The Pamir languages are an areal group of the Eastern Iranian languages, spoken by numerous people in the Pamir Mountains, primarily along the Panj River and its tributaries. This includes the Badakhshan Province of Northeastern Afghanistan and the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province of Eastern Tajikistan. Pamir communities are also be found in the adjacent Chitral District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gojal, Gilgit Baltistan in Pakistan. Sarikoli, one of the languages of the Pamir group, is spoken beyond the Sarikol Range on the Afghanistan-China border, and thus qualifies as the easternmost of the extant Iranian languages. The only other living member of the Southeastern Iranian group is Pashto.
No features uniting the Pamir languages as a single subgroup of Iranian have been demonstrated. The Ethnologue lists Pamir languages along with Pashto as Southeastern Iranian, however, according to Encyclopedia Iranica, Pamir languages and Pashto belong to the North-Eastern Iranian branch. Members of the Pamir language area include four reliable groups: a Shughni–Yazgulyam group including Shughni, Sarikoli, and Yazgulyam; Munji and Yidgha; Ishkamimi and related dialects; and Wakhi. They have the subject–object–verb syntactic typology.
The vast majority of Pamir languages speakers in Tajikistan and Afghanistan also use Tajik (Persian) as literary language, which is—unlike the languages of the Pamir group—a Southwestern Iranian tongue. The language group is endangered, with the total number of speakers roughly around 100,000 in 1990.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the Pamir language family was sometimes referred to as the Ghalchah languages by western scholars. The term Ghalchah is no longer used to refer to the Pamir languages or the native speakers of these languages.
The Shughni, Sarikoli, and Yazgulyam languages belong to the Shughni–Yazgulami branch. There are about 75,000 speakers of languages in this family in Afghanistan and Tajikistan (including the dialects of Rushani, Bartangi, Oroshor, Khufi, and Shughni). In 1982, there were about 20,000 speakers of Sarikoli in the Sarikol Valley located in the Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County in Xinjiang Province, China. Shughni and Sarikoli are not mutually intelligible. In 1994, there were 4000 speakers of Yazgulyam along the Yazgulyam River in Tajikistan. Yazgulyam is not written.
The Vanji language was spoken in the Vanj river valley the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in Tajikistan, and was related to Yazgulyam. In the 19th century, the region was forcibly annexed to the Bukharan Emirate and a violent assimilation campaign was undertaken. By the end of the 19th century the Vanji language had disappeared, displaced by Tajik Persian.
The Munji and Yidgha languages are closely related. There are about 6,000 speakers of Yidgha in Pakistan, and in 1992 there were around 2,500 speakers of Munji in the Munjan and Mamalgha Valleys of northeastern Afghanistan. Munji–Yidgha shares with Pashto and Bactrian a development *ð > /l/, absent from the other three Pamir groups.
A probable third, extinct language of the branch was Sarghulami, spoken in Afghanistan until the early 20th century. The only known record of the language is a wordlist elicited from a Munji informant in 1916.
- Payne, John, "Pamir languages" in Compendium Linguarum Iranicarum, ed. Schmitt (1989), 417–444.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Shughni–Yazgulami". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Munji–Yidgha". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Sanglechi–Ishkashimi". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Wakhi". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- Antje Wendtland (2009), The position of the Pamir languages within East Iranian, Orientalia Suecana LVIII
- Southeastern Iranian Family Tree. SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World.
- Nicholas Sims-Williams, Eastern Iranian languages, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, 2010. "The Modern Eastern Iranian languages are even more numerous and varied. Most of them are classified as North-Eastern: Ossetic; Yaghnobi (which derives from a dialect closely related to Sogdian); the Shughni group (Shughni, Roshani, Khufi, Bartangi, Roshorvi, Sarikoli), with which Yaz-1ghulami (Sokolova 1967) and the now extinct Wanji (J. Payne in Schmitt, p. 420) are closely linked; Ishkashmi, Sanglichi, and Zebaki; Wakhi; Munji and Yidgha; and Pashto."
- In his 1892 work on the Avestan language Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson, The later Iranian languages, New Persian, Kurdish, Afghan, Ossetish, Baluchi, Ghalach and some minor modern dialects." Jackson, Abraham Valentine Williams (1892). An Avesta grammar in comparison with Sanskrit and The Avestan alphabet and its transcription. Stuttgart: AMS Press. p. xxx.
- Ethnolinguistic map of Tajikistan[dead link]
- Ishkashimi story with English translation
- Ishkashimi-English Vocabulary List, also featuring words from other Pamir languages added for comparison
- English-Ishkashimi- Zebaki-Wakhi-Yazghulami Vocabulary
- A Short List of Yazghulami Words
- Grierson G. A. Ishkashmi, Zebaki, and Yazghulami, an account of three Eranian dialects. (1920)