Panarthropoda

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Panarthropoda
Temporal range: Cambrian - Recent
Velvet worm (2002).jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
(unranked): Panarthropoda
Nielsen, 1995
Clades, phyla and classes

Panarthropoda is a proposed animal clade combining the extant phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora,[1] Not all studies support it,[2] but most do, including neuroanatomical,[3] mitogenomic[4] and palaeontological[5][6] studies. Originally, they were considered to be closely related to the annelids, grouped together as the Articulata, but newer studies place them among the Ecdysozoa.

Common characteristics of the Panarthropoda include the presence of legs and claws, a ventral nervous system, and a segmented body.

Panarthropoda


Velvet worms (Onychophora)


Tactopoda


Water bears (Tardigrada)



Arthropods (Arthropoda)




See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Telford, M. J (27 April 2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1529–1537. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. PMC 2614232Freely accessible. PMID 18192181. 
  2. ^ Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Matus, D. Q.; Pang, K.; Browne, W. E.; Smith, S. A.; Seaver, E.; Rouse, G. W.; Obst, M.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Sørensen, M. V.; Haddock, S. H. D.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.; Okusu, A.; Kristensen, R. M. B.; Wheeler, W. C.; Martindale, M. Q.; Giribet, G. (10 April 2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature. 452 (7188): 745–749. doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID 18322464. 
  3. ^ Persson, Dennis K. (November 2012). "Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade panarthropoda". Journal of Morphology. 273 (11): 1227–1245. doi:10.1002/jmor.20054. 
  4. ^ Rota-Stabelli, O.; Kayal, E.; Gleeson, D.; Daub, J.; Boore, J.; Telford, M.; Pisani, D.; Blaxter, M.; Lavrov, D. (2010). "Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda". Genome biology and evolution. 2: 425–440. doi:10.1093/gbe/evq030. PMC 2998192Freely accessible. PMID 20624745. 
  5. ^ Smith, Martin R.; Ortega-Hernández, Javier. "Hallucigenia's onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda". Nature. 514 (7522): 363–366. doi:10.1038/nature13576. 
  6. ^ Ou, Qiang (2012). "Cambrian lobopodians and extant onychophorans provide new insights into early cephalization in Panarthropoda". Nature Communications. 3: 1261. doi:10.1038/ncomms2272. PMC 3535342Freely accessible. PMID 23232391.