Pampa horse

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Country of originBrazil
  • 140–147 cm[1]:493
Distinguishing featuresGaited and Pinto coat color

The Pampa Horse is a breed of spotted, or pinto, horse that evolved in largely unknown parts of Brasilia, from horses that had been brought to South America in the early 16th century. They are an obedient, all-purpose breed, with uses in agriculture, equestrian, and general riding. These gaited horses combine the conformational characteristics of Brazilian Horses with a pinto spotting pattern of white and dark coat colors. Developed from a base of spotted horses of the Mangalarga Marchador, Campolina, Brazilian crossbred horses, and others. It is a color breed: only pinto horses may be registered.


As the Pampa is a spotted breed of Brazilian horses, their history begins with the introduction of this coat in Brazil, and there is no record of a precise date for the arrival of these types of horses.

However it is believed that the color pattern was introduced with the first horses brought by Spanish settlers to South America (such as the Andalusian horse and Jaca Navarra)[2] in the south of the South American continent (which is also where breeds such as the Criollo[2] and Campeiro[3] originated), as well as a few horses of Barb horse origin, brought by Portuguese settlers, and Dutch horses, brought to northeastern of Brazil with the Pernambuco invasion.[4]

Name Reason[edit]

Brigadier Rafael Tobias de Aguiar the man that is responsible by the names Pampa and Tobiano

The origin of the Pampa horse name and Tobiano coat color comes from the same man, the Brazilian Brigadier and horse breeder Rafael Tobias de Aguiar, that which created spotted horses, pinto horses, in the mid-19th century.

The Brigadier Rafael Tobias de Aguiar led the Liberal Revolution in Brazil along with Father Diogo Antônio Feijó to combat the rise of the Conservatives during the early reign of Dom Pedro II. With all he was defeated by the imperial forces in the Sorocaba province, and he fled with his army and troop of pinto horses to Rio Grande do Sul, to join the rebels of the Ragamuffin War. However, six months after having fled the Sorocaba province, Tobias was arrested in Palmeira das Missões and taken to the Laje Fortress, in Rio de Janeiro.[5]

Relationship of the Names: Pampa and Tobiano[edit]

  • Pampa
Aimé Félix Tschiffely and Mancha a Criollo Overo of the "Pampas" in the middle of the journey starting from Buenos Aires until the New York City

However when these pinto horses of the soldiers that accompanied Brigadier returned to São Paulo, they became gradually known throughout the Brazil as the horses of the "Pampas",[4] the predominant biome of Rio Grande do Sul (occupying about 63% of the state territory), where Tobias fled.

  • Tobiano

Tobias, in his passage through Rio Grande do Sul, presented some gaucho farmer of Cruz Alta with one of their spotted horses, and because of that and the fact that he passed through the towns and villages of the Rio Grande do Sul, with their spotted horses, the horses of this type, in this region, they were named by Tobia's Horses, which eventually evolve into Tobianos Horses, and this name was eventually spread throughout South America then to the North America

The interesting thing is that this flight was that gave reason to name, for different reasons, but with the same fact, the same Brigadier and his troops of horses, who cross São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul with their tobiano horses and spread the "Pampa" name, because of the relationship of the origin of the horses with the Rio Grande do Sul biome, and "Tobiano" because of the name of Brigadier (Tobias).


By features and characteristics, the Pampa horse appears to be quite similar to the American Paint Horse, or saddle horse, preserving the forms of progress. But unlike the paint horses, the registration of the Pampa horse is based on certain physical characteristics not just the genetic quality of coat colors.[6]

Ancestors of the Pampa horse come from crossbreeding between the Anglo-Arabian, Campeiro, Campolina, Criollo, Mangalarga, Mangalarga Marchador, Thoroughbred, and Brazilian crossbred horses.[7]

There are separate accounts that cite an Argentinian horse of the pampas that had small stature, almost resembling an English pony. This breed, however, was native to South America and not Brazilian-bred from a stock brought by the Spaniards to the colonies. One of the detailed descriptions stated that this breed had "intelligent and fiery eyes, clean legs, round feet, and well-set sloping shoulders, long pasterns, and silky manes and tails."[8] It is said to be prized for its size and bottom. There are documents that describe how this horse performed well in the plains but will struggle in the mountain country.[9] Nevertheless, historical records show that despite its build, the horse was noted for its speed and endurance.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Valerie Porter, Lawrence Alderson, Stephen J.G. Hall, D. Phillip Sponenberg (2016). Mason's World Encyclopedia of Livestock Breeds and Breeding (sixth edition). Wallingford: CABI. ISBN 9781780647944.
  2. ^ a b "Criollo Horse History". Brazilian Association of Criollo Horse Breeders = 2015-09-21.
  3. ^ "Campeiro Horse History". Cavalo Campeiro. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
  4. ^ a b "Origin of Pampa by Lúcio Sérgio Andrade". ABCPAMPA. Retrieved 2015-09-21.
  5. ^ "Brigadier Rafael Tobias de Aguiar". InfoEscola. Retrieved 2015-09-23.
  6. ^ André Galvão Cintra (September 2013). "Raças de Cavalos criadas no Brasil / Horses breed raised in Brazil" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Animal Business Brasil da Sociedade Nacional de Agricultura.
  7. ^ "Pampa Horse". horsebreedspictures. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  8. ^ Living Age, 5th Series. Boston: Littell, Son and Company. 1890. p. 824.
  9. ^ Walpole, Frederick (1849). Four Years in the Pacific in Her Majesty's Ship "Collingwood", from 1844 to 1848, Volume 1. Richard Bentley. p. 150.
  10. ^ Adams, Charles (1893). Johnson's Universal Cyclopedia: A New Edition, Volume 1. New York: A.J. Johnson Company. p. 306.