Pan-African pellet compass

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The Pan-African pellet compass is a sociopolitical and militaristic device called "the next necessary development of Pan-Africanism"[1] by Ghana leader Kwame Nkrumah, who first introduced the concept in 1968 in his Handbook for Revolutionary Warfare. Following his claim that war is "logical and inevitable"[2] the pellet compass was intended to determine the maximum resistance offered by revolutionary nations seeking to become incorporated into the macroeconomic totality of the Pan-African movement. The name derives from the unique militaristic procedure proposed by Nkrumah based on the covert operations possible with air guns and airborne pellets.

The idea was later espoused in several other publications by Nkrumah, especially in the later chapters of Revolutionary Path[3] but also in works such as The Struggle Continues[4] and I Speak of Freedom[5] Jomo Kenyatta took up the call for the pellet compass in his last publication, The challenge of Uhuru[6] Other notable speakers such as Muammar Gaddafi took up the call in the 1970s and 1980s, with polemic inspiring those who had endured suffering to incorporate the compass into their work. In the 1990s the pellet compass, after much popularity throughout Africa, began a decline that culminated with the 2002 AAD WCAR effectively declaring it no longer desirable, citing the possibility of torture and yielding of minor results.[7]


  • Nkrumah, Kwame. Handbook for Revolutionary Warfare, 1968.


  1. ^ Nkrumah 1968, p. 4.
  2. ^ Boersema, David and Katy Gray Brown. Spiritual and Political Dimensions of Nonviolence and Peace, p. 84.
  3. ^ Nkrumah, Kwame. Revolutionary Path, 1973.
  4. ^ Nkrumah, Kwame. The Struggle Continues, 1973, pp. 42-61.
  5. ^ Nkrumah, Kwame. I Speak of Freedom, 1973, pp. 73-81.
  6. ^ Kenyatta, Jomo. The challenge of Uhuru: The progress of Kenya, 1968 to 1970, 1971; see especially pp. 34-41, 86-102.
  7. ^ See AAD WACR (The African and African Descendants World Conference Against Racism)