Palomar 12

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Palomar 12
Palomar 12 Hubble.jpg
Palomar 12 by Hubble Space Telescope, 3.36′ view
Observation data (J2000 epoch)
Class XII
Constellation Capricornus
Right ascension 21h 46m 38.84s[1]
Declination –21° 15′ 09.4″[1]
Distance 63.6 ± 2.9 kly (19.50 ± 0.89 kpc)[2]
Apparent magnitude (V) 11.99
Apparent dimensions (V) 17′.4
Physical characteristics
Mass 1.59×104[3] M
Radius 162 ± 8 ly[4]
Metallicity  = –0.85[3] dex
Estimated age 6.5 Gyr[5]
Other designations GCl 123[6]
See also: Globular cluster, List of globular clusters

Palomar 12 is a globular cluster in the constellation Capricornus.

First discovered on the National Geographic Society – Palomar Observatory Sky Survey plates by Robert George Harrington and Fritz Zwicky,[7] it was catalogued as a globular cluster. However Zwicky came to believe this was actually a nearby dwarf galaxy in the Local Group. It is a relatively young cluster, being about 30% younger than most of the globular clusters in the Milky Way.[2] It is metal-rich with a metallicity of [Fe/H] ~= -0.8.[5] It has an average luminosity distribution of Mv = -4.48.[8]

Based on proper motion studies, this cluster was first suspected in 2000 to have been captured from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy about 1.7 Ga ago.[9] It is now generally believed to be a member of that galaxy.[5] It is estimated to be 6.5 Gyr old.[5]


  1. ^ a b Goldsbury, Ryan; et al. (December 2010), "The ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters. X. New Determinations of Centers for 65 Clusters", The Astronomical Journal, 140 (6): 1830–1837, Bibcode:2010AJ....140.1830G, arXiv:1008.2755Freely accessible, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/140/6/1830. 
  2. ^ a b Rosenberg, A.; et al. (1998), "Young Galactic globular clusters II. The case of Palomar 12", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 339: 61–69, Bibcode:1998A&A...339...61R, arXiv:astro-ph/9809112Freely accessible. 
  3. ^ a b Boyles, J.; et al. (November 2011), "Young Radio Pulsars in Galactic Globular Clusters", The Astrophysical Journal, 742 (1): 51, Bibcode:2011ApJ...742...51B, arXiv:1108.4402Freely accessible, doi:10.1088/0004-637X/742/1/51. 
  4. ^ distance × sin( diameter_angle / 2 ) = 162 ly. radius
  5. ^ a b c d Geisler, Doug; et al. (September 2007), "Chemical Abundances and Kinematics in Globular Clusters and Local Group Dwarf Galaxies and Their Implications for Formation Theories of the Galactic Halo", The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 119 (859): 939–961, Bibcode:2007PASP..119..939G, arXiv:0708.0570Freely accessible, doi:10.1086/521990. 
  6. ^ "Cl Pal 12". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2006-11-16. 
  7. ^ Abell, George O. (1955). "Globular Clusters and Planetary Nebulae Discovered on the National Geographic Society-Palomar Observatory Sky Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 67 (397): 258. Bibcode:1955PASP...67..258A. doi:10.1086/126815. 
  8. ^ van den Bergh, Sidney (July 2007). "The Luminosity Distribution of Globular Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies". The Astronomical Journal. 134 (1): 344–345. Bibcode:2007AJ....134..344V. arXiv:0704.2226Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/518868. 
  9. ^ D. I. Dinescu; S. R. Majewski; T. M. Girard; K. M. Cudworth (2000). "The Absolute Proper Motion of Palomar 12: A Case for Tidal Capture from the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy". The Astronomical Journal. 120 (4): 1892–1905. arXiv:astro-ph/0006314Freely accessible. doi:10.1086/301552. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: Sky map 21h 46m 38.84s, −21° 15′ 09.4″