Panaeolus cyanescens

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Panaeolus cyanescens
Copelandia cyanescens.jpg
Panaeolus cyanescens
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Bolbitiaceae
Genus: Panaeolus
Species:
P. cyanescens
Binomial name
Panaeolus cyanescens
Panaeolus-cyanescens-range-map.png
Range of Panaeolus cyanescens
Synonyms

Agaricus cyanescens
Copelandia anomala
Copelandia cyanescens
Copelandia papilonacea
Copelandia westii

Panaeolus cyanescens
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
gills on hymenium
cap is convex
hymenium is adnate
stipe is bare
spore print is black
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: psychoactive

Panaeolus cyanescens is a mushroom in the Bolbitiaceae family. Panaeolus cyanescens is a potent psilocybin mushroom and is similar to Panaeolus tropicalis.

Description[edit]

  • Cap: 1.5 – 4 cm across, dry, at first hemispheric, expanding to campanulate to convex, with an incurved margin when young. Young caps start out light brown and fade to off-white or light gray at maturity, sometimes with yellowish or brownish tones. Often developing cracks in dry weather, slightly hygrophanous, turning greenish or blue where damaged.
  • Gills: Broadly adnate to adnexed attachment, close, starting out gray and turning black as the spores mature. Gill faces with a mottled appearance, edges white.
  • Spores: Jet Black, 12 - 15 x 7 - 11 µm, smooth, opaque, elliptical. With a germ pore.
  • Stipe: 7 – 12 cm long by 2 to 3 mm thick, equal to slightly enlarged at the base, pruinose, colored like the cap, staining blue where bruised.
  • Taste: Farinaceous.
  • Odor: Farinaceous.
  • Microscopic features: Basidia 4 spored, pleurocystidia fusoid-ventricose, cheilocystidia 12 x 4 µm.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Panaeolus cyanescens is a coprophilous (dung-inhabiting) species which grows in tropical and neotropical areas in both hemispheres. It has been found[1] in Africa (including South Africa, Madagascar and Democratic Republic of the Congo), Australia, Bali, Belize, Brasil, Borneo, the Caribbean (Bermuda, Grenada, (Barbados, granyte) Jamaica, Trinidad), Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, India, Malaysia, Indonesia (including Sumatra), Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Europe (including Austria, France, Great Britain, Luxembourg, Spain, Switzerland), Japan, Mexico, Oceania (including Fiji and Samoa), the Philippines, South America (including Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela), South Korea, Tasmania, and the United States (California, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Tennessee, Texas, and North Carolina).

Alkaloid Content[edit]

Laussmann & Sigrid Meier-Giebing (2010) reported the presence of psilocybin at 2.5% and psilocin at 1.194% average from 25 samples seized by German customs that were shipments from commercial growers (making modern commercially cultivated strains of this species the most potent hallucinogenic mushrooms ever described in reputable published research).[2] Other researchers have documented a significant presence of serotonin and urea in this species as well as the presence of baeocystin which may also be psychoactive.[3]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Mower's Mushroom lookalike

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gastón Guzmán; John W. Allen; Jochen Gartz (1998). "A worldwide geographical distribution of the neurotropic fungi, an analysis and discussion" (PDF). Annali del Museo Civico di Rovereto (14): 189–280. (on Fondazione Museo Civico di Rovereto)
  2. ^ Laussmann, Tim; Meier-Giebing, Sigrid (2010-02-25). "Forensic analysis of hallucinogenic mushrooms and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) using cation-exchange liquid chromatography". Forensic Science International. 195 (1–3): 160–164. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.013. PMID 20047807.
  3. ^ Stijve, T.; Kuyper, Th. (October 1985). "Occurrence of Psilocybin in Various Higher Fungi from Several European Countries". Planta Medica. 51 (5): 385–387. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969526. PMID 17342589.
  • Stamets, Paul (1996). Psilocybin Mushrooms of the World. Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 0-9610798-0-0.

External links[edit]