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Temporal range: Cambrian - Recent
Velvet worm (2002).jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
(unranked): Panarthropoda
Nielsen, 1995

Panarthropoda is a proposed animal clade containing the extant phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora.[1] Extinct panarthropods that do not belong to any of the modern phyla are classified in the paraphyletic taxon Lobopodia, which is sometimes expanded to include tardigrades and onychophorans as well.[2] A close relationship between onychophorans and arthropods is widely agreed upon, but the position of tardigrades is more controversial.[3] Some studies have found tardigrades to be more closely related to nematodes.[4][5] Not all studies support the monophyly of Panarthropoda,[6] but most do, including neuroanatomical,[7] mitogenomic[8] and palaeontological[9][10] studies. Originally, they were considered to be closely related to the annelids, grouped together as the Articulata, but newer studies place them among the Ecdysozoa.

Common characteristics of the Panarthropoda include the presence of legs and claws, a ventral nervous system, and a segmented body.


Velvet worms (Onychophora) Velvet worm.jpg


Water bears (Tardigrada) Echiniscus L.png

Arthropods (Arthropoda) Long nosed weevil edit.jpg

Sialomorpha, a genus of microinvertebrate discovered in Dominican amber in 2019 also belongs to this group, though its exact placement is uncertain.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Telford, M. J (27 April 2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1529–1537. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. PMC 2614232. PMID 18192181.
  2. ^ Ortega-Hernández, Javier (2016). "Making sense of 'lower' and 'upper' stem-group Euarthropoda, with comments on the strict use of the name Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848: Upper and lower stem-Euarthropoda". Biological Reviews. 91 (1): 255–273. doi:10.1111/brv.12168. ISSN 1464-7931. PMID 25528950.
  3. ^ Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D. (2017). "Current Understanding of Ecdysozoa and its Internal Phylogenetic Relationships". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 57 (3): 455–466. doi:10.1093/icb/icx072. ISSN 1557-7023. PMID 28957525.
  4. ^ Laumer, Christopher E.; Fernández, Rosa; Lemer, Sarah; Combosch, David; Kocot, Kevin M.; Riesgo, Ana; Andrade, Sónia C. S.; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Sørensen, Martin V.; Giribet, Gonzalo (2019-07-10). "Revisiting metazoan phylogeny with genomic sampling of all phyla". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 286 (1906): 20190831. doi:10.1098/rspb.2019.0831. PMC 6650721. PMID 31288696.
  5. ^ Smythe, Ashleigh B.; Holovachov, Oleksandr; Kocot, Kevin M. (2019). "Improved phylogenomic sampling of free-living nematodes enhances resolution of higher-level nematode phylogeny". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 19 (1): 121. doi:10.1186/s12862-019-1444-x. ISSN 1471-2148. PMC 6567515. PMID 31195978.
  6. ^ Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Matus, D. Q.; Pang, K.; Browne, W. E.; Smith, S. A.; Seaver, E.; Rouse, G. W.; Obst, M.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Sørensen, M. V.; Haddock, S. H. D.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.; Okusu, A.; Kristensen, R. M. B.; Wheeler, W. C.; Martindale, M. Q.; Giribet, G. (10 April 2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature. 452 (7188): 745–749. doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID 18322464. S2CID 4397099.
  7. ^ Persson, Dennis K. (November 2012). "Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade panarthropoda". Journal of Morphology. 273 (11): 1227–1245. doi:10.1002/jmor.20054. PMID 22806919.
  8. ^ Rota-Stabelli, O.; Kayal, E.; Gleeson, D.; Daub, J.; Boore, J.; Telford, M.; Pisani, D.; Blaxter, M.; Lavrov, D. (2010). "Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda". Genome Biology and Evolution. 2: 425–440. doi:10.1093/gbe/evq030. PMC 2998192. PMID 20624745.
  9. ^ Smith, Martin R.; Ortega-Hernández, Javier (2014). "Hallucigenia's onychophoran-like claws and the case for Tactopoda" (PDF). Nature. 514 (7522): 363–366. doi:10.1038/nature13576. PMID 25132546. S2CID 205239797.
  10. ^ Ou, Qiang (2012). "Cambrian lobopodians and extant onychophorans provide new insights into early cephalization in Panarthropoda". Nature Communications. 3: 1261. doi:10.1038/ncomms2272. PMC 3535342. PMID 23232391.
  11. ^ Poinar, George; Nelson, Diane R. (2019). "A new microinvertebrate with features of mites and tardigrades in Dominican amber". Invertebrate Biology. 138 (4): e12265. doi:10.1111/ivb.12265. ISSN 1744-7410.