|58th United States Ambassador to France|
June 30, 1993 – February 5, 1997
|Preceded by||Walter Curley|
|Succeeded by||Felix Rohatyn|
Pamela Beryl Digby|
March 20, 1920
Farnborough, Hampshire, England
February 5, 1997 (aged 76)|
|Resting place||Arden, Harriman, New York|
|Relatives||Edward Henry Kenelm Digby (brother)|
Pamela Beryl Harriman (née Digby; 20 March 1920 – 5 February 1997), also known as Pamela Churchill Harriman, was an English-born American political activist for the Democratic Party, diplomat, and socialite. She married three important and powerful men, her first husband being Randolph Churchill, the son of prime minister Winston Churchill. Her only child, Winston Churchill, was named after his famous grandfather.
She was born in Farnborough, Hampshire, England, the daughter of Edward Digby, 11th Baron Digby, and his wife, Constance Pamela Alice, the daughter of Henry Campbell Bruce, 2nd Baron Aberdare. Pamela was educated by governesses in the ancestral home at Minterne Magna in Dorset, along with her three younger siblings. Her great-great aunt was the nineteenth-century adventurer and courtesan Jane Digby (1807–1881), notorious for her exotic travels and scandalous personal life. Pamela was to follow in her ancestor's footsteps, and has been called 'the 20th-century's most influential courtesan'.
Raised amid acres of Dorset farmland and woods, from an early age Pamela was a very good horsewoman. She competed at shows at the International Olympia, Royal Bath and West Show, and local shows at Dorchester and Melplash. She show-jumped a tiny pony called Stardust that did a clear round at Olympia when every fence was above the animal's withers.
At the age of seventeen, she was sent to a Munich boarding school for six months. While there she was introduced to Adolf Hitler by Unity Mitford. She subsequently went to Paris, taking some classes at the Sorbonne. Although in her Who's Who biography she identified these classes as "post-graduate" work, she actually never completed a college degree. By 1937, she had returned to England.
She was a descendant of the Earls of Leicester, Ilchester, and the Dukes of Atholl. She was a first cousin of Lavinia Fitzalan-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk. She was also a third cousin, once removed, of Angus Ogilvy, husband of Queen Elizabeth's cousin, Alexandra of Kent. She was also a fourth cousin, once removed, of Sarah, Duchess of York.
Marriage to Randolph Churchill
In 1939, while working at the Foreign Office in London doing French-to-English translations, Pamela met Randolph Churchill, the son of Winston Churchill, and a womaniser and alcoholic, desperate for a wife, having already proposed to eight women in the space of two weeks. Randolph proposed to her on the very evening they met, and they were married on 4 October 1939. Two days after Randolph Churchill took his seat in the House of Commons, their son Winston was born. Shortly after giving birth, Pamela and the newborn were photographed by Cecil Beaton for Life magazine, its first cover of a mother with baby.
In February 1941, Randolph was sent to Cairo for military service, where he accrued large gambling debts. His letter to Pamela asking her to make good on his liabilities, along with her affair with W. Averell Harriman, combined to shatter their marriage, already shaky due to his bad behaviour. Harriman was known at Chequers by the French phrase habitué de la maison for his frequent stays there in 1941. Harriman was one of the aristocratic set from the US Embassy, charming, suave and sophisticated. They had developed a friendship during the London Blitz, so that by 17 April 1941 they were already close and intimate friends. Jack Colville, Churchill's private secretary was well aware of the affair, which no doubt helped Anglo-American relations, but their clandestine relationship had to wait thirty years before consummation in marriage. She completed the circle by becoming a US citizen. Her father-in-law however, was too busy visiting bombed-out Blitz sites to be overly-concerned in 1941.
During 1944 she worked in the Cabinet's war rooms on a secretive SOE mission for Operation Bodyguard working with Robert E. Sherwood. "The days at the office were very sorry," wrote Bobby Bevan, a spy who was directly involved with Bodyguard's activities; long days stretched into lonely nights, when they frequently indulged the senses on champagne and Russian caviar. Bodyguard went ahead without allied knowledge or approval, which upset the Soviets. At a critical point prior to the Top Secret D-Day Normandy landings, allied intelligence feared Germany's strength in the Mediterranean; a diversionary attack on the Balkans was designed to distract the Nazis in France. This further encouraged Churchill to switch sides to Tito's Partisans. After the war, Randolph had an affair with Bevan's wife. Eventually, Pamela filed for divorce in December 1945 on the grounds that Randolph had deserted her for three years. Later, after having converted to Catholicism, she obtained an annulment from the Catholic Church.
Romantic involvements and affairs
Beside two additional marriages, Pamela Harriman had numerous affairs with men of prominence and wealth. During her marriage to Randolph Churchill, she had romantic involvements with men such as: W. Averell Harriman, who much later became her third husband; Edward R. Murrow; and John Hay "Jock" Whitney. Notable consorts after her divorce included Prince Aly Khan, Alfonso de Portago, Gianni Agnelli, and Baron Elie de Rothschild.
Churchill became well known for her attention to detail with men. When involved romantically with a man, she paid extremely close attention to his desires, his preferences, and went to any lengths necessary to satisfy his needs during the affair. William S. Paley, briefly a consort during the war, said: "She is the greatest courtesan of the century", meaning it more as a compliment than a detraction. The more critical Max Hastings said, acerbically, "she was ... described as having become 'a world expert on rich men's bedroom ceilings'."
After her divorce from Randolph Churchill, she moved to Paris and in 1948 began her five-year-long affair with Gianni Agnelli. She described this as the happiest period of her life. Agnelli, however, was not faithful in this relationship. In 1952, Pamela found him with a young woman, Anne-Marie d'Estainville, and complained strongly about this, despite her own past behaviour. Agnelli sustained a severe leg injury in a car accident while bringing d'Estainville home. Pamela nursed him through his injury, and later became pregnant (although it was never confirmed that this was by Agnelli), but had an abortion in Switzerland. Later, Princess Marella Caracciolo di Castagneto became pregnant by Agnelli, and Pamela Churchill ended the affair.
Her next significant relationship was with Baron Elie de Rothschild, who was married. He supported her financially, and she was schooled in art history and wine-making during this clandestine and short relationship. During this time she also entertained an affair with the writer Maurice Druon and with the shipping magnate Stavros Niarchos.
Marriage to Leland Hayward
In 1959, she met Broadway producer Leland Hayward, who was still married to Slim Hawks. He proposed to her, and after her marriage ultimatum to Rothschild was rejected, she accepted Hayward's offer and moved to New York City. The day Hayward's divorce was final, she became the fifth Mrs. Hayward with the ceremony taking place in Carson City, Nevada, on 4 May 1960. Hayward was rich with income from his productions, notably the very successful The Sound of Music, allowing for a lavish and luxurious lifestyle mostly between their residence in New York City and the Westchester County estate "Haywire." Haywire also became the name of the memoirs of her stepdaughter Brooke Hayward. Pamela Hayward stayed with her husband until his death on 18 March 1971.
Marriage to W. Averell Harriman
The day after Hayward's funeral, Pamela arranged to resume her acquaintance with her former lover W. Averell Harriman, then 79 years old and recently widowed. They were married on 27 September 1971. With this marriage, her social focus was moved to Washington, D.C., where he owned a townhouse in Georgetown from which they entertained many notable persons. Harriman, a railroad heir, was wealthy and also bought an estate in Virginia and a private jet. With Harriman's involvement and links in the Democratic Party, her political career began. Her last marriage lasted until his death in 1986. In later years, she had significant legal problems with Harriman's children concerning the inheritance.
Harriman served on The Rockefeller University Council from 1977 to 1979, and on the Board of Trustees from 1979 to 1993.Ambassador Harriman served on the Board of Visitors of the College of William and Mary from 1986-1990 where she established The Pamela Harriman Professorship of Government and Public Policy and sponsored a scholarship in her name for three William and Mary students to serve each summer at the US Embassy to France.
As Pamela Churchill Harriman she became a United States citizen in 1971 and became involved with the Democratic Party, creating a fund-raising system—a political action committee—named "Democrats for the 80s", later "Democrats for the 90s", and nicknamed "PamPAC". In 1980, the National Women's Democratic Club named her "Woman of the Year". U.S. President Bill Clinton appointed her United States Ambassador to France in 1993. The Dayton Agreement was signed in Paris in 1995 while she served as ambassador.
|Memorial service for Pamela Harriman at National Cathedral, Washington, D.C., February 13, 1997, C-SPAN|
Pamela Harriman died on 5 February 1997 at the American Hospital, Neuilly-sur-Seine, after suffering a cerebral haemorrhage while swimming at the Paris Ritz one day earlier. The morning after her death, President Jacques Chirac of France placed the Grand Cross of the Légion d'honneur on her flag-draped coffin. She was the first female foreign diplomat to receive this honour. President Clinton, in further recognition of her contributions and significance, dispatched Air Force One to return her body to the United States and spoke movingly at her funeral at the Washington National Cathedral in Washington, D.C., mentioning her public service in glowing terms.
In popular culture
Her life story has been the subject of several films and novels, including:
- The 1996 novel Absolute Power tells the tale of a fictional woman named Christy Sullivan, married to a much older W. Sullivan (a striking similarity to the name W. Averell Harriman perhaps), whose extramarital liaison with the President ends in her murder.
- The 1998 TV movie The Life of the Party: The Pamela Harriman Story, a documentary film, with Ann-Margret in the title role.
- The 2000 biography of Madeleine Albright, Pamela Harriman is cited in contrast to Albright, as a socialite who slept her way to the top.
- The 2015 two-character play, Swimming at The Ritz by Charles Leipart, Pamela Harriman, in need of $40 million to settle a family lawsuit, regales the audience with tales from her past. She and a hotel valet wait in a Paris Ritz suite for appraisers from Christie's who are preparing to auction her possessions.
Titles and styles
- 20 March 1920 – 4 October 1939: The Honourable Pamela Beryl Digby
- 4 October 1939 – December 1945: The Hon. Mrs. Randolph Churchill
- December 1945 – 4 May 1960: The Hon. Mrs. Pamela Churchill
- 4 May 1960 – 27 September 1971: The Hon. Mrs. Leland Hayward
- 27 September 1971 – 5 February 1997: Mrs. William Averell Harriman
- June 30, 1993 – 5 February 1997: The Honorable Pamela Churchill Harriman, United States Ambassador to France
|Ancestors of Pamela Harriman|
- Purnell, Sonia (2015-10-27). Clementine: The Life of Mrs. Winston Churchill. Penguin. p. 253. ISBN 9780698408203.
- Apple Jr, R. W. (20 February 1997). "Pamela Harriman Estate Bequeathed to Churchills". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Tucker Carlson, "The Hall of Lame," Forbes magazine, March 8, 1999
- Berger, Marilyn (6 February 1997). "Pamela Harriman Is Dead at 76; An Ardent Political Personality". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Purnell, Sonia (2015-10-27). Clementine: The Life of Mrs. Winston Churchill. Penguin. p. 110. ISBN 9780698408203.
- Bedell Smith S (1996). Reflected Glory: The Life of Pamela Churchill Harriman. Simon and Schuster.
- Colville, Fringes of Power, p.375
- Jenkins, pp.653-4
- T.Holt, The Deceivers, vol1, p.442
- Divathesite Archived 2006-11-06 at Archive.is
- Gross, Michael (16 February 1997). "'Basically, I'm a Backroom Girl': Of Lovers, Husbands, Wealth and Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- *Hastings, Max. Finest Years: Churchill as Warlord, 1940–45. London, HarperPress, 2009, p. 510. ISBN 978-0-00-726367-7
- From icqurimage Archived 2006-03-19 at the Wayback Machine.
- Hoffman, Jan (17 September 1994). "Heirs Sue Harriman's Widow, Saying She Squandered Trust Funds". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Paid Notice: Deaths HARRIMAN, PAMELA". The New York Times. 7 February 1997. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Whitney, Craig R. (9 February 1997). "In Final Adieu, France Gives Pamela Harriman Top Honor". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Fiction Book Review: Absolute Power by David Baldacci, Author Warner Books Inc $32 (480p) ISBN 978-0-446-51996-0". Publishers Weekly. January 15, 1996. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Book Reviews, Bestselling Books & Publishing Business News | Publishers Weekly". PublishersWeekly.com. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Spoto, Donald (May 12, 1996). "Mariana Cook". The Indianapolis Star. p. 58. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- "Life of the Party: The Pamela Harriman Story (1998) - Overview - TCM.com". tcm.com. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Dobbs, Michael (March 15, 2000). Madeleine Albright: A Twentieth-Century Odyssey. New York: Henry Holt and Company. p. 7. ISBN 9780805056600. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Lustig, Jay (January 15, 2015). "'Swimming at the Ritz' at NJ Rep: reflections on a one-of-a-kind life". NJArts.net. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
- Too Many Honorables?
- Smith, Sally Bedell (1996). Reflected Glory: The Life of Pamela Churchill Harriman. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-80950-2.
- Dwyer, Jack (2009). Dorset Pioneers. The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-5346-0.
- Holt, Thaddeus (2008) . The Deceivers. 2 vols.
- Jenkins, Roy (2001). Churchill. London.
- Leipart, Charles (June 2010). Swimming at The Ritz. Devonshire Park Theatre, Eastbourne.
- Ogden, Christopher (1994). Life of the Party: The Biography of Pamela Digby Churchill Hayward Harriman.
- The Pamela Harriman Foreign Service Fellowship
- Channel 4 documentary on Pamela Harriman
- Appearances on C-SPAN
Walter J. P. Curley
| U.S. Ambassador to France
Felix G. Rohatyn