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Temporal range: Jurassic–Recent
Viviparus contectus met operculum2.JPG
Apertural view of a shell of Viviparus contectus with operculum in place
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda

informal group Architaenioglossa

Superfamily: Viviparoidea
Family: Viviparidae
Subfamily: Viviparinae
Genus: Viviparus
Montfort, 1810[1]
  • Contectiana Bourguignat, 1880 (junior synonym)
  • Contectiana (Contectiana) Bourguignat, 1880 (junior synonym)
  • Paludina Férussac, 1812
  • Paludina (Vivipara) Montfort, 1810 (Paludina is a junior synonym of Viviparus)
  • Vivipara (incorrect subsequent spelling)

Viviparus, common name the river snails, is a genus of large, freshwater snails with an operculum, aquatic gastropod mollusks.[2]

They are primitive members of the clade Caenogastropoda. The old name of the genus used to be Paludina.


This genus is palaearctic in distribution,[3] and is known from the Jurassic to the Recent periods.[4]


Viviparus belongs to the subfamily Viviparinae. Its taxonomy is currently under development and many of its species are often included in other related genera. It includes the following species:[5]

Species brought into synonymy
  • Viviparus bifarcinatus stricturatus Neumayr, 1869 : synonym of † Viviparus woodwardi Brusina, 1885
  • Viviparus dezmanianus dacicus Lubenescu & Zazuleac, 1985: synonym of † Viviparus dezmanianus turbureensis Fontannes, 1887
  • Viviparus incertus Macarovici, 1940: synonym of † Viviparus wesselinghi Neubauer, Harzhauser, Georgopoulou, Mandic & Kroh, 2014
  • Viviparus malleatus Reeve:[7] synonym of Cipangopaludina malleata (Reeve, 1863)
  • Viviparus rudis strossmayerianus Brusina, 1874: synonym of † Viviparus strossmayerianus Brusina, 1874
  • Viviparus woodwardi argesiensis (Stefanescu, 1896): synonym of † Viviparus argesiensis (Stefanescu, 1896)


  1. ^ Montfort D. de (1810). Conchyliologie systématique, et classification méthodique des coquilles; offrant leurs figures, leur arrangement générique, leurs descriptions caractéristiques, leurs noms; ainsi que leur synonymie en plusieurs langues. Ouvrage destiné à faciliter l'étude des coquilles, ainsi que leur disposition dans les cabinets d'histoire naturelle. Coquilles univalves, non cloisonnées. Tome second. pp. [1-3], 1-676. Paris. (Schoell).
  2. ^ a b Bouchet, P. (2014). Viviparus Montfort, 1810. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2014-11-13
  3. ^ Janus Horst. 1965. The young specialist looks at land and freshwater molluscs. Burke, London.
  4. ^ (in Czech) Pek I., Vašíček Z., Roček Z., Hajn. V. & Mikuláš R.: Základy zoopaleontologie. - Olomouc, 1996. 264 pp., ISBN 80-7067-599-3.
  5. ^ "Theba geminata, codringtonia". Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  6. ^ Vázquez A. A. & Perera S. (2010). "Endemic Freshwater molluscs of Cuba and their conservation status". Tropical Conservation Science 3 (2): 190-199. HTM, PDF.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "ITIS Standard Report Page: Viviparus". Retrieved 20 November 2015. 
  8. ^ United States Geological Survey. (2011). "Viviparus subpurpureus". USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. Accessed 29 March 2011.
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Viviparus.