Ryan M. (2009). Second-class Citizenship at a First-class Resort: Race and Public Policy in Palm Springs. Irvine: University of California (Ph.D. thesis). p. 407. ISBN 978-1109197983. OCLC 518520550.
- "Palm Springs: Green and Grows the Desert" (PDF). Fortune. February 1961. pp. 122–27. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 29, 2017.
Before President Eisenhower went to Palm Springs...in 1954, [it] was only a regional resort. Overnight it became a winter resort with national drawing power.
- A book of Doisneau's photographs was published in 2010. Doisneau, Robert; Dubois, Jean-Paul (Forward) (2010). Palm Springs 1960. Paris: Flammarion. p. 9. ISBN 978-2080301291. LCCN 2010442384. OCLC 491896174.
- Amory, Cleveland (March 12, 1961). "Palm Springs Is Really An Incredible Place". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
It is Hollywood without the wood. Beverly Hills without the hills and Los Angeles without the—well, freeways.
- "Palm Springs Now Top Desert Resort". The Sun. Vancouver, Canada. January 5, 1968. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
One finds 21 golf courses sprinkled across the golden sands of the desert. More than 3,650 swimming pools dot the landscape.
- "Palm Springs: Outdoors Paradise". St. Petersburg Independent. St. Petersburg, FL. January 11, 1972. p. 4-D. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
Moonlight steak [horseback] rides, breakfast rides and group rides are a way of life in the...desert resort.
- Fix, Jack V. (June 9, 1977). "Palm Springs Place Where Rich Retire". The Pittsburgh Press. UPI. p. B-1. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
This desert town...with 5,000 private swimming pools, 38 golf courses and homes selling for 'only $250,000 down' is probably the most wealthy retirement community in the world. Yet it is an area of 37 mobile home parks and senior citizens, 32 per cent of whom...reported an income of less than $4,000 a year.
- Eichenbaum, Marlene (June 9, 1979). "Palm Springs: It's a plush resort for rich and poor alike". The Gazette. Montreal, Canada. p. T-2. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
...it has long been a haven for the rich and famous....it [also] offers a wide choice of moderately-priced accommodations....
- von Sorge, Helmut (April 30, 1984). "Palm Springs – das Goldene Kaff". Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- Braid, Don (January 9, 1985). "Palm Springs: Where the rich meet to greet". The Gazette. Montreal, Canada. p. B-3. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
The whole place is flamboyant, bold, obscenely rich,....It's so utterly un-Canadian that Canadian [tourists] can't resist it, even when they can't afford it.
- Miller, Judith (December 16, 1990). "Palm Springs ain't what she used to be". Deseret News. Salt Lake City, UT. NY Times News Service. p. 2P. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
The metropolitan area, which includes nine cities, has 187,000 year-round residents and plays host to 2 million visitors each year. It has 7,645 swimming pools, more than 100 tennis courts and 101 golf courses ....
- Amory, Cleveland (March 12, 1961). "Palm Springs Is Really An Incredible Place". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- "Recession Comes to Posh Palm Springs". Lewiston Evening Journal. AP. March 6, 1975. p. 7. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Yates, Ronald; Koziol, Ronald (May 9, 1978). "Elite Palm Springs Becomes A Gangsters' Playground". The Evening Independent. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
[Palm Springs] has become Our Town for such Chicago luminaries as Anthony "Big Tuna" Accardo, Joey "The Dove" Aiuppa, James "The Turk" Torello, and Frank "The Horse" Buccieri.Also, Vincent Dominic Caci bought a home in Palm Springs.
- Sahagun, Louis (March 16, 1986). "Palm Springs takes pains to gloss up its faded star image". The Pittsburgh Press. The Los Angeles Times. pp. G1, G4. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
Now, big spenders, tourists and developers are sidestepping this 50-year-old resort community, gravitating instead toward the towns that have blossomed east of here in the Coachella Valley over the last 10 years.
- "Palm Springs, Calif.; A $100 Million Resort Hotel". New York Times. February 19, 1989. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
But while the city of Palm Springs has won national recognition as a resort area, the lower Coachella Valley cities...have benefited most from the new hotels.
- Sahagun, Louis (March 16, 1986). "Palm Springs takes pains to gloss up its faded star image". The Pittsburgh Press. The Los Angeles Times. pp. G1, G4. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- For international coverage, see:
- Werb, Helmut (April 27, 2006). "Palm Springs: Die Wüste lebt! [Living Desert]" (in German). stern.de. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- QMI Agency (August 21, 2009). "Palm Springs, la princesse du désert [Desert Princess]" (in French). Quebec, Canada: canoë.ca. Retrieved October 3, 2012.
- "Is party over for Palm Springs?". Lodi News-Sentinel. Associated Press. April 9, 1993. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
For 40 years, this desert city endured an Easter week invasion of student revelers...
- Gianoulis, Tina (2000). "Spring Break." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Gale. Retrieved January 7, 2013 from HighBeam Research
- "Palm Springs Lowers Lid On Disorderly Students: Jails Crammed in Crackdown: Spring Vacations Marked By Violence". The Blade. Toledo, OH. AP. April 3, 1969. p. 6. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- "Palm Springs quiet as youths leave". The Milwaukee Journal. AP. March 31, 1986. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Hubler, Shawn (February 8, 1991). "Palm Springs Votes to Tone Down Easter Break". Los Angeles Times.
- Hubler, Shawn (March 31, 1991). "Palm Springs Sees a Kinder and Gentler Spring Break: Crackdown: City officials call the week the most orderly and successful in years. But merchants catering to the young say it was a financial disaster". Los Angeles Times.
- Brooks, Ken (December 16, 2010). "A Palm Springs Break". Payson Roundup. Payson, AZ. Archived from the original on August 18, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
There are spas, golf courses, famed hotels and resorts, tennis, swimming, sunning, shopping, museums, restaurants and an extensive list of amenities and attractions.
- Keates, Nancy (October 10, 2019). "Younger People Make Palm Springs a Cool Place to Retire (Again)". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
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- 🖉Reyes, Jesus (December 11, 2020). "Christy Holstege sworn-in as Palm Springs' first-ever female mayor".
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- Gordon Coutts; the Dar Marrac is now operated as the Mediterranean-style Korakia Pensione
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- Clark Gable and Carole Lombard enjoyed their honeymoon at the Willows. Palmeri, Christopher (September 3, 2000). "Palm Springs: An Oasis of Nostalgia in the Desert". Bloomberg Businessweek.
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- Gates, Gary; Ost, Jason (2004). The Gay and Lesbian Atlas. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute. ISBN 978-0877667216. (data summarized at Urban Institute Factsheet)
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- ""Down Low" Is Not Just a Black Issue, Palm Springs Mayor Says | TheBody". thebody.com.
- "The Absolute Best Gay Clothing Optional Resorts in Palm Springs, USA!". Queer In The World. July 26, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Palm Springs Bureau of Tourism (2005). Palm Springs: official gay & lesbian visitors guide. Palm Springs: Pride National Network. p. 62. OCLC 64229593.; Gay pocket guide: Palm Springs, Cathedral City & the entire Coachella Valley. Hollywood, CA: GHighway. OCLC 74711792.; The Bottom Line. 1978. OCLC 45909832. Missing or empty
- Carroll, Rory (January 2018). "In gay-friendly Palm Springs, America's first all-LGBT government is no surprise". The Guardian.
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- The visitor's center for Palm Canyon was named "Hermit's Haven" and "Hermit's Bench" after early "hippie" William Pester who had a cabin overlooking the canyon. See: Lech, Steve (2012). For Tourism and a Good Night's Sleep. Riverside, CA: Steve Lech. p. 230. ISBN 978-0983750017., citing "Hermit Haven is Next to Nature" (December 2, 1917). Los Angeles Times; U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Palm Canyon; and, Wild, Peter (2008). William Pester: The Hermit of Palm Springs. Johannesburg, CA: The Shady Myrick Research Project. p. 161. OCLC 234084689.
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- Lost Horizon at the American Film Institute Catalog
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- Dean, Terry; Dickinson, Judy. O'Donnell Golf Club: Jewel of the Desert for 65 Years. p. 52. OCLC 810251995.
- Thunderbird Country Club: Mission and History[permanent dead link]
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- Wexler, Daniel (2011). The Black Book: Palm Springs Area Golf Guide. CreateSpace. p. 132. ISBN 978-1467975643., covers Riverside, San Bernardino, and Imperial Counties.
- Ryder, Jay (1989). The Greater Palm Springs Golf Guide: a Comprehensive Reference Guide to Playing the Desert's Finest Gold Courses. Palm Desert, CA: Ryder Publications. p. 156. LCCN 90115597.
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- "Time Out". ayso80.org.
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...bungalow is created specifically for the Sci Fi channel and Morongo Casino.
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This is the story of the Coachella Valley—home of Palm Springs, Rancho Mirage, Palm Desert, La Quinta, Indio, and other desert cities—as experienced by the average tourist who vacationed here from the 1910s through the 1960s.
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- Richards, Elizabeth W. (1981). Palm Springs – the Early Years. Palm Springs: Palm Springs Savings and Loan. p. 37. OCLC 7395533. (Originally published in 1961 as A Look into Palm Springs' Past by Santa Fe Federal Savings & Loan Assoc. LCC F869 P18 R5)
- Ringwald, George (1960). "Legend, Feuding and Tragedy: A Story of Palm Springs' Beginnings". Palm Springs Life, 1960–1961: Annual Pictorial. pp. 19–39.
- Saeks, Diane Dorrans (2007). Palm Springs Living. David Glomb (photographs). Rizzoli. p. 224. ISBN 978-0847827664. LCCN 2007921705. OCLC 159649838.
- Thompson, Gail Borden; Don R. Peterson (c. 1987). Palm Springs Galaxy. Springfield, MN: Mardo Copr. LCCN 88120371. OCLC 18292008.
- Wild, Peter (2007). The Grumbling Gods: a Palm Springs Reader. Salt Lake City, UT: University of Utah Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-0874808995. LCCN 2007015086. OCLC 122974473. covers the city's history
- Wild, Peter (1999). "Chapter 9: J. Smeaton Chase – Our Araby". The Opal Desert: Explorations of Fantasy and Reality in the American Southwest. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 219. ISBN 978-0292791299. OCLC 40762502, 649978425 (print and on-line)
- The Palm Springs and Desert Resort Area Story. Palm Springs: Chamber of Commerce. 1955. p. 80. OCLC 8463129.
- Cahuilla Indian further reading
- Ainsworth, Ed (1965). Golden Checkerboard. Palm Desert, CA: Desert-Southwest. p. 195. LCCN 66000811. OCLC 4391736. About the mid-20th century economic conditions of the Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians; its title comes from the layout of alternating land parcels shared between the Southern Pacific Railroad and Agua Caliente Band of Mission Indians.
- Brumgardt, John R. (1981). People of the magic waters: the Cahuilla Indians of Palm Springs. Palm Springs: ETC Publications. p. 122. ISBN 978-0882800608. LCCN 78016023.
- Fischer, Mille Wolfe (c. 1995). Footprints Through the Palms. p. 36. OCLC 40422476.
- Hooper, Lucile (April 10, 1920). The Cahuilla Indians. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology. Kessinger Publishing Rare Reprints. 16. Berkeley, CA. pp. 315–80. ISBN 978-1417962235. OCLC 225133390.
- Ortner, Vyola J.; du Pont, Diana C. (2012). You Can't Eat Dirt, Leading America's First All-Women Tribal Council and How We Changed Palm Springs. Fan Palm Research Project. p. 264. ISBN 978-0615495590. LCCN 2011939660. OCLC 801995611.
- Patencio, Chief Francisco; Boynton, Margaret (1943). Stories and Legends of the Palm Springs Indians. Times-Mirror. Los Angeles. p. 33. LCCN 44018350. OCLC 4020904.
- Ringwald, George (1968). The Agua Caliente Indians and Their Guardians. Riverside, CA: Press-Enterprise. p. 36. OCLC 3094608, 14015139 A reprint of Ringwald's Pulitzer Prize–winning articles concerning the scandal of Section 14 of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation.
- Shaw, Rachel Dayton (1999). Evolving Ecoscape: An Environmental and Cultural History of Palm Springs, California, and the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, 1877–1939. San Diego, CA: University of California (Ph.D. thesis). p. 374. ISBN 978-0599379800. ProQuest 304497715. OCLC 41942987, 43734890
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