Panama Jazz Festival

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The Panama Jazz Festival was founded in September 2003 by pianist Danilo Pérez.

History[edit]

Perez founded the festival with the intent to improve people's lives through the shared experience of music.[1] The festival has welcomed 300,000 people from all over the world. Organizers announced that more than 5 million dollars in scholarships has served more than 25,000 students from Latin America and the world.[2]

The festival provides a week of master classes by musicians from Berklee College of Music, Berklee Global Jazz Institute, and the New England Conservatory. Other institutions that have participated in the festival include the Golandsky Institute, Conservatory of Music of Puerto Rico, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Cambridge Rindge and Latin School, Sienna Jazz Foundation, Thelonious Monk Institute of Jazz, New York Jazz Academy, and the Paris Conservatory.[3]

Musicians who have attended the festival include Kenny Barron, Rubén Blades, Terri Lyne Carrington, Billy Cobham, Jack DeJohnette, Nnenna Freelon, Herbie Hancock, Stanley Jordan, Joe Lovano, Ellis Marsalis Jr., John Patitucci, Dianne Reeves, Wayne Shorter, Esperanza Spalding, Mike Stern, Chucho Valdés, Randy Weston, and Lizz Wright.

Invited musicians teach master classes where students from Latin America and the world come together to learn from the international masters of jazz. Among the musicians who have given lectures are Kenny Barron, Brian Blade, Ran Blake, Terri Lyne Carrington, Regina Carter, Santi Debriano, Jack DeJohnette, Nnenna Freelon, Tia Fuller, Eddie Gómez, Craig Handy, Charlie Hunter, Stanley Jordan, Joe Lovano, John Patitucci, Marco Pignataro, Kurt Rosenwinkel, David Sanchez, Wayne Shorter, Janis Siegel, Ben Street, Steve Turre, Chucho Valdés, and Randy Weston.[3][4]


The festival supports the year-round educational programs of Danilo Perez Foundation, which brings art and music to children from poor communities in the Republic of Panama. The idea for the Danilo Perez Foundation originated in the 1965 when Danilo Perez Urriola (father of the pianist) started his educational programs with children of poverty in Panama and created an elementary and high school curriculum where all classes were taught through improvisation, composition, and the performance of music.

Recordings[edit]

Panama Suite (2006) was recorded with students and faculty of Berklee College of Music and the New England Conservatory to commemorate five years of the Panama Jazz Festival. All tracks were composed and directed by Danilo Perez and produced by Billy Herron and Berklee College of Music.

Associated schools and organizations[edit]

  • Berklee College of Music and Berklee Global Jazz Institute[5][6]
  • City of Knowledge
  • Danilo Perez Foundation
  • Embassy of the United States[7]
  • New England Conservatory[5]
  • Panamanian Government: Presidency, Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Culture, and Panama City mayor

Guests[edit]

Year Artist Instrument Origin
2003 Danilo Pérez Trio (Ben Street, Adam Cruz) Piano, bass, drums
Kenny Barron (Kiyoshi Obata, Kim Thompson) Piano U.S.
Mike Stern (Bob Franceschini, Lincoln Goines, Lionel Cordew) Guitar U.S.
Steve Turre (Hector Martignon, Steve Kirby, Obed Calvaire, Richie Flores) Trombone U.S.
Carlos Garnett Tenor saxophone Panama
Regina Carter (David Budway, Mayra Casales, Alvester Garnett, Chris Lightcap) Violin U.S.
Charlie Hunter Guitar U.S.
Barbara Wilson Voice Panama
Danilo Perez Sr. Voice Panama
2005 Jack DeJohnette (Danilo Perez, John Patitucci, Joe Lovano, Ricaurte Villarreal) Drums and piano U.S.
Joe Lovano (Dennis Irwin, William Drewes, Francisco Mela, James Weidman, Judi Silvano) Tenor saxophone U.S.
John Patitucci Double bass, bass guitar U.S.
Victor Paz Trumpet Panama
Janis Siegel (Steve Hass, Darek Oles, Alan Pasqua) Voice U.S.
2006 Randy Weston (feat. Alex Blake, Neil Clarke) Piano U.S. [8]
Kurt Rosenwinkel Guitar U.S.
David Sánchez Saxophone Puerto Rico
Carlos Garnett Tenor saxophone Panama
Mark Turner Saxophone and clarinet U.S.
Victor Paz Trumpet Panama
Santi Debriano (Patricia Vlieg) Bass U.S.
2007 Edmar Castañeda Harp Colombia
Nnenna Freelon Voice U.S.
Carlos Garnett Tenor saxophone Panama
Panamanian Band (feat. Danilo Perez, Billy Cobham, Santi Debriano, Jorge Sylvester, Renato Thoms) Piano, bass, drums, saxophone Panama
Victor Paz Trumpet Panama
Banda Tributo a Chile (feat. Patricia Zarate, Mili Bermejo, Francisco Molina, Nando Michelin, Dan Greenspan) Saxophone Chile
2008 Tia Fuller (Kim Thompson) Saxophone U.S.
Kelley Johnson (Graciela Nunez, Yomira John) Voice U.S.
Stanley Jordan Guitar U.S.
Catherine Russell Voice U.S.
Dave Samuels (Caribbean Jazz Project) Vibraphone U.S.
2009 Wayne Shorter Quartet (feat. Brian Blade, Danilo Pérez, John Patitucci) Saxophone, piano, drums, bass U.S. [9]
Luba Mason (feat. Rubén Blades, Jimmy Haslip, Hubert Laws) Voice
Marco Pignataro Quintet (feat. Eddie Gómez, Matt Marvuglio, Mark Kramer, Billy Drummond) Saxophone Italy
Chucho Valdés Piano Cuba
2010 Lizz Wright Voice U.S. [5]
Carlos Garnett Tenor saxophone Panama
Jamey Haddad Percussion U.S.
Joe Lovano Tenor saxophone U.S.
Terri Lyne Carrington Drum and voice U.S.
Ellis Marsalis, Jr. Piano U.S.
Juanito Pascual Guitar U.S.
John Patitucci Double bass and electric bass U.S.
2011 Ben Street Double bass U.S.
Adam Cruz Drum set U.S.
Tom Patitucci Guitar U.S.
Rudresh Mahanthappa Saxophone Italy
Paoli Mejias (Sarah Vogel, Sara Serpa Dossantos, John Patitucci, Robert Ameen, Michael Jesus Rodriguez, Jonathan Wells Poses) Percussion Puerto Rico
John Patitucci Double bass and bass guitar U.S.
Claudia Acuña (Jon Cowherd, Juan Herrera, Edgardo Serka Voice Chile
Brian Lynch (Alain Perez) Trumpet U.S.
Conrad Herwig (Lucques Curtes, William O'Connell, Pedro Martinez) Trombone U.S.
2012 John Scofield (Ben Street, Bill Stewart) Guitar U.S.
Charlie Sepúlveda (Raul Maldonado, Natanael Molina, Gabriel Rodriquez, Gadwin Vargas, Norberto Ortiz) Trumpet U.S.
Luis Bonilla Trombone U.S.
Omara Portuondo Voice Cuba
Chucho Valdés Piano Cuba
Carlos Garnett (Carlton Holmes, Taru Alexander) Saxophone U.S.
Tito Puente Jr. (Rosado Marlow, Teri Roiger, John Menegon) Percussion U.S.
Jed Levi (Alvester Garnett, Thomson Neekland, Misha Tsiganov) Saxophone U.S.
Adalberto Santiago (William Thompson, Jorge Diaz, Jose Piro Rodriguez, Josue Rosado, Raul Rosario, Jose Gazmey, Jose Pedroso, Jose Changuito Quinta, Julio Flores) Singer Puerto Rico
2013 Herbie Hancock Piano U.S.
Wayne Shorter Quartet (feat. Brian Blade, Danilo Pérez, John Patitucci) Saxophone, piano, drums, bass U.S.
Bill Frisell Guitar U.S.
Susana Baca Voice Peru
2014 Lizz Wright Voice U.S.
Kenny Garrett Saxophone U.S.
HBC Trio (Scott Henderson, Jeff Berlin, Dennis Chambers) Guitar, bass, drums U.S.
Pisco Trio (George Garzone, Jorge Perez, Ehud Ettun) Saxophone, drums, bass U.S., Peru, Israel
Nedelka Prescod Voice U.S.
Shea Welsh Guitar U.S.
Michelle Coltrane Voice U.S.
Kevin Harris Piano U.S.
2015 Children of the Light (Danilo Perez, John Patitucci, Brian Blade) Piano, bass, drums Panama & U.S.
Benny Golson Saxophone U.S.
Brian Blade & the Fellowship Band (Brian Blade, Jon Cowherd, Chris Thomas, Myron Walden, Melvin Butler) Drums, piano, bass, sax, clarinet U.S.
Pedrito Martinez Percussion Cuba
Miguel Zenón Saxophone Puerto Rico
Rubén Blades Voice Panama
MAPUJAZZ ft. Claudia Acuña Voice Chile
Omar Alfanno Voice & composer Panama
Phil Ranelin Trombone U.S.
Uwe Kropinski & Michael Heupel Guitar, flute Germany
2016 Randy Weston Piano U.S.
David Murray Saxophone U.S.
Terri Lyne Carrington Drummer U.S.
Geri Allen Piano U.S.
Danny Rivera Voice Puerto Rico
Dave Douglas Trumpet U.S.
Dominique Eade Voice U.S.
Rudresh Mahanthappa Saxophone U.S.
Tony Vega Voic, percussion Puerto Rico
John Patitucci Double bass, bass guitar U.S.
Tom Patitucci Guitar U.S.
Arild Andersen Double bass Norway
Tal Gamlieli Double bass Israel
2017 Esperanza Spalding Voice & double bass U.S.
Dianne Reeves Voice U.S.
Romero Lubambo Guitar Brazil
Children of the Light (Danilo Perez, John Patitucci, Brian Blade) Piano, bass, drums Panama & U.S.
Terri Lyne Carrington Drummer U.S.
Bill Dobbins Piano U.S.
John Patitucci Electric Guitar Quartet - Adam Rogers, Steve Cardenas 2 Guitars, bass, drums U.S.
2018 Wayne Shorter Quartet - (feat. Danilo Perez, John Patitucci, and Brian Blade) Sax, piano, bass, drums U.S.
Panamonk Revisited (feat. Danilo Perez, Ben Street and Terri Lyne Carrington) Piano, bass, drums U.S.
Chucho Valdés Quartet Piano, bass, drums, percussion U.S.
Ran Blake Piano U.S.
Luciana Souza Voice U.S.
Santi Debriano Quartet (feat. Craig Handy, Bill O'Conell and Tommy Campbell) Sax, piano, bass, drums U.S.
Marco Pignataro Quartet (feat. Lefteris Kordis, Ben Street, Terri Lyne Carrington) Sax, piano, bass, drums U.S.
Bill Dobbins Piano U.S.

Music therapy symposium[edit]

The Music Therapy Symposium was founded in January 2013 by Chilean saxophonist, music therapist and Executive Director of the Panama Jazz Festival Patricia Zarate. The mission of the Latin American Symposium on Music Therapy is the dissemination of the theory and practice of music therapy in Latin America.

Year Music therapist Origin Content
2013 Sharon Katz South Africa Music Therapy in Apartheid SudAfrica
Paola Casal Panamá Music Therapy in Panamá
Melany Taylor Panamá Music Therapy in Panamá
Cynthia Pimentel Mexico Music Therapy with Children and Adults
Patricia Zárate Chile Music Therapy with Children and Adults
2014 Kathleen Howland U.S. Music Therapy & Alzheimer, Special Needs, Parkinson, The Power of Music and Therapy
Silvia Andreu Chile Music Therapy in Elementary School Setting,Well-being of teachers through Music Therapy, Music Therapy and Hearing Loss with Children
Patricia Zárate Chile Music and Extreme Poverty in Latin America
Jorge Montaldo Argentina Music Therapy in a Hospital setting with Elderly, The Training of a Music Therapist, From Chaos to Composition, Benefits if Music Therapy in Mental Health Community Settings.
Alfredo Hidrovo Panamá Music for Healing
Aleyda Duarte & Luis Carlos Perez Panamá The Changing Role of Music in Panama
Pedro Peña Venezuela From the Quality of Sound to the use of Music for Expression, Music as a Tool for Self Expression
Margarita Carreño & Kleiberth Mora Venezuela Network of Penitentiary Symphonic Orchestra's
2015 Kathleen Howland U.S. Music Therapy in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer, Introduction to Neurological Music Therapy (NMT), Psychology of Music - Why Music?
Juan Pablo Ruiz Colombia Using Music Therapy as a Tool to Treat Special Needs Children
Marlene Rodriguez-Wolf Dominican Republic Music Therapy in a Pediatric Oncology Unit, Music Therapy and Pain Management
Aleyda Duarte & Luis Carlos Perez Panamá Social Change through Music
Cecilia Di Prinzio Argentina A Teacher's Occupational Health from a Music Therapy Standpoint, Early Intervention
María Galán Colombia Music Therapy Activities Based on the Methodology of Electro-Acoustic Music
Melany Taylor Panamá Music Therapy in Panama
Patricia Zárate Chile The Therapeutic Effects of Jazz
Jorge Montaldo Argentina Music Therapy in a Hospital Setting, Corporeity and Music in Music Therapy. Testimonies from the XVI National Congress of Music Therapy in Argentina, Moving from Chaos into Composition. Immanence in the Training of a Music Therapist
Max Terán Costa Rica Music Therapy Workshop Autism and Executive Functions: Clinical Research from the approach of Abordaje Plurimodal
Sandra Schvetz Panama Musicoterapia and Cri Du Chat
Alejandra Sanchez México The use of Electro-Acoustic Devices in Music Therapy, Experience with children on the Autism Spectrum
2016 Connie Tomaino U.S. Clinical Improvisation in Music Therapy, Music and Memory, Music and the Brain, Recovery of Speech through Music Therapy
Kathleen Howland U.S. An Introduction to Music Therapy and Medicine, Music Therapy and Speech/ Language Disorders, Music Therapy and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Juan José Capella Venezuela Systematic Musical Psychotherapy
Andrea Oyarzún Chile Music Therapy for People Diagnosed with HIV/AIDS
Juan Pablo Ruiz Colombia Interactive Workshop on Music Therapy
Melanie Taylor Herrera Panamá The Importance of Environment: Treating Adolescents with Disabilities,
Stephanie Platzer U.S. Music Therapy and Neurological Disorders
Jorge Montaldo Argentina Music Therapy and Medicine
Kira Helper U.S. Music Therapy and Neurological Disorders
Aleida Duarte Panamá Music for Social Change
2017 Colin Andrew Lee U.S. Music Therapy and Improvisation; Aesthetic Music Therapy; Music therapy Techniques for Neurological Advances in Nordoff Robbins Technique
Kathleen Howland U.S. Music Therapy and Cognition; Educational Curriculum for Music Therapy; Music therapy Techniques for Neurological Advances in Nordoff Robbins Technique
Juan Pablo Ruiz Colombia Interactive Workshop on Music Therapy; Music Therapy and Improvisation with children ages 0–6
Krystal Demaine U.S. Exploring the Musical Echolalia in Children; Teaching with Compassion in the Creative Therapies
Carolina Torres López Colombia Music Therapy Intervention and Development of Assertive and Empathic Skills in Adolescents Involved in School Bullying
Violeta Díaz Chile Anatomy of Cerebral Artists
Talia Girton U.S. The New Music Therapy Center of Panamá
Lucía Bertello Panamá The Effects of Musical Training on the Behavior and Emotional Wellness of Children Ages 5–13
Carolina Muñoz Lepe Chile Self-Care Workshop for Mothers of Children and Young People with Severe Cerebral Palsy
Lauren Caso U.S. African Percussion for Music Therapy
Esteban Roa Colombia The New Music Therapy Center of Panamá
Aleida Duarte Panamá Music for Social Change
2018 Kathleen Howland U.S. Musical performance vs Therapy
Ana Maria Herrera Colombia Contributions of Music Therapy to the therapy of laughter
Talia Girton U.S. Elements of a Music Therapy Session
Andres Salgado Colombia Pilot music therapy program for adolescents victims of the Colombian armed conflict
Carlos Gomez Colombia Community Music Therapy for the construction of peace in the armed conflict of Colombia.
Colin Lee Canada Improvisation Workshop
Camila Pfeifer Argentina Music and the Brain
Violeta Diaz Chile Cases of Neurology in Music Therapy
CarylBeth Thomas U.S. Introduction to Music Therapy in Psychiatry
Jenny León Colombia Musicoterapia para el fortalecimiento de la dinámica familiar de niños con implante coclear
Camila Pfeifer Argentina Neurological music therapy

Awards and honors[edit]

[10][11][12]

Year Name Occupation Notes
2003 Luis Russell Pianist Musical Director for Louis Armstrong's band since 1935. Pianist Luis Russell led one of the early big bands. In 1925, he moved from New Orleans to Chicago to join Doc Cook's Orchestra and then became the pianist in King Oliver's band. Musical director of Louis Armstrong's band since 1935, he has performed with King Oliver, Red Allen, and Jelly Roll Morton.[13][14][15]
2005 Victor Boa Pianist He was part of the Panamanian jazz scene beginning in the late forties. His particular flavor of jazz was called "tambo jazz". Victor "Boa" (Victor Everton McRae) in 1946 began to lead the group Down Beat Five.[16]
2006 Mauricio Smith Flautist, reeds player, musical director, composer, arranger, guitarist, keyboardist, percussionist, and singer Mauricio Smith was born in Panama but lived most of his life in New York City. He performed and recorded with Clark Terry, Charlie Mingus, Dizzy Gillespie, Chubby Checker, Eartha Kitt, and Harry Belafonte. Smith was a member of the Saturday Night Live band and led the Latin band at the Rainbow Room for six years. He scored music for movies and wrote arrangements for Tito Puente. He has performed classical music as a flautist and soloist with the Puerto Rican Symphony and has given recitals at Avery Fisher Hall. Smith was born on July 11, 1931 in Colón, Panamá. He distinguished himself as a cyclist while he played flute in La Banda Republicana de Panamá. He attended the Conservatory of Music of Panamá and performed professionally with la Banda de Bomberos de Colón. He soon focused on folkloric Panamanian music with Leonidas Cajar. Apart from the flute, he was known to play saxophone, clarinet, piccolo, harmonica, classical guitar, bass, vibraphone, and Latin percussion.
2007 Barbara Wilson Singer
2008 5th anniversary Dedicated to all festival supporters
2009 Clarence Martin Sr. Bassist, composer, arranger Contributed to Panamanian jazz since the 1940s and has influenced several generations of musicians from many genres such as jazz, classical, and Caribbean music. Born in Ciudad Panamá on January 29, 1922. His mother was pianist Clementine Armtrading de Martin. His father, Vernon Martin, was a clarinetist and played in La Banda Del Cuerpo de Bomberos de Panamá. Since his childhood, Martin accompanied his mother on saxophone and piano. He became a bassist and arranger for Armando Boza. Martin toured internationally with Celia Cruz, Beny Moré, Cascarita, Vicentico Valdez, Miguelito Valdez, Sara Montiel, Angélica María, Roberto Ledezma, Peter Dutchin, Daniel Santos, Lucho Gatica, Olga Guillot, Don Pedro Vargas, Mona Bell, and Shaw Elliot.
2010 Sonny White Pianist Born in Panama, White lived in the U.S. most of his life and recorded "Strange Fruit" with Billie Holiday.[17] He also performed with Sidney Bechet, Artie Shaw, Benny Carter, and Dexter Gordon. The success of the song propelled White to continue working with Artie Shaw and Benny Carter. After World War II, White explored R&B and contemporary pop music which led him to play with Big Joe Turner, Lawrence Lucie, Sid Catlett, and Roy Eldridge.[18]
2011 Víctor Vitín Paz Trumpeter A Latin jazz trumpeter, he was a member of the Fania All Stars. He worked for Broadway shows in New York City and performed with Ella Fitzgerald, Frank Sinatra, Dizzy Gillespie, and The Jackson Five
2012 Carlos Garnett Saxophonist, composer, arranger Born in Red Tank, Panama Canal Zone. As a teenager he played with soldiers from the nearby United States Army base. Garnett started playing tenor in 1957 and calypso and Latin music. In 1962, he moved to New York, working with rock bands, but he listened to free-jazz saxophonists. He gained recognition for his work with Freddie Hubbard, Art Blakey's Jazz Messengers, and Charles Mingus, and Miles Davis. He also worked with Jack McDuff, Andrew Hill, Gary Bartz, and Norman Connors. He recorded five albums for Muse during from 1974 to 1977.
2013 10th Anniversary
2014 Penteceptennial of Christopher Columbus's discovery of the New World and centennial of the building of the Panama Canal
2015 Eric Dolphy Saxophonist An American free jazz alto saxophonist, flautist, and bass clarinetist, whose parents immigrated from Panama. He collaborated Charles Mingus, John Coltrane, and Booker Little.
2016 Randy Weston Pianist, composer American jazz pianist and composer, his father was Panamanian. Weston's music incorporated African elements. He collaborated with Dizzy Gillespie, Kenny Dorham, and Cecil Payne[19][20] Weston began working professionally in R&B bands in the late 1940s before playing in the bebop outfits of Payne and Kenny Dorham. After singing with Riverside in 1954, he led trios and quartets and attained a reputation as a composer, contributing "Hi-Fly" and "Little Niles" to the repertoire.[21]
2017 Violeta Green Vocalist A native of Bocas del Toro, Cobra lived and worked throughout his life in the province of Colon and both Violeta and Cobra.[22]
2018 15th Anniversary

References[edit]

  1. ^ "U.S. Embassy Panama Supports 5th Annual Panama International Jazz Festival". October 27, 2007. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  2. ^ "Panama Jazz Festival 2010". Escapes Panamá. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  3. ^ a b "2010 Panama Jazz Festival Educational Activities". January 11–16, 2010. Archived from the original on December 7, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  4. ^ Educational Activities at the Panama Jazz Festival 2009, archived from the original on February 27, 2009, retrieved August 8, 2010
  5. ^ a b c "Panama Jazz Festival 2010". Jazz Times. January 11–16, 2010. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  6. ^ Dorbu, Mitzi (January 8, 2009). "Panama Jazz Festival: Scholarships Build Bridge to Opportunity". Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  7. ^ "Panama's Jazz Festival 2010 Press Conference". October 6, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  8. ^ Sabbatini, Mark (February 7, 2006). "The 2006 Panama Jazz Festival". Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  9. ^ "6th Annual Panama Jazz Festival Set for January 12–17, 2009, Founder/Artistic Director Danilo Perez Announces". Billboard Publicity Wire. November 13, 2008. Archived from the original on January 9, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2010.
  10. ^ Blumenthal, Bob (August 2007). "Jazzed Para Perez". Jazz Times.
  11. ^ Ouellette, Dan (April 2009). "Panama Jazz Festival Builds International and Local Bridges". DownBeat: 20.
  12. ^ Reich, Howard (March 6, 2005). "A Culture With A Lost Past". Chicago Tribune. p. 7.
  13. ^ Ramsey, Frederic, and Charles Edward Smith, eds. Jazzmen. Vol. 30. Harcourt, Brace, 1959.
  14. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir, Chris Woodstra, and Stephen Thomas Erlewine, eds. All Music Guide to Jazz. Backbeat Books, 2002, p. 1011..
  15. ^ Balliett, Whitney. Jelly Roll, Jabbo, and Fats. Oxford University Press, US, 1984.
  16. ^ Shepherd, John, David Horn, Dave Laing, Paul Oliver and Peter Wicke. Locations - 5 vol. set. Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World. Part 1, Performance and Production, Volume II. London: Bloomsbury, 2003. 180.
  17. ^ Griffiths, David. Hot Jazz: From Harlem to Storyville. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 1998. 113.
  18. ^ Smith, Thérèse. "Lyrical Protest. Music in the History of African American Culture." Human Bondage in the Cultural Contact Zone. Transdisciplinary Perspectives on Slavery and Its Discourses (2010): 257.
  19. ^ Weston, Randy, and Willard Jenkins. African Rhythms: The Autobiography of Randy Weston. Duke University Press, 2015.
  20. ^ Gitler, Ira. "Randy Weston." Down Beat 31.6 (1964).
  21. ^ Bogdanov, Vladimir, Chris Woodstra, and Stephen Thomas Erlewine. All Music Guide: The Definitive Guide to Popular Music. San Francisco: Backbeat /All Media Guide, 2001. 1425.
  22. ^ sanjuanletran (2017-01-06). "The Fourteenth Panama Jazz Festival Dedicated to Violeta Green". The Silver People Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 2017-06-02.

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External links[edit]

  • ^ Mercer, Michelle (2018-01-30). "Scope of Panama Jazz Festival Expands". DownBeat. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
  • ^ Jazz, All About. "The Panama Jazz Festival has evolved into the perfect model of an event that places equal emphasis on performance and education". All About Jazz. Retrieved 2018-03-15.
  • ^ De Rogatis, Rita Delgado (January 22, 2018). "Panama Jazz Festival 2018 ended awarding music grants". Panama Today. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  • ^ Worrell, Carolina (November 8, 2016). "Panama Jazz Festival to Receive Annual Funding in 2018". Jazz Times. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  • ^ Holston, Mark (June 2012). "Annual Panamá Jazz Fest Puts Accent on Education" (PDF). Latin Beat Magazine. Retrieved March 15, 2018.