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Pamona language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Native toIndonesia
Native speakers
140,000 (2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3pmf
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Pamona (also Poso or Bare’e) is an Austronesian language spoken in Central and South Sulawesi, Indonesia. It is part of the northern group of the Kaili–Pamona languages.



Ethnologue lists the following as dialects: Laiwonu (Iba), Pamona (Poso), Rapangkaka (Aria), Taa (Topotaa, Wana), Tobau (Bare’e, Tobalo, Tobao), Tokondindi, Tomoni, and Topada.[2]

The Poso dialect is the prestige dialect, specifically the variety spoken in the interior around Lake Poso. The coastal Poso variety (Poso Pesisir) – mostly spoken by Muslims in the trading hub Poso – does not differ significantly from the interior prestige variety (e.g. it uses the same negator bare'e as the interior variety), but has undergone some lexical influence from Buginese and the Parigi dialect of Kaili.[3][4]



Pamona has the following sound inventory:[5]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɟ g
voiceless ᵐp ⁿt ᶮc ᵑk
voiced ᵐb ⁿd ᶮɟ ᵑg
Fricative s h
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Trill r
Approximant ʋ l j
Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-Mid e o
Open a


  1. ^ Pamona at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Pamona at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  3. ^ Adriani (1931), p. 9.
  4. ^ Mead, David (2012). Overview of Pamona dialects (per Nicolaus Adriani). Sulang Language Data and Working Papers: Survey Reports, no. 2. Sulawesi Language Alliance.
  5. ^ Adriani (1931), p. 17.


  • Adriani, Nicolaus (1931). Spraakkunst der Bare'e-Taal. Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, LXX. Bandung: A. C. Nix.