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Temporal range: Cambrian - Recent
31-Velvet Worm.JPG
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Superphylum: Ecdysozoa
(unranked): Panarthropoda
Nielsen, 1995
Phyla and unplaced genera

Panarthropoda is an animal taxon combining the phyla Arthropoda, Tardigrada and Onychophora.[1] Not all studies support it,[2] but most do, including neuroanatomical,[3] mitogenomic[4] and palaeontological[5] studies. Originally, they were considered to be closely related to the annelids, grouped together as the Articulata, but newer studies place them among the Ecdysozoa.

Common characteristics of the Panarthropoda include the presence of legs and claws, a ventral nervous system, and a segmented body.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Telford, M. J (27 April 2008). "The evolution of the Ecdysozoa". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 363 (1496): 1529–1537. doi:10.1098/rstb.2007.2243. PMC 2614232free to read. PMID 18192181. 
  2. ^ Dunn, C. W.; Hejnol, A.; Matus, D. Q.; Pang, K.; Browne, W. E.; Smith, S. A.; Seaver, E.; Rouse, G. W.; Obst, M.; Edgecombe, G. D.; Sørensen, M. V.; Haddock, S. H. D.; Schmidt-Rhaesa, A.; Okusu, A.; Kristensen, R. M. B.; Wheeler, W. C.; Martindale, M. Q.; Giribet, G. (10 April 2008). "Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life". Nature. 452 (7188): 745–749. doi:10.1038/nature06614. PMID 18322464. 
  3. ^ Persson, Dennis K. (November 2012). "Neuroanatomy of Halobiotus crispae (Eutardigrada: Hypsibiidae): Tardigrade brain structure supports the clade panarthropoda". Journal of Morphology. 273 (11): 1227–1245. doi:10.1002/jmor.20054. 
  4. ^ Rota-Stabelli, O.; Kayal, E.; Gleeson, D.; Daub, J.; Boore, J.; Telford, M.; Pisani, D.; Blaxter, M.; Lavrov, D. (2010). "Ecdysozoan mitogenomics: evidence for a common origin of the legged invertebrates, the Panarthropoda". Genome biology and evolution. 2: 425–440. doi:10.1093/gbe/evq030. PMC 2998192free to read. PMID 20624745. 
  5. ^ Ou, Qiang (2012). "Cambrian lobopodians and extant onychophorans provide new insights into early cephalization in Panarthropoda". Nature Communications. 3: 1261. doi:10.1038/ncomms2272.