Pan American Games sports
The Pan American Games sports comprise all the sports contested in the Summer Olympic Games. In addition, traditional and popular sports throughout the Americas which are not contested at the Olympic Games are also contested such as bowling and baseball. As of 2011, the Pan American Games will include 36 sports with 40 disciplines and 361 events. The number and kinds of events may change slightly from one Pan American Games to another.
Sports, disciplines, events
For purposes of Pan American Games competition, the Pan American Sports Organization (PASO) makes a distinction between sports and disciplines. A sport, in Pan American Games terms, is a single or group of disciplines as represented by an international governing body, namely an International Federation. For example, aquatics, represented at the Olympic level by the International Swimming Federation, is a sport at the Pan American Games that includes the swimming, diving, synchronized swimming and water polo disciplines.
Canoe slalom is the only Olympic discipline not on the Pan American Games program. It was, in fact, scheduled to be held at both the 2007 and 2011 Pan American Games, but due to the small number of countries competing in the discipline, the event was dropped. However, the discipline is scheduled to make its debut at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Canada.
Medals are awarded on a per-event basis; there can be one or more events per sport or discipline. In fact, besides baseball, rugby sevens, and softball, every current Pan American Games discipline has at least two events.
A sport or discipline appears on the Pan American Games program if it is included on the Olympic program. For the traditional Pan American Games sports, PASO determines if they are widely practised around the Americas; that is, the number of countries that compete in a given sport is the indicator of the sport's prevalence. PASO's requirements reflect participation in the Pan American Games as well, especially more stringent toward men (as they are represented in higher numbers).
The International Olympic Committee voted on October 9, 2009, during the 121st IOC Session in Copenhagen, to elevate both rugby sevens and golf as official Olympic sports and to include them in the Olympics, beginning with the 2016 Olympic Games. With this development, rugby sevens made its debut at the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, and golf is expected to be played at the 2015 Pan American Games.
Current Pan American Games program
The following sports (or disciplines of a sport) make up the current Pan American Games official program and are listed alphabetically according to the name used by PASO. The figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport contested at the respective Games; a bullet (•) denotes that the sport/discipline was scheduled to be competed, but was dropped do to a lack of entries.
Eight of the 36 sports (Aquatics, Canoeing, Cycling, Football, Gymnastics, Volleyball, Equestrian) consist of multiple disciplines. Disciplines from the same sport are grouped under the same heading:
For equestrian and wrestling, the figures in each cell indicate the number of events for each sport, and not for each discipline separately.
The following sports were previously part of the Pan American Games program as official sports, but are no longer on the current program.
- "About the Games". Toronto Organizing Committee for the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- "Sports Program". COPAG. Archived from the original on July 22, 2011. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- Pan American Canoe Slalom Championships - 2011 ICF Ranking Event
- "Olympic Sports, Disciplines & Events". HickokSports.com. February 4, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2011.
- "Golf & rugby voted into Olympics". BBC. October 9, 2009. Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- Wilson, Stephen (August 13, 2009). "Golf, rugby backed by IOC board for 2016 Games". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- "Rugby Included in 2011 Pan American Games". Bahamas Rugby. November 7, 2008. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Pan American Games events