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Palme d'Or

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Palme d'Or
Palme dor.png
LocationCannes
CountryFrance
Presented byFestival International du Film de Cannes
First awarded1955
Currently held byTitane (2021)
Websitehttp://www.festival-cannes.com

The Palme d'Or (French pronunciation: ​[palm(ə) dɔʁ]; English: Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.[1] It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. Previously, from 1939 to 1954, the highest prize at the festival was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film.[1] In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975.[1]

The Palme d'Or is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry.[2][3][4][5]

History

The Commune of Cannes coat of arms

In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist. The festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes evoking the famous legend of Saint Honorat and the palm trees lining the famous Promenade de la Croisette.[1] The original design by Parisian jeweller Lucienne Lazon, who took inspiration in a sketch done by legendary director Jean Cocteau, had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, and the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien.[6]

In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for the film Marty. From 1964 to 1974, the Festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix.[1] In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the winning film, and was then presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede.[1]

As of 2021, Jane Campion and Julia Ducournau are the only female directors to have won the Palme d'Or, for their work on The Piano and Titane, respectively. However, in 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's director Abdellatif Kechiche, as well as the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux.[7] This marks the first time multiple Palme d'Or trophies were given out in the festival's history.[8]

Palme d'Or awarded to Apocalypse Now at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival

The jury decided to award the actresses alongside the director due to a Cannes policy that forbids the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, thereby preventing the jury from rewarding both the film and the film's actresses separately.[9] Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said that "had the casting been 3% wrong, it wouldn't have worked like it did for us".[10] Kechiche later auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, and expressed dissatisfaction about the festival having given out multiple trophies in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter, saying that he felt they had "publicly insulted" him by doing it, and that "liberating myself from this Palme d’Or is a way of washing my hands of this sorry affair".[8]

Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm, gradually transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned the Palme and its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, Caroline Scheufele redesigned the statuette and since then, has been manufactured by Swiss jewellery Chopard. The palm is made from 4.16 oz (118 g) of 18-carat yellow gold while the base of the branch forms a small heart. The Palme d’or rests on a dainty rock crystal cushion shaped like an emerald-cut diamond.[11] A single piece of cut crystal forms a cushion for the palm, which was hand-cast into a wax mould and now presented in a case of blue Morocco leather. In 1998, Theo Angelopoulos was the first director to win the Palme d'or as we now know it today for his film Eternity and a Day.[12]

The winner of the 2014 Palme d'Or, Winter Sleep—a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan—occurred during the same year as the 100th anniversary of Turkish cinema. Upon receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated the prize to both the "young people" involved in the ongoing political unrest in Turkey and the workers who were killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day prior to the commencement of the awards event.[13]

In 2017, the award was re-designed to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary.[1] The diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council.[1]

The 2020 Cannes Film Festival was cancelled due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. 56 films were announced as official selections by the festival, but no awards were given this year.[14]

Winners

Year Film Original title Director(s) Country of origin
1930s
1939  Union Pacific Cecil B. DeMille  United States[15]
1940–1945 No festival due to World War II.[16]
1940s
1946 Brief Encounter David Lean  United Kingdom[17]
The Last Chance Die Letzte Chance Leopold Lindtberg   Switzerland
The Lost Weekend Billy Wilder  United States[18]
María Candelaria Emilio Fernández  Mexico[19]
Men Without Wings Muži bez křídel František Čáp  Czechoslovakia[20]
Neecha Nagar Chetan Anand  India[21]
Pastoral Symphony La symphonie pastorale Jean Delannoy  France[22]
The Red Meadows De røde enge Bodil Ipsen & Lau Lauritzen, Jr.  Denmark[23]
Rome, Open City Roma, città aperta Roberto Rossellini  Italy[24]
Torment Hets Alf Sjöberg  Sweden[25]
The Turning Point Великий перелом Fridrikh Ermler  Soviet Union[26]
1947 Antoine and Antoinette (Best Psychological & Love Film) Antoine et Antoinette Jacques Becker  France[27]
Crossfire (Best Social Film) Edward Dmytryk  United States[28]
The Damned (Best Adventure & Crime Film) Les Maudits René Clément  France[29]
Dumbo (Best Animation Design) Ben Sharpsteen  United States[30]
Ziegfeld Follies (Best Musical Comedy) Vincente Minnelli  United States[31]
1948 No festival due to budgetary problems.[32]
1949 The Third Man Carol Reed  United Kingdom[33]
1950s
1950 No festival due to budgetary problems.[32]
1951 Miracle in Milan # Miracolo a Milano Vittorio De Sica  Italy[34]
Miss Julie # Fröken Julie Alf Sjöberg  Sweden[35]
1952 Othello # Orson Welles  Morocco[36]
Two Cents Worth of Hope # Due soldi di speranza Renato Castellani  Italy[37]
1953 The Wages of Fear Le salaire de la peur Henri-Georges Clouzot  France[38]
1954 Gate of Hell 地獄門 Teinosuke Kinugasa  Japan[39]
Awarded as "Palme d'Or"
1955 Marty § Delbert Mann  United States[40]
1956 The Silent World Le monde du silence Jacques Cousteau & Louis Malle  France[41]
1957 Friendly Persuasion William Wyler  United States[42]
1958 The Cranes Are Flying Летят журавли Mikhail Kalatozov  Soviet Union[43]
1959 Black Orpheus § Orfeu Negro Marcel Camus  France[44]
1960s
1960 La Dolce Vita § Federico Fellini  Italy[45]
1961 The Long Absence # § Une aussi longue absence Henri Colpi  France[46]
Viridiana # § Luis Buñuel  Spain[47]
1962 O Pagador de Promessas § Anselmo Duarte  Brazil[48]
1963 The Leopard § Il gattopardo Luchino Visconti  Italy[49]
Awarded as "Grand Prix du Festival International du Film"
1964 The Umbrellas of Cherbourg Les parapluies de Cherbourg Jacques Demy  France[50]
1965 The Knack ...and How to Get It Richard Lester  United Kingdom[51]
1966 The Birds, the Bees and the Italians # Signore e signori Pietro Germi  Italy[52]
A Man and a Woman # Un homme et une femme Claude Lelouch  France[53]
1967 Blowup Michelangelo Antonioni  United Kingdom[54]
1968 No award because the festival was cancelled midway through to show solidarity with the students and workers who were demonstrating in what became known as the May 68 movement.[32]
1969 If.... Lindsay Anderson  United Kingdom[55]
1970s
1970 MASH Robert Altman  United States[56]
1971 The Go-Between Joseph Losey  United Kingdom[57]
1972 The Mattei Affair # § Il caso Mattei Francesco Rosi  Italy[58]
The Working Class Goes to Heaven # § La classe operaia va in paradiso Elio Petri  Italy[59]
1973 The Hireling # Alan Bridges  United Kingdom[60]
Scarecrow # Jerry Schatzberg  United States[61]
1974 The Conversation Francis Ford Coppola  United States[62]
Awarded as "Palme d'Or"
1975 Chronicle of the Years of Fire Chronique des années de braise Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina  Algeria[63]
1976 Taxi Driver Martin Scorsese  United States[64]
1977 Padre Padrone Paolo and Vittorio Taviani  Italy[65]
1978 The Tree of Wooden Clogs § L'albero degli zoccoli Ermanno Olmi  Italy[66]
1979 Apocalypse Now # Francis Ford Coppola  United States[67]
The Tin Drum # Die Blechtrommel Volker Schlöndorff  West Germany
 France[68]
1980s
1980 All That Jazz # Bob Fosse  United States[69]
Kagemusha # 影武者 Akira Kurosawa  Japan[70]
1981 Man of Iron Człowiek z żelaza Andrzej Wajda  Poland[71]
1982 Missing # § Costa-Gavras  United States[72]
Yol # § Yılmaz Güney & Şerif Gören  Turkey[73]
1983 The Ballad of Narayama 楢山節考 Shohei Imamura  Japan[74]
1984 Paris, Texas § Wim Wenders  West Germany,  France[75]
1985 When Father Was Away on Business § Отац на службеном путу Emir Kusturica  Yugoslavia
1986 The Mission Roland Joffé  United Kingdom[76]
1987 Under the Sun of Satan § Sous le soleil de Satan Maurice Pialat  France[77]
1988 Pelle the Conqueror Pelle Erobreren Bille August  Denmark[78]
1989 Sex, Lies, and Videotape Steven Soderbergh  United States[79]
1990s
1990 Wild at Heart David Lynch  United States[80]
1991 Barton Fink § Joel Coen  United States[81]
1992 The Best Intentions Den goda viljan Bille August  Denmark,  Sweden[82]
1993 Farewell My Concubine # 霸王別姬 Chen Kaige  Hong Kong[83]
The Piano # Jane Campion  New Zealand,  Australia,  France[84]
1994 Pulp Fiction Quentin Tarantino  United States[85]
1995 Underground Подземље Emir Kusturica  France[86]
1996 Secrets & Lies Mike Leigh  France,  United Kingdom[87]
1997 The Eel # うなぎ Shohei Imamura  Japan[88]
Taste of Cherry # طعم گيلاس Abbas Kiarostami  Iran
1998 Eternity and a Day § Μια αιωνιότητα και μια μέρα Theo Angelopoulos  Greece[89]
1999 Rosetta § Jean-Pierre & Luc Dardenne  Belgium,  France[90]
2000s
2000 Dancer in the Dark Lars von Trier  Denmark[91]
2001 The Son's Room La stanza del figlio Nanni Moretti  Italy,  France[92]
2002 The Pianist Roman Polanski  Poland,  France,  Germany,  United Kingdom[93]
2003 Elephant Gus Van Sant  United States[94]
2004 Fahrenheit 9/11 Michael Moore  United States[95]
2005 L'Enfant Jean-Pierre & Luc Dardenne  Belgium,  France[96]
2006 The Wind That Shakes the Barley § Ken Loach  Ireland,  United Kingdom,  Italy,  Germany,  Spain[97]
2007 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days 4 luni, 3 săptămâni și 2 zile Cristian Mungiu  Romania[98]
2008 The Class § Entre les murs Laurent Cantet  France[99]
2009 The White Ribbon Das weiße Band, Eine deutsche Kindergeschichte Michael Haneke  Germany,  Austria,  France,  Italy[100]
2010s
2010 Uncle Boonmee Who Can Recall His Past Lives ลุงบุญมีระลึกชาติ Apichatpong Weerasethakul  United Kingdom,  Thailand,  France,  Germany,  Spain[101]
2011 The Tree of Life Terrence Malick  United States[102]
2012 Amour Michael Haneke  France,  Germany,  Austria[103]
2013 Blue Is the Warmest Colour § La Vie d'Adèle: Chapitres 1 et 2 Abdellatif Kechiche  France,  Belgium,  Spain[104]
2014 Winter Sleep Kış Uykusu Nuri Bilge Ceylan  Turkey,  France,  Germany[105]
2015 Dheepan Jacques Audiard  France[106]
2016 I, Daniel Blake Ken Loach  United Kingdom[107]
2017 The Square Ruben Östlund  Sweden,  Germany,  France,  Denmark[108]
2018 Shoplifters 万引き家族 Hirokazu Kore-eda  Japan[109]
2019 Parasite § 기생충 Bong Joon-ho  South Korea[110]
2020s
2020 No festival due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[14]
2021 Titane Julia Ducournau  France,  Belgium[111]
Notes
# Denotes Ex-aequo win
§ Denotes unanimous win
The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II.[112] The organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Boefje, The Four Feathers, Goodbye Mr. Chips, Lenin in 1918, La Loi du Nord, Union Pacific & The Wizard of Oz.

Multiple winners

Eight directors or co-directors have won the award twice:[113]

Honorary Palme d'Or

In 1997, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Festival, the Cannes jury awarded a "Palme des Palmes" for the first time.[114]

Year Recipient Profession Nationality of recipient
1997 Ingmar Bergman[114] Director/Screenwriter Sweden

In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors or actors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or.[115]

Year Recipient Profession Nationality of recipient
2002 Woody Allen[116] Director/Actor/Screenwriter United States
2003 Jeanne Moreau[117] Actress France
2005 Catherine Deneuve[118] Actress France
2007 Jane Fonda[119] Actress United States
2008 Manoel de Oliveira[120] Director/Screenwriter Portugal
2009 Clint Eastwood[121] Actor/Director United States
2011 Jean-Paul Belmondo[122] Actor France
Bernardo Bertolucci[123] Director/Screenwriter Italy
2015 Agnès Varda[124][125] Director/Screenwriter France
2016 Jean-Pierre Léaud[126] Actor France
2017 Jeffrey Katzenberg[127] Producer United States
2019 Alain Delon[128] Actor France
2021 Marco Bellocchio[129] Director/Screenwriter Italy
Jodie Foster[130] Actress/Director United States

In 2018, the Cannes jury also awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time.[131]

Year Film Original title Director(s) Country Ref(s)
2018 The Image Book Le Livre d'image Jean-Luc Godard   Switzerland[132] [131]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "A brief history of the Palme d'or". Festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  2. ^ "Why the Cannes Film Festival matters (and how to pronounce it)". Vox. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  3. ^ "Cannes 2017: Sweden's Ruben Östlund wins Palme d'Or for 'The Square' - France 24". France 24. 2017-05-28. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  4. ^ Hammond, Pete (2016-05-11). "Cannes Vs Oscar: Why The Palme d'Or And Best Picture Academy Award Don't Make A Perfect Match". Deadline. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  5. ^ "'Scarecrow' (1973) - Cannes: All the Palme d'Or Winners, Ranked". The Hollywood Reporter.
  6. ^ "Histoire de la Palme d'or, de Lucienne Lazon à Chopard" (in French). Retrieved 2017-05-31.
  7. ^ "Cannes: 5 unforgettable Palme d'Or winners". 2015-05-24. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  8. ^ a b "Director Abdellatif Kechiche: Why I'm Selling My Palme d'Or (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  9. ^ "Festival de Cannes - Regulations". Festival-cannes.fr. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  10. ^ "Conference of the Jury of 66th Festival de Cannes". Festival de Cannes. 2013. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.(video unavailable)
  11. ^ "THE PALME D'OR". Chopard. Retrieved 2020-03-14.
  12. ^ "A brief history of the Palme d'Or - Festival de Cannes 2019 (International Film Festival)". Festival-cannes.com. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  13. ^ Xan Brooks (25 May 2014). "Cannes festival ready for shut-eye after Winter Sleep wins Palme d'Or". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Retrieved 1 June 2014.
  14. ^ a b "What Cannes 2020 line-up says about the cancelled festival". Los Angeles Times. 2020-06-03.
  15. ^ "UNION PACIFIC". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  16. ^ Ronk, Liz; Rothman, Lily (May 13, 2015). "How World War II Created the Cannes Film Festival". Time. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  17. ^ "BRIEF ENCOUNTER". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  18. ^ "THE LOST WEEK-END". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  19. ^ "MARIA CANDELARIA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  20. ^ "MUZI BEZ KIDEL". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  21. ^ "NEECHA NAGAR". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  22. ^ "LA SYMPHONIE PASTORALE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  23. ^ "DE RØDE ENGE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  24. ^ "ROMA CITTA APERTA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  25. ^ "HETS". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  26. ^ "VELIKIY PERELOM". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  27. ^ "ANTOINE ET ANTOINETTE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  28. ^ "CROSSFIRE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  29. ^ "LES MAUDITS". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  30. ^ "DUMBO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  31. ^ "ZIEGFELD FOLLIES". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  32. ^ a b c "Factbox: History of the Cannes film festival". Reuters. May 6, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2020.
  33. ^ "THE THIRD MAN". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  34. ^ "MIRACOLO A MILANO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  35. ^ "FRÖKEN JULIE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  36. ^ "THE TRAGEDY OF OTHELLO : THE MOOR OF VENICE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  37. ^ "DUE SOLDI DI SPERANZA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  38. ^ "LE SALAIRE DE LA PEUR". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  39. ^ "JIGOKU-MON". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  40. ^ "MARTY". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  41. ^ "LE MONDE DU SILENCE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  42. ^ "FRIENDLY PERSUASION". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  43. ^ "LETJAT ZURAVLI". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  44. ^ "ORFEU NEGRO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  45. ^ "LA DOLCE VITA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  46. ^ "UNE AUSSI LONGUE ABSENCE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  47. ^ "VIRIDIANA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  48. ^ "O PAGADOR DE PROMESSAS". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  49. ^ "IL GATTOPARDO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  50. ^ "LES PARAPLUIES DE CHERBOURG". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  51. ^ "THE KNACK... AND HOW TO GET IT". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  52. ^ "SIGNORE E SIGNORI". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  53. ^ "UN HOMME ET UNE FEMME". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  54. ^ "BLOW UP". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  55. ^ "IF". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  56. ^ "M.A.S.H." Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  57. ^ "THE GO-BETWEEN". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  58. ^ "IL CASO MATTEI". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  59. ^ "LA CLASSE OPERAIA VA IN PARADISO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  60. ^ "THE HIRELING". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  61. ^ "SCARECROW". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  62. ^ "THE CONVERSATION". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  63. ^ "CHRONIQUE DES ANNÉES DE BRAISE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  64. ^ "TAXI DRIVER". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  65. ^ "PADRE PADRONE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  66. ^ "L'ALBERO DEGLI ZOCCOLI". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  67. ^ "APOCALYPSE NOW (A WORK IN PROGRESS)". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  68. ^ "DIE BLECHTROMMEL". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  69. ^ "ALL THAT JAZZ". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  70. ^ "KAGEMUSHA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  71. ^ "CZLOWIEK Z ZELAZA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  72. ^ "MISSING". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  73. ^ "YOL". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  74. ^ "NARAYAMA-BUSHI-KO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  75. ^ "PARIS TEXAS". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  76. ^ "THE MISSION". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  77. ^ "SOUS LE SOLEIL DE SATAN". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  78. ^ "PELLE EROBREREN". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  79. ^ "SEX, LIES & VIDEOTAPE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  80. ^ "WILD AT HEART". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  81. ^ "BARTON FINK". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  82. ^ "DEN GODA VILJAN". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  83. ^ "BAWANG BIEJI". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  84. ^ "THE PIANO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  85. ^ "PULP FICTION". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  86. ^ "UNDERGROUND". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  87. ^ "SECRETS AND LIES". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  88. ^ "UNAGI". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  89. ^ "MIA EONIOTITA KE MIA MERA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  90. ^ "ROSETTA". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  91. ^ "DANCER IN THE DARK". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  92. ^ "LA STANZA DEL FIGLIO". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  93. ^ "THE PIANIST". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  94. ^ "ELEPHANT". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  95. ^ "FAHRENHEIT 9/11". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  96. ^ "L'ENFANT". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  97. ^ "THE WIND THAT SHAKES THE BARLEY". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  98. ^ "4 LUNI, 3 SAPTAMINI SI 2 ZILE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  99. ^ "ENTRE LES MURS". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  100. ^ "DAS WEISSE BAND". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  101. ^ "LUNG BOONMEE RALUEK CHAT". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  102. ^ "THE TREE OF LIFE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  103. ^ "AMOUR". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  104. ^ "LA VIE D'ADÈLE - CHAPITRE 1 & 2". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  105. ^ "WINTER SLEEP". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  106. ^ "DHEEPAN". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  107. ^ "I, DANIEL BLAKE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  108. ^ "THE SQUARE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  109. ^ "MANBIKI KAZOKU". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  110. ^ "GISAENGCHUNG". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  111. ^ "TITANE". Festival de Cannes. Retrieved 2021-07-17.
  112. ^ McCarthy, Todd (May 26, 2002). "'Pianist' tickles Cannes". Variety. Retrieved May 24, 2018.
  113. ^ Lodge, Guy; Gleiberman, Owen (May 22, 2016). "Cannes: Ken Loach Wins His Second Palme d'Or for 'I, Daniel Blake'". Variety. Retrieved May 23, 2016.
  114. ^ a b Rooney, David (9 April 1997). "Bergman to get special Cannes salute". Variety. Retrieved 22 August 2019.
  115. ^ "A Honorary Palme at the opening ceremony of the Festival de Cannes". Cannes Film Festival. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  116. ^ Hischak, Thomas S. (2018). The Woody Allen Encyclopedia. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 340. ISBN 1538110679.
  117. ^ Dagan, Carmel; Natale, Richard (31 July 2017). "Jeanne Moreau, Star of French Film Classics, Dies at 89". Variety. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
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  119. ^ "Producers Guild To Honors Jane Fonda With 2019 Stanley Kramer Award". Producers Guild of America. 20 December 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  120. ^ Lee, Benjamin (2 April 2015). "Manoel de Oliveira, legendary Portuguese director, dies aged 106". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  121. ^ "Clint Eastwood gets honorary Palme d'Or". CBC News. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  122. ^ "Monica Bellucci, Jean-Paul Belmondo to Be Honored at France's Lumiere Awards". The Hollywood Reporter. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2020.
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External links