|RAF Tornado GR4 in 2012|
|Role||Multirole aircraft, strike aircraft|
|National origin||Italy, Germany, United Kingdom|
|Manufacturer||Panavia Aircraft GmbH|
|First flight||14 August 1974|
|Retired||April 2019 (by Royal Air Force)|
|Primary users||German Air Force|
Italian Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
Royal Air Force (historical)
|Number built||990 (Panavia Tornado IDS: 745 + Panavia Tornado ADV: 194 + Panavia Tornado ECR: 51)|
|Variants||Panavia Tornado ADV|
The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine, variable-sweep wing multirole combat aircraft, jointly developed and manufactured by Italy, the United Kingdom, and West Germany. There are three primary Tornado variants: the Tornado IDS (interdictor/strike) fighter-bomber, the suppression of enemy air defences Tornado ECR (electronic combat/reconnaissance) and the Tornado ADV (air defence variant) interceptor aircraft.
The Tornado was developed and built by Panavia Aircraft GmbH, a tri-national consortium consisting of British Aerospace (previously British Aircraft Corporation), MBB of West Germany, and Aeritalia of Italy. It first flew on 14 August 1974 and was introduced into service in 1979–1980. Due to its multirole design, it was able to replace several different fleets of aircraft in the adopting air forces. The Royal Saudi Air Force (RSAF) became the only export operator of the Tornado in addition to the three original partner nations. A tri-nation training and evaluation unit operating from RAF Cottesmore, the Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment, maintained a level of international co-operation beyond the production stage.
The Tornado was operated by the Royal Air Force (RAF), Italian Air Force, and RSAF during the Gulf War of 1991, in which the Tornado conducted many low-altitude penetrating strike missions. The Tornados of various services were also used in The Bosnian War, Kosovo War, Iraq War, in Libya during the Libyan civil war, as well as smaller roles in Afghanistan, Yemen, and Syria. Including all variants, 990 aircraft were built.
During the 1960s, aeronautical designers looked to variable-geometry wing designs to gain the manoeuvrability and efficient cruise of straight wings with the speed of swept wing designs. The United Kingdom had cancelled the procurement of the TSR-2 and subsequent F-111K aircraft, and was still looking for a replacement for its Avro Vulcan and Blackburn Buccaneer strike aircraft. Britain and France had initiated the BAC/Dassault AFVG (Anglo French Variable Geometry) project in 1965, but this had ended with French withdrawal in 1967. Britain continued to develop a variable-geometry aircraft similar to the proposed AFVG, and sought new partners to achieve this. West German EWR had been developing the swing-wing EWR-Fairchild-Hiller A400 AVS Advanced Vertical Strike (which has a similar configuration to the Tornado).
In 1968, West Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Canada formed a working group to examine replacements for the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, initially called the Multi Role Aircraft (MRA), later renamed as the Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA). As the partner nations' requirements were so diverse, it was decided to develop a single aircraft that could perform a variety of missions that were previously undertaken by a fleet of different aircraft. Britain joined the MRCA group in 1968, represented by Air Vice-Marshal Michael Giddings, and a memorandum of agreement was drafted between Britain, West Germany, and Italy in May 1969.
By the end of 1968, the prospective purchases from the six countries amounted to 1,500 aircraft. Canada and Belgium had departed before any long-term commitments had been made to the programme; Canada had found the project politically unpalatable; there was a perception in political circles that much of the manufacturing and specifications were focused on Western Europe. France had made a favourable offer to Belgium on the Dassault Mirage 5.
On 26 March 1969, four partner nations – United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, agreed to form a multinational company, Panavia Aircraft GmbH, to develop and manufacture the MRCA. The project's aim was to produce an aircraft capable of undertaking missions in the tactical strike, reconnaissance, air defence, and maritime roles. Various concepts, including alternative fixed-wing and single-engine designs, were studied while defining the aircraft. The Netherlands pulled out of the project in 1970, citing that the aircraft was too complicated and technical for the RNLAF's preferences, which had sought a simpler aircraft with outstanding manoeuvrability. An additional blow was struck when the German requirement reduced from an initial 600 aircraft to 324 in 1972. It has been suggested that Germany deliberately placed an unrealistically high initial order to secure the company headquarters and initial test flight in Germany rather than the UK, so as to have a bigger design influence.
When the agreement was finalised, the United Kingdom and West Germany each had a 42.5% stake of the workload, with the remaining 15% going to Italy; this division of the production work was heavily influenced by international political bargaining. The front fuselage and tail assembly was assigned to BAC (now BAE Systems) in the United Kingdom; the centre fuselage to MBB (now part of Airbus) in West Germany; and the wings to Aeritalia (now Leonardo) in Italy. Similarly, tri-national worksharing was used for engines and equipment. A separate multinational company, Turbo-Union, was formed in June 1970 to develop and build the RB199 engines for the aircraft, with ownership split 40% Rolls-Royce, 40% MTU, and 20% FIAT.
At the conclusion of the project definition phase in May 1970, the concepts were reduced to two designs; a single seat Panavia 100 which West Germany initially preferred, and the twin-seat Panavia 200 which the RAF preferred. The aircraft was briefly called the Panavia Panther, and the project soon coalesced towards the two-seat option. In September 1971, the three governments signed an Intention to Proceed (ITP) document, at which point the aircraft was intended solely for the low-level strike mission, where it was viewed as a viable threat to Soviet defences in that role. It was at this point that Britain's Chief of the Defence Staff announced "two-thirds of the fighting front line will be composed of this single, basic aircraft type".
Prototypes and testing
The first of fifteen development aircraft (nine prototypes, P01 to P09, and six pre-series, PS11 to PS 16) flew on 14 August 1974 at Manching, Germany; the pilot, Paul Millett described his experience: "Aircraft handling was delightful... the actual flight went so smoothly that I did begin to wonder whether this was not yet another simulation". Flight testing led to the need for minor modifications. Airflow disturbances were responded to by re-profiling the engine intakes and the fuselage to minimise surging and buffeting experienced at supersonic speeds.
According to Jim Quinn, programmer of the Tornado development simulation software and engineer on the Tornado engine and engine controls, the prototype was safely capable of reaching supercruise, but the engines had severe safety issues at high altitude while trying to decelerate. At high altitude and low turbine speed the compressor did not provide enough pressure to hold back the combustion pressure and would result in a violent vibration as the combustion pressure backfired into the intake. To avoid this effect the engine controls would automatically increase the minimum idle setting as altitude increased, until at very high altitudes the idle setting was so high, however, that it was close to maximum dry thrust. This resulted in one of the test aircraft being stuck in a mach 1.2 supercruise at high altitude and having to reduce speed by turning the aircraft, because the idle setting at that altitude was so high that the aircraft could not decelerate.
The British Ministry of Supply[when?] ordered Chief Engineer Ted Talbot from the Concorde development team to provide intake design assistance to the Tornado development team in order to overcome these issues, which they hesitantly agreed to after noting that the Concorde intake data had apparently already been leaked to the Soviet Union. The German engineers working on the Tornado intake were unable to produce a functional Concorde style intake despite having data from the Concorde team. To make the problem worse, their management team incorrectly filed a patent on the Concorde design, and then tried to sue the British engineers who had provided the design to them. The German lawyers realised that the British had provided the designs to the German team, and requested further information to help their engineers overcome the problems with the Tornado intake, but Chief Engineer Talbot refused. According to Talbot, the Concorde engineers had determined the issue with the Tornado intake was that the engine did not respond to unexpected changes in the intake position, and therefore the engine was running at the wrong setting for a given position of the intake ramps. This was because the Concorde had similar issues due to control pressure not being high enough to maintain proper angles of the intake ramps. Aerodynamic forces could force the intakes into the improper position, and so they should have the ability to control the engines if this occurs. The Tornado intake system did not allow for this. Due to the behaviour of the German management team, the British engineers declined to share this information, and so the Tornado was not equipped with the more advanced intake design of the Concorde.
Testing revealed that a nose-wheel steering augmentation system, connecting with the yaw damper, was necessary to counteract the destabilising effect produced by deploying the thrust reverser during the landing roll.
Two prototypes were lost in accidents, both of which had been primarily caused by poor piloting decisions and errors leading to two ground collision incidents; a third Tornado prototype was seriously damaged by an incident involving pilot-induced pitch oscillation. During the type's development, aircraft designers of the era were beginning to incorporate features such as more sophisticated stability augmentation systems and autopilots. Aircraft such as the Tornado and the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon made use of these new technologies. Failure testing of the Tornado's triplex analogue command and stability augmentation system (CSAS) was conducted on a series of realistic flight control rigs; the variable-sweep wings in combination with varying, and frequently very heavy, payloads complicated the clearance process.
The contract for the Batch 1 aircraft was signed on 29 July 1976. The first flight of a production aircraft was on 10 July 1979. The first aircraft were delivered to the RAF and German Air Force on 5 and 6 June 1979 respectively. The first Italian Tornado was delivered on 25 September 1981. On 29 January 1981, the Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment (TTTE) officially opened at RAF Cottesmore, remaining active in training pilots from all operating nations until 31 March 1999. The 500th Tornado to be produced was delivered to West Germany on 19 December 1987.
Export customers were sought after West Germany withdrew its objections to exporting the aircraft; Saudi Arabia was the only export customer of the Tornado. The agreement to purchase the Tornado was part of the controversial Al-Yamamah arms deal between British Aerospace and the Saudi government. Oman had committed to purchasing Tornados and the equipment to operate them for a total value of £250 million in the late 1980s, but cancelled the order in 1990 due to financial difficulties.
During the 1970s, Australia considered joining the MRCA programme to find a replacement for their ageing Dassault Mirage IIIs; ultimately the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet was selected to meet the requirement. Canada similarly opted for the F/A-18 after considering the Tornado. Japan considered the Tornado in the 1980s, along with the F-16 and F/A-18, before selecting the Mitsubishi F-2. In the 1990s, both Taiwan and South Korea expressed interest in acquiring a small number of Tornado ECR aircraft. In 2001, EADS proposed a Tornado ECR variant with a greater electronic warfare capability for Australia.
Production came to an end in 1998; the last batch of aircraft produced going to the Royal Saudi Air Force, who had ordered a total of 96 IDS Tornados. In June 2011, it was announced that the Tornado fleet had flown collectively over one million flying hours. Aviation author Jon Lake noted that "The Trinational Panavia Consortium produced just short of 1,000 Tornados, making it one of the most successful postwar bomber programs". In 2008, AirForces Monthly said of the Tornado: "For more than a quarter of a century ... the most important military aircraft in Western Europe."
The Panavia Tornado is a multirole, twin-engined aircraft designed to excel at low-level penetration of enemy defences. The mission envisaged during the Cold War was the delivery of conventional and nuclear ordnance on the invading forces of the Warsaw Pact countries of Eastern Europe; this dictated several significant features of the design. Variable wing geometry allowed for minimal drag during the low-level dash towards a well-prepared enemy. Advanced navigation and flight computers, including the then-innovative fly-by-wire system, greatly reduced the workload of the pilot during low-level flight and eased control of the aircraft. For long range missions, the Tornado has a retractable refuelling probe.
As a multirole aircraft, the Tornado is capable of undertaking more mission profiles than the anticipated strike mission; various operators replaced multiple aircraft types with the Tornado as a common type – the use of dedicated single role aircraft for specialist purposes such as battlefield reconnaissance, maritime patrol duties, or dedicated electronic countermeasures (ECM) were phased out – either by standard Tornados or modified variants, such as the Tornado ECR. The most extensive modification from the base Tornado design was the Tornado ADV, which was stretched and armed with long range anti-aircraft missiles to serve in the interceptor role.
Tornado operators have undertaken various life extension and upgrade programmes to keep their Tornado fleets as viable frontline aircraft. With these upgrades it is projected that the Tornado shall be in service until 2025, more than 50 years after the first prototype took flight.[needs update]
In order for the Tornado to perform well as a low-level supersonic strike aircraft, it was considered necessary for it to possess good high-speed and low-speed flight characteristics. To achieve high-speed performance, a swept or delta wing is typically adopted, but these wing designs are inefficient at low speeds. To operate at both high and low speeds with great effectiveness, the Tornado uses a variable-sweep wing. This approach had been adopted by earlier aircraft, such as the American General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark strike fighter, and the Soviet Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 fighter. The smaller Tornado has many similarities with the F-111, however the Tornado differs in being a multi-role aircraft with more advanced onboard systems and avionics.
The level of wing sweep (i.e. the angle of the wings in relation to the fuselage) can be altered in flight at the pilot's control. The variable wing can adopt any sweep angle between 25 degrees and 67 degrees, with a corresponding speed range for each angle. Some Tornado ADVs were outfitted with an automatic wing-sweep system to reduce pilot workload. When the wings are swept back, the exposed wing area is lowered and drag is significantly decreased, which is conducive to performing high-speed low-level flight. The weapons pylons pivot with the angle of the variable-sweep wings so that the stores point in the direction of flight and do not hinder any wing positions.
In development, significant attention was given to the Tornado's short-field take-off and landing (STOL) performance. Germany, in particular, encouraged this design aspect. For shorter take-off and landing distances, the Tornado can sweep its wings forwards to the 25-degree position, and deploy its full-span flaps and leading edge slats to allow the aircraft to fly at slower speeds. These features, in combination with the thrust reverser-equipped engines, give the Tornado excellent low-speed handling and landing characteristics.
The Tornado features a tandem-seat cockpit, crewed by a pilot and a navigator/weapons officer; both electromechanical and electro-optical controls are used to fly the aircraft and manage its systems. An array of dials and switches are mounted on either side of a centrally placed CRT monitor, controlling the navigational, communications, and weapons-control computers. BAE Systems developed the Tornado Advanced Radar Display Information System (TARDIS), a 32.5-centimetre (12.8 in) multi-function display, to replace the rear cockpit's Combined Radar and Projected Map Display; the RAF began installing TARDIS on the GR4 fleet in 2004.
The primary flight controls of the Tornado are a fly-by-wire hybrid, consisting of an analogue quadruplex Command and Stability Augmentation System (CSAS) connected to a digital Autopilot & Flight Director System (AFDS). In addition a level of mechanical reversion capacity was retained to safeguard against potential failure. To enhance pilot awareness, artificial feel was built into the flight controls, such as the centrally located stick. Because the Tornado's variable wings enable the aircraft to drastically alter its flight envelope, the artificial responses adjust automatically to wing profile changes and other changes to flight attitude. As a large variety of munitions and stores can be outfitted, the resulting changes to the aircraft's flight dynamics are routinely compensated for by the flight stability system.
The Tornado incorporates a combined navigation/attack Doppler radar that simultaneously scans for targets and conducts fully automated terrain-following for low-level flight operations. Being able to conduct all-weather hands-off low-level flight was considered one of the core advantages of the Tornado. The Tornado ADV had a different radar system to other variants, designated AI.24 Foxhunter, as it is designed for air defence operations. It was capable of tracking up to 20 targets at ranges of up to 160 kilometres (100 mi). The Tornado was one of the earliest aircraft to be fitted with a digital data bus for data transmission. A Link 16 JTIDS integration on the F3 variant enabled the exchange of radar and other sensory information with nearby friendly aircraft.
Some Tornado variants carry different avionics and equipment, depending on their mission. The Tornado ECR operated by Germany and Italy is devoted to Suppression of Enemy Air Defences (SEAD) missions. The Tornado ECR is equipped with an emitter-locator system (ELS) to detect radar use. German ECRs have a Honeywell infrared imaging system for reconnaissance flights. RAF and RSAF Tornados have the Laser Range Finder and Marked Target Seekers (LRMTS) for targeting laser-guided munitions. In 1991, the RAF introduced TIALD, allowing Tornado GR1s to laser-designate their own targets.
The GR1A and GR4A reconnaissance variants were equipped with TIRRS (Tornado Infrared Reconnaissance System), consisting of one SLIR (Sideways Looking Infra Red) sensor on each side of the fuselage forward of the engine intakes to capture oblique images, and a single IRLS (InfrarRed LineScan) sensor mounted on the fuselage's underside to provide vertical images. TIRRS recorded images on six S-VHS video tapes. The newer RAPTOR reconnaissance pod replaced the built-in TIRRS system.
Armament and equipment
The Tornado is cleared to carry the majority of air-launched weapons in the NATO inventory, including various unguided and laser-guided bombs, anti-ship and anti-radiation missiles, as well as specialised weapons such as anti-personnel mines and anti-runway munitions. To improve survivability in combat, the Tornado is equipped with onboard countermeasures, ranging from flare and chaff dispensers to electronic countermeasure pods that can be mounted under the wings. Underwing fuel tanks and a buddy store aerial refuelling system that allows one Tornado to refuel another are available to extend the aircraft's range.
In the decades since the Tornado's introduction, all of the Tornado operators have undertaken various upgrade and modification programmes to allow new weapons to be used by their squadrons. Amongst the armaments that the Tornado has been adapted to deploy are the Enhanced Paveway and Joint Direct Attack Munition bombs, and modern cruise missiles such as the Taurus and Storm Shadow missiles. These upgrades have increased the Tornado's capabilities and combat accuracy. Precision weapons such as cruise missiles have replaced older munitions such as cluster bombs.
Strike variants have a limited air-to-air capability with AIM-9 Sidewinder or AIM-132 ASRAAM air-to-air missiles (AAMs). The Tornado ADV was outfitted with beyond visual range AAMs such as the Skyflash and AIM-120 AMRAAM missiles. The Tornado is armed with two 27 mm (1.063 in) Mauser BK-27 revolver cannon internally mounted underneath the fuselage; the Tornado ADV was only armed with one cannon. When the RAF GR1 aircraft were converted to GR4, the FLIR sensor replaced the left hand cannon, leaving only one; the GR1A reconnaissance variant gave up both its guns to make space for the sideways looking infra-red sensors. The Mauser BK-27 was developed specifically for the Tornado, but has since been used on several other European fighters, such as the Dassault/Dornier Alpha Jet, Saab JAS 39 Gripen, and Eurofighter Typhoon.
The Tornado is capable of delivering air-launched nuclear weapons. In 1979, Britain considered replacing its Polaris submarines with either the Trident submarines or the Tornado as the main bearer of its nuclear deterrent. Although the UK proceeded with Trident, several Tornado squadrons based in Germany were assigned to SACEUR to deter a major Soviet offensive with both conventional and nuclear weapons, namely the WE.177 nuclear bomb, which was retired in 1998. German and Italian Tornados are capable of delivering US B61 nuclear bombs, which are made available through NATO.
Britain considered the selection of Rolls-Royce to develop the advanced engine for the MRCA to be essential, and was strongly opposed to adopting an engine from an American manufacturer, to the point where the UK might have withdrawn over the issue. In September 1969, Rolls-Royce's RB199 engine was selected to power the MRCA. One advantage over the US competition was that a technology transfer between the partner nations had been agreed; the engine was to be developed and manufactured by a joint company, Turbo-Union. The programme was delayed by Rolls-Royce's entry into receivership in 1971. however the nature of the multinational collaboration process helped avoid major disruption of the Tornado programme. Research from the supersonic airliner Concorde contributed to the development and final design of the RB199 and of the engine control units.
To operate efficiently across a wide range of conditions and speeds up to Mach 2, the RB199 and several other engines make use of variable intake ramps to control the air flow. The hydraulic system is pressurised by syphoning power from both or either operational engine; the hydraulics are completely contained within the airframe rather than integrating with the engine to improve safety and maintainability. In case of double-engine, or double-generator, failure, the Tornado has a single-use battery capable of operating the fuel pump and hydraulics for up to 13 minutes.
Relatively rarely among fighter aircraft, the RB199 is fitted with thrust reversers to decrease the distance required to safely land. To fully deploy the thrust reverser during landings, the yaw damper is connected to the steering of the nosewheel to provide greater stability.
In August 1974, the first RB199 powered flight of a prototype Tornado occurred and the engine completed its qualification tests in late 1978. The final production standard engine met both reliability and performance standards, though the development cost had been higher than predicted, in part due to the ambitious performance requirements. At the time of the Tornado's introduction to service, the turbine blades of the engine suffered from a shorter life span than desired, which was rectified by the implementation of design revisions upon early-production engines. Several uprated engines were developed and used on both the majority of Tornado ADVs and Germany's Tornado ECRs. The DECU (Digital Engine Control Unit) is the current engine control unit for RB199 engines superseding the analogue MECU (Main Engine Control Unit) also known as CUE.
Being designed for low-level operations, the Tornado required modification to perform in medium level operations that the RAF adopted in the 1990s. The RAF's GR1 fleet was extensively re-manufactured as Tornado GR4s. Upgrades on Tornado GR4s included a Forward looking infrared, a wide-angle HUD (Head-up display), improved cockpit displays, NVG (Night vision devices) capabilities, new avionics, and a Global Positioning System receiver. The upgrade eased the integration of new weapons and sensors which were purchased in parallel, including the Storm Shadow cruise missile, the Brimstone anti-tank missile, Paveway III laser-guided bombs and the RAPTOR reconnaissance pod. The first flight of a Tornado GR4 was on 4 April 1997. The RAF accepted its first delivery on 31 October 1997 and deliveries were completed in 2003. In 2005, the RSAF opted to have their Tornado IDSs undergo a series of upgrades to become equivalent to the RAF's GR4 configuration. On 21 December 2007 BAE signed a £210m contract for CUSP, the Capability Upgrade Strategy (Pilot). This project would see RAF GR4/4A improved in two phases, starting with the integration of the Paveway IV bomb and a communications upgrade, followed by a new tactical datalink in Phase B.
Beginning in 2000, German IDS and ECR Tornados received the ASSTA 1 (Avionics System Software Tornado in Ada) upgrade. ASSTA 1 involved a replacement weapons computer, new GPS and Laser Inertial navigation systems. The new computer allowed the integration of the HARM III, HARM 0 Block IV/V and Taurus KEPD 350 missiles, the Rafael Litening II laser designator pod]] and GBU-24 Paveway III laser-guided bombs. The ASSTA 2 upgrade began in 2005, primarily consisting of several new digital avionics systems and a new ECM suite; these upgrades are to be only applied to 85 Tornados (20 ECRs and 65 IDSs), as the Tornado is being replaced in part by the Eurofighter Typhoon. The ASSTA 3 upgrade programme, started in 2008, will introduce support for the laser-targeted Joint Direct Attack Munition along with further software changes.
In January 2016, the Bild newspaper revealed that the newest upgrade of the ASSTA suite to version 3.1, which includes colour multifunctional LCD screens in place of monochrome CRT displays, is interfering with helmet-mounted night-vision optical displays worn by pilots, rendering German Tornado bombers deployed to Syria useless for night missions. The defence ministry admitted that bright cockpit lights could be a distraction for pilots, and disclosed that the solution will be implemented in a few weeks, but denied the need to fly night missions in Syria.
BAE Systems announced that, in December 2013, it had test flown a Tornado equipped with parts that were made with 3D printing equipment. The parts included a protective cover for the radio, a landing-gear guard and air-intake door support struts. The test demonstrated the feasibility of making replacement parts quickly and cheaply at the air base hosting the Tornado. The company claimed that, with some of the parts costing less than £100 per piece to manufacture, 3D printing already resulted in savings of more than £300,000 and would offer further potential cost savings of more than £1.2 million through 2017.
German Air Force (Luftwaffe)
The first Tornado prototype made its first flight on 14 August 1974 from Ingolstadt Manching Airport, in what was then West Germany. Deliveries of production Tornados began on 27 July 1979. The total number of Tornados delivered to the German Air Force numbered 247, including 35 ECR variants. Originally Tornados equipped five fighter-bomber wings (Geschwader), with one tactical conversion unit and four front line wings, replacing the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter. When one of the two Tornado wings of the German Navy was disbanded in 1994, its aircraft were used to re-equip a Luftwaffe's reconnaissance wing formerly equipped with RF-4E Phantoms.
14 German Tornados undertook combat operations as a part of NATO's campaign during the Bosnian War. The Tornados, operating from Piacenza, Italy, flew reconnaissance missions to survey damage inflicted by previous strikes and to scout targets for other aircraft to strike. These reconnaissance missions were reportedly responsible for a significant improvement in target selection throughout the campaign.
In 1999, German Tornados participated in Operation Allied Force, NATO's military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia during the Kosovo War. This was Germany's first offensive air mission since World War II. The ECR aircraft would escort various allies' aircraft while carrying several AGM-88 HARM missiles to counter attempted use of radar against the allied aircraft. During the Kosovo hostilities, Germany's IDS Tornados would routinely conduct reconnaissance flights to identify both enemy ground forces and civilian refugees within Yugoslavia. The German Tornados flew 2108 hours and 446 sorties, firing 236 HARM missiles at hostile targets.
In June 2007, a pair of Luftwaffe Tornados flew reconnaissance missions over an anti-globalisation demonstration during the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm. Following the mission, the German Defence Ministry admitted one aircraft had broken the minimum flying altitude and that mistakes were made in the handling of security of the summit.
In 2007, a detachment of six Tornados of the Aufklärungsgeschwader 51 "Immelmann" (51st reconnaissance wing) were deployed to Mazar-i-Sharif, Northern Afghanistan, to support NATO forces. The decision to send Tornados to Afghanistan was controversial: one political party launched an unsuccessful legal bid to block the deployment as unconstitutional. In support of the Afghanistan mission, improvements in the Tornado's reconnaissance equipment were accelerated; enhancing the Tornado's ability to detect hidden improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The German Tornados were withdrawn from Afghanistan in November 2010.
Defence cuts announced in March 2003 resulted in the decision to retire 90 Tornados from service with the Luftwaffe. This led to a reduction in its Tornado strength to four wings by September 2005. On 13 January 2004, the then German Defence Minister Peter Struck announced further major changes to the German armed forces. A major part of this announcement is the plan to cut the German fighter fleet from 426 in early 2004 to 265 by 2015. The German Tornado force is to be reduced to 85, with the type expected to remain in service with the Luftwaffe until 2025. The aircraft being retained have been undergoing a service life extension programme. Currently, the Luftwaffe operates Tornados with Tactical Wings Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 33 in Cochem / Büchel Air Base, Rhineland-Palatinate and with Taktisches Luftwaffengeschwader 51 "Immelmann" in Jagel, Schleswig-Holstein.
German Tornado aircrew training took place at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, US from January 1996 when the that time named Taktische Ausbildungskommando der Luftwaffe USA (TaktAusbKdoLw USA - Tactical Training Command of the Luftwaffe USA) was responsible for training both German F-4 Phantom and Tornado crews. In 1999 the training command was renamed as Fliegerisches Ausbildungszentrum der Luftwaffe (FlgAusbZLw - Luftwaffe Training Center). In March 2015, Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen decided to continue this training in Germany. In September 2017, flight training in Holloman for the Tornado was discontinued and transferred to Taktischen Luftwaffengeschwader 51 in Jagel with the US location command dissolved in 2019. 
In April 2020, Germany announced its replacement for its Tornado aircraft will be a split purchase of 30 F/A-18E/F Super Hornets, 15 EA-18G Growlers and 55 Eurofighter Typhoons. The Super Hornet was selected due to its compatibility with nuclear weapons and availability of an electronic attack version. As of March 2020, the Super Hornet is not certified for the B61 nuclear bombs, but Dan Gillian, head of Boeing's Super Hornet program, previously stated that "We certainly think that we, working with the U.S. government, can meet the German requirements there on the [German's] timeline."
In addition to the order made by the Luftwaffe, the German Navy's Marineflieger also received 112 of the IDS variant in the anti-shipping and marine reconnaissance roles, again replacing the Starfighter. These equipped two wings, each with a nominal strength of 48 aircraft. The principal anti-ship weapon was the AS.34 Kormoran anti-ship missile, which were initially supplemented by unguided bombs and BL755 cluster munitions, and later by AGM-88 HARM anti-radar missiles. Pods fitted with panoramic optical cameras and an infrared line scan were carried for the reconnaissance mission.
The end of the Cold War and the signing of the CFE Treaty gave rise to a requirement for Germany to reduce the size of its armed forces, including the number of combat aircraft. To meet this need, one of the Marineflieger's Tornado wings was disbanded on 1 January 1994; its aircraft replaced the Phantoms of a Luftwaffe reconnaissance wing. The second wing was enlarged and continued in the anti-shipping, reconnaissance and anti-radar roles until it was disbanded in 2005 with its aircraft and duties passed on to the Luftwaffe.
Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare)
The first Italian prototype made its maiden flight on 5 December 1975 from Turin, Italy. The Aeronautica Militare received a total of 100 Tornado IDSs (known as the A-200 in Italian service). 16 A-200s were subsequently converted to the ECR configuration; the first Italian Tornado ECR (known as the EA-200) was delivered on 27 February 1998. As a stop-gap measure for 10 years the Aeronautica Militare additionally operated 24 Tornado ADVs in the air defence role, which were leased from the RAF to cover the service gap between the retirement of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter and the introduction of the Eurofighter Typhoon.
Italian Tornados, along with RAF Tornados, took part in the first Gulf War in 1991. Operation Locusta saw eight Tornado IDS interdictors deployed from Gioia del Colle, Italy, to Al Dhafra, Abu Dhabi, as a part of Italy's contribution to the coalition. During the conflict, one aircraft was lost to Iraqi anti-aircraft fire, the pilots ejected safely and were captured by Iraqi forces. A total of 22 Italian Tornados were deployed in the NATO-organised Operation Allied Force over Kosovo in 1999, the A-200s served in the bombing role while the EA-200s patrolled the combat region, acting to suppress enemy anti-aircraft radars, firing 115 AGM-88 HARM missiles.
In 2000, with major delays hampering the Eurofighter, the Aeronautica Militare began a search for another interim fighter. While the Tornado itself was considered, any long term extension to the lease would have involved upgrade to RAF CSP standard and thus was not considered cost effective. In February 2001, Italy announced its arrangement to lease 35 F-16s from the United States under the PEACE CAESAR programme. The Aeronautica Militare returned its Tornado ADVs to the RAF, with the final aircraft arriving at RAF St Athan on 7 December 2004. One aircraft was retained for static display purposes at the Italian Air Force Museum.
In July 2002, Italy signed a contract with the Tornado Management Agency (NETMA) and Panavia for the upgrading of 18 A-200s, the first of which was received in 2003. The upgrade introduced improved navigation systems (integrated GPS and laser INS) and the ability to carry new weapons, including the Storm Shadow cruise missile, Joint Direct Attack Munition and Paveway III laser-guided bombs.
In response to anticipated violence during the 2010 Afghanistan elections, Italy, along with several other nations, increased its military commitment in Afghanistan, dispatching four A-200 Tornados to the region. Italy has opted to extend the Tornado's service life at the expense of alternative ground-attack aircraft such as the AMX International AMX; in 2010 a major upgrade and life extension programme was initiated, to provide new digital displays, Link 16 communications capability, night-vision goggles compatibility, and several other upgrades. In the long term, it is planned to replace the Tornado IDS/ECR fleet in Italian service with the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II, with the final Italian Tornado scheduled to be phased out in 2025. The Aeronautica Militare received its first of an eventual 15 upgraded Tornado EA-200s on 15 June 2013.
Italian Tornado A-200 and EA-200 aircraft participated in the enforcement of a UN no-fly zone during the 2011 military intervention in Libya. Various coalition aircraft operated from bases in Italy, including RAF Tornados. Italian military aircraft delivered a combined 710 guided bombs and missiles during the strikes against Libyan targets. Of these Aeronautica Militare Tornados and AMX fighter-bombers released 550 guided bombs and missiles, and Italian Navy AV-8Bs delivered 160 guided bombs. Italian Tornados launched 20 to 30 Storm Shadow cruise missiles with the rest consisting of Paveway and JDAM guided bombs.
On 19 August 2014, two Aeronautica Militare Tornados collided in mid-air during a training mission near Ascoli. On 14 November 2014, Italy announced it was sending four Tornado aircraft with 135 support staff to Ahmad al-Jaber Air Base and to 2 other bases in Kuwait in participation of coalition operations against the Islamic State. The four aircraft will be used for reconnaissance missions only.
In October 2018, it was announced that the EA-200 Tornado had successfully completed operational testing of the AGM-88E AARGM, providing capabilities of an "expanded target set, counter-shutdown capability, advanced signals processing for improved detection and locating, geographic specificity, and a weapon impact-assessment broadcast capability."
Royal Air Force
Nicknamed the "Tonka" by the British, their first prototype (XX946) made its maiden flight on 30 October 1974 from BAC Warton. The first full production Tornado GR1 (ZA319) flew on 10 July 1979 from Warton. The first RAF Tornados (ZA320 and ZA322) were delivered to the TTTE at RAF Cottesmore on 1 July 1980. Crew that qualified from the TTTE went onto the Tornado Weapons Conversion Unit (TWCU), which formed on 1 August 1981 at RAF Honington, before being posted to a front-line squadron. No. IX (B) Squadron became the first front-line squadron in the world to operate the Tornado when it reformed on 1 June 1982, having received its first Tornado GR1 ZA586 on 6 January 1982. No. IX (B) Squadron was declared strike combat ready to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) in January 1983. Two more squadrons were formed at RAF Marham in 1983 – No. 617 Squadron on 1 January and No. 27 Squadron on 12 August. The first RAF Tornado GR1 loss was on 27 September 1983 when ZA586 suffered complete electrical failure and crashed. Navigator Flt. Lt. Nigel Nickles ejected while the pilot Sqn. Ldr. Michael Stephens died in the crash after ordering ejection. In January 1984, the TWCU adopted the guise of No. 45 (Reserve) Squadron.
RAF Germany (RAFG) began receiving Tornados after the formation of No. XV (Designate) Squadron on 1 September 1983 at RAF Laarbruch followed by No. 16 (Designate) Squadron in January 1984 (who were both Blackburn Buccaneer squadrons). They were then joined by No. 20 (Designate) Squadron in May 1984 (who were operating the SEPECAT Jaguar GR1 from RAF Brüggen). Unlike the Tornado squadrons based in the UK which were under control of the British military, those stationed in RAFG were under the control of SACEUR, with the aircraft on Quick Reaction Alert (Nuclear), "QRA (N)", being equipped with the WE.177 nuclear bomb. In the event of the Cold War going 'hot', the majority of RAFG Tornado squadrons were tasked with destroying Warsaw Pact airfields and surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites in East Germany. While No. 20 Squadron was given a separate responsibility of destroying bridges over the rivers Elbe and Weser to prevent Warsaw Pact forces from advancing. By early 1985, Nos. XV, 16 and 20 Squadrons at RAF Laarbruch had been declared strike combat ready to SACEUR.
Tornados began to arrive at RAF Brüggen in September 1984 with the formation of No. 31 (Designate) Squadron. No. 17 (Designate) Squadron was formed in December 1984, with the two Brüggen squadrons joined by No. 14 (Designate) Squadron in mid-1985. No. IX (B) Squadron relocated from RAF Honington to RAF Brüggen on 1 October 1986, arriving in a diamond nine formation. The outcome of the Reykjavík Summit in October 1986 between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev led the end of QRA (Nuclear) for the Tornado force. By the end of 1986, the Tornado GR1 fleet had been equipped with a Laser Ranger and Marked Target Seeker (LRMTS) under the nose, and had begun to be equipped with the BOZ-107 chaff and flare dispenser.
The Tornado made its combat debut as part of Operation Granby, the British contribution to the Gulf War in 1991. This saw 49 RAF Tornado GR1s deploy to Muharraq Airfield in Bahrain and to Tabuk Air Base and Dhahran Airfield in Saudi Arabia. 18 Tornado F3s were deployed to provide air cover, the threat of their long range missiles being a deterrent to Iraqi pilots, who would deliberately avoid combat when approached. Early on in the conflict, the GR1s targeted military airfields across Iraq, deploying a mixture of 450 kg (1,000 lb) unguided bombs in loft-bombing attacks and specialised JP233 runway denial weapons. On 17 January 1991, the first Tornado to be lost was shot down by an Iraqi SA-16 missile following a failed low-level bombing run. On 19 January, another RAF Tornado was shot down during an intensive raid on Tallil Air Base. The impact of the Tornado strikes upon Iraqi air fields is difficult to determine. A total of six RAF Tornados were lost in the conflict, four were lost while delivering unguided bombs, one was lost after delivering JP233, and one trying to deliver laser-guided bombs.
The UK sent out a detachment of Blackburn Buccaneer aircraft equipped with Westinghouse Electric Corporation Pave Spike laser designators, allowing Tornado GR1s to drop precision guided weapons guided by the Buccaneers. A planned programme to fit GR1s with the GEC-Marconi TIALD laser designation system was rapidly accelerated to give the Tornado force the ability to self-designate targets. Author Claus-Christian Szejnmann declared that the TIALD pod enabled the GR1 to "achieve probably the most accurate bombing in the RAF's history". Although laser designation proved effective in the Gulf War, only 23 TIALD pods had been purchased by 2000; shortages hindered combat operations over Kosovo.
After the war's opening phase, the GR1s switched to medium-level strike missions; typical targets included munition depots and oil refineries. Only the reconnaissance Tornado GR1As continued flying the low-altitude high-speed profile, emerging unscathed despite the inherent danger in conducting pre-attack reconnaissance. After the conflict, Britain maintained a military presence in the Gulf. Around six GR1s were based at Ali Al Salem airbase in Kuwait, contributing the southern no-fly zone as part of Operation Southern Watch. Six additional GR1s participated in Operation Provide Comfort over Northern Iraq.
The upgraded Tornado GR4 made its operational debut in Operation Southern Watch; patrolling Iraq's southern airspace from bases in Kuwait. Both Tornado GR1s and GR4s based at Ali Al Salem, Kuwait, took part in coalition strikes at Iraq's military infrastructure during Operation Desert Fox in 1998. In December 1998, an Iraqi anti-aircraft battery fired six to eight missiles at a patrolling Tornado. The battery was later attacked in retaliation, no aircraft were lost during the incident. It was reported that during Desert Fox RAF Tornados had successfully destroyed 75% of allotted targets, and out of the 36 missions planned, 28 had been successfully completed.
The GR1 participated in the Kosovo War in 1999. Tornados initially operated from RAF Brüggen, Germany and later moved to Solenzara Air Base, Corsica. Experiences from Kosovo led to the RAF procuring AGM-65 Maverick missiles and Enhanced Paveway smart bombs for the Tornado. Following the Kosovo War, the GR1 was phased out as aircraft were upgraded to GR4 standard, the final upgrade was returned to the RAF on 10 June 2003.
The GR4 was used in Operation Telic, Britain's contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. RAF Tornados flew alongside American aircraft in the opening phase of the war, striking Iraqi installations. Aiming to minimise civilian casualties, Tornados deployed the Storm Shadow cruise missile for the first time. Whilst 25% of the UK's air-launched weapons in Kosovo were precision-guided, four years later in Iraq this ratio increased to 85%.
On 23 March 2003, a Tornado GR4 was shot down over Iraq by friendly fire from a US Patriot missile battery, killing both crew members. In July 2003, a US board of inquiry exonerated the battery's operators, observing the Tornado's "lack of functioning IFF (Identification Friend or Foe)" as a factor in the incident. Problems with Patriot were also suggested as a factor, multiple incidents of mis-identification of friendly aircraft have occurred, including the fatal shootdown of a US Navy F/A-18 a few weeks after the Tornado's loss. Britain withdrew the last of its Tornados from Iraq in June 2009.
In early 2009, several GR4s arrived at Kandahar Airfield, Afghanistan to replace the British Aerospace Harrier GR7/9 aircraft which had been deployed there since November 2004. In 2009, Paveway IV guided bombs were brought into service on the RAF's Tornados, having been previously used in Afghanistan by the Harrier II. In Summer 2010, extra Tornados were dispatched to Kandahar for the duration of the 2010 Afghan election. British Tornados ended operations in Afghanistan in November 2014, having flown over 5,000 pairs sorties over 33,500 hours, including 600 "shows of force" to deter Taliban attacks. During more than 70 engagements, some 140 Brimstone missiles and Paveway IV bombs were deployed and over 3,000 27 mm cannon shells were fired.
Prior to the 2010 Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR)'s publication, the Tornado's retirement was under consideration with savings of £7.5 billion anticipated. The SDSR announced the Tornado would be retained at the expense of the Harrier II, although numbers would decline in the transition to the Eurofighter Typhoon and the F-35 Lightning II. By July 2013, 59 RAF GR4s were receiving the CUSP avionics upgrade, which achieved Initial Service Date (ISD) in March 2013.
On 18 March 2011, British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that Tornados and Typhoons would enforce a no-fly zone in Libya. In March 2011, several Tornados flew 3,000-mile (4,800 km) strike missions against targets inside Libya in what were, according to Defence Secretary Liam Fox, "the longest range bombing mission conducted by the RAF since the Falklands conflict". A variety of munitions were used during Tornado operations over Libya, including laser-guided bombs and Brimstone missiles.
In August 2014, Tornado GR4s were deployed to RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus to support refugees sheltering from Islamic State militants in the Mount Sinjar region of Iraq. The decision came three days after the United States began conducting air attacks against the Islamic State. Tornados were pre-positioned to gather situational awareness in the region. On 29 September 2014, three days after Parliament approved airstrikes against Islamic State forces inside Iraq, two Tornados conducted their first armed reconnaissance mission in conjunction with coalition aircraft. The next day, two Tornados made the first airstrike on a heavy weapons post and an armoured vehicle, supporting Kurdish forces in northwest Iraq.
By 1 March 2015, eight RAF Tornados had been deployed to Akrotiri and conducted 159 airstrikes against IS targets in Iraq. On 2 December 2015, Parliament approved air strikes in Syria as well as Iraq to combat the growing threat of ISIL; Tornados begun bombing that evening. On 14 April 2018, four Tornado GR4s, launched from RAF Akrotiri, struck a Syrian military facility with Storm Shadow cruise missiles in response to a suspected chemical attack on Douma by the Syrian regime the previous week.
On 10 July 2018, nine Tornado GR4s from RAF Marham participated in a flypast over London to celebrate 100 years of the RAF. During late 2018, the RAF commemorated the Tornado's service with three special schemes: ZG752 paid homage to its early years with a green/grey wraparound camouflage; ZG775 and ZD716 both wore schemes commemorating the final units to operate the type – No. IX (B) Squadron and No. 31 Squadron respectively. On 31 January 2019, the Tornado GR4 flew its last operational sorties in Operation Shader. The eight Tornados formerly stationed at RAF Akrotiri returned to RAF Marham in early February 2019, their duties assumed by six Typhoons. Between September 2014 and January 2019, RAF Tornados accounted for 31% of the estimated 4,315 casualties inflicted upon ISIL by the RAF during the operation.
To celebrate 40 years of service and to mark the type's retirement, several flypasts were carried out on 19, 20 and 21 February over locations such as BAE Warton, RAF Honington and RAF Lossiemouth. On 28 February, nine Tornados flew out of RAF Marham for a diamond nine formation flypast over a graduation parade at RAF Cranwell before returning and carrying out a series of passes over RAF Marham. On 14 March 2019 the final flight of an RAF Tornado was carried out by Tornado GR4 ZA463, the oldest remaining Tornado, over RAF Marham during the disbandment parade of No. IX (B) Squadron and No. 31 Squadron. The Tornado GR4 was officially retired from RAF service on 1 April 2019, the 101st anniversary of the force. Post-retirement, five Tornados returned to RAF Honington via road for the Complex Air Ground Environment (CAGE), which simulates a Tornado flight line for training purposes.
Royal Saudi Air Force
On 25 September 1985, the UK and Saudi Arabia signed the Al Yamamah I contract including, amongst other things, the sale of 48 IDS and 24 ADV model Tornados. The first flight of a Royal Saudi Air Force Tornado IDS was on 26 March 1986, and the first Saudi ADV was delivered on 9 February 1989. Saudi Tornados undertook operations during the Gulf War. In June 1993 the Al Yamamah II contract was signed, the main element of which was 48 additional IDSs.
Following experience with both the Tornado and the McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle, the RSAF discontinued low-level mission training in the F-15E in light of the Tornado's superior low-altitude flight performance. In addition, 10 of the Saudi Tornados were outfitted with equipment for performing reconnaissance missions. The 22 Tornado ADVs were replaced by the Eurofighter Typhoon; the retired aircraft were being purchased back by the UK.
By 2007, both the Sea Eagle anti-ship missile and the ALARM anti-radiation missile that previously equipped the RSAF's Tornados had been withdrawn from service. As of 2010,[needs update] Saudi Arabia has signed several contracts for new weapon systems to be fitted to their Tornado and Typhoon fleets, such as the short range air-to-air IRIS-T missile, and the Brimstone and Storm Shadow missiles.
In September 2006, the Saudi government signed a contract worth £2.5 billion (US$4.7 billion) with BAE Systems to upgrade up to 80 RSAF Tornado IDS aircraft to keep them in service until 2020. The first RSAF Tornado was returned to BAE Systems Warton in December 2006 for upgrade under the "Tornado Sustainment Programme" (TSP) to "equip the IDS fleet with a range of new precision-guided weapons and enhanced targeting equipment, in many cases common with those systems already fielded by the UK's Tornado GR4s." In December 2007, the first RSAF aircraft to complete modernisation was returned to Saudi Arabia.
Starting from the first week of November 2009, Saudi Air Force Tornados, along with Saudi F-15s performed air raids during the Shia insurgency in north Yemen. It was the first time since Operation Desert Storm in 1991 that the Royal Saudi Air Force participated in a military operation over hostile territory. Saudi Air Force Tornados are playing a central role in Saudi-led bombing campaign in Yemen.
On 7 January 2018, Houthi fighters claimed to have shot down a Saudi warplane which was conducting air-raids over northern Yemen. According to Saudi reports, the downed aircraft was a Tornado of the Royal Saudi Air Force which was on a combat mission in the skies over Saada province in northern Yemen. Saudi reports said that it was lost for 'technical reasons' and that both crew were rescued.
In the night of 14 February 2020, a Saudi Tornado was shot down during close air support mission in support of Saudi allied Yemeni forces in the Yemeni Al Jouf governorate by Houthis. On the day after, the Saudi command confirmed the loss of a Tornado, while video evidence was released showing the downing using a two-stage surface to air missile. Both pilots ejected and were captured by Houthis.
- Tornado GR1
RAF IDS (interdictor/strike) variants were initially designated the Tornado GR1 with later modified aircraft designated Tornado GR1A, Tornado GR1B, Tornado GR4 and Tornado GR4A. The first of 228 GR1s was delivered on 5 June 1979, and the type entered service in the early 1980s.
- Tornado GR1B
The Tornado GR1B was a specialised anti-shipping variant of the GR1, replacing the Blackburn Buccaneer. 26 aircraft were converted and were based at RAF Lossiemouth, Scotland. Each aircraft was equipped to carry up to four Sea Eagle anti-ship missiles. At first the GR1B lacked the radar capability to track shipping, instead relying on the missile's seeker for target acquisition, later updates allowed target data to be fed from aircraft to missile.
- Tornado GR4
The UK Ministry of Defence began studies for a GR1 Mid-Life Update (MLU) in 1984. The update to GR4 standard, approved in 1994, would improve capability in the medium-altitude role based on lessons learned from the GR1's performance in the 1991 Gulf War. British Aerospace (later BAE Systems) upgraded 142 Tornado GR1s to GR4 standard, beginning in 1996 and finished in 2003. 59 RAF aircraft later received the CUSP avionics package which integrated the Paveway IV bomb and installed a new secure communications module from Cassidian in Phase A, followed by the Tactical Information Exchange (TIE) datalink from General Dynamics in Phase B.
- Tornado GR1A/GR4A
The GR1A is the reconnaissance variant operated by the RAF and RSAF, fitted with the TIRRS (Tornado Infra-Red Reconnaissance System), replacing the cannon. The RAF ordered 30 GR1As, 14 as GR1 rebuilds and 16 as new-builds. When the Tornado GR1s were upgraded to become GR4s, GR1A aircraft were upgraded to GR4A standard. The switch from low-level operations to medium/high-level operations means that the internal TIRRS was no longer used. As the GR4A's internal sensors are no longer essential, the RAF's Tactical Reconnaissance Wing operate both GR4A and GR4 aircraft.
Operated by Germany and Italy, the ECR (Electronic Combat / Reconnaissance) is a Tornado variant devoted to Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) missions. It was first delivered on 21 May 1990. The ECR has sensors to detect radar usage and is equipped with anti-radiation AGM-88 HARM missiles. The Luftwaffe's 35 ECRs were delivered new, while Italy received 16 converted IDSs. Italian Tornado ECRs differ from the Luftwaffe aircraft as they lack built-in reconnaissance capability and use RecceLite reconnaissance pods. Further, only Luftwaffe ECRs are equipped with RB199 Mk.105 engine, which has a higher thrust rating. The German ECRs do not carry a cannon. The RAF used the IDS version in the SEAD role instead of the ECR and also modified several of its Tornado F.3s to undertake the mission.
The Tornado ADV (air defence variant) was an interceptor variant of the Tornado, developed for the RAF (designated Tornado F2 or F3) and also operated by Saudi Arabia and Italy. The ADV had inferior agility to fighters like the McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle, but it was not intended as a dogfighter, but rather it was a long-endurance interceptor to counter the threat from Cold War bombers. Although the ADV had 80% parts commonality with the Tornado IDS, the ADV had greater acceleration, improved RB199 Mk.104 engines, a stretched body, greater fuel capacity, the AI.24 Foxhunter radar, and software changes. It had only one cannon to accommodate a retractable inflight refuelling probe.
- Luftwaffe: 210 IDS and 35 ECR Tornados delivered. By December 2018, 94 IDS and 28 ECR aircraft remained in service.
- Marineflieger: 112 IDS Tornados delivered, retired in June 2005 with some aircraft being reallocated to the Luftwaffe.
- Aeronautica Militare: 100 IDS A-200 Tornados delivered (18 converted to ECR EA-200s), 24 ADV F3 aircraft later leased from the RAF between 1995 and 2004. By December 2018, 70 A-200 and 5 EA-200 aircraft remained in service.
- Royal Saudi Air Force: 96 IDS and 24 ADV Tornados delivered, ADVs retired in 2006. By December 2018, 81 IDS aircraft remained in service.
- Royal Air Force: 385 IDS GR1 and ADV F2/F3 Tornados delivered, including 230 GR1s (142 later upgraded to GR4s), 18 F2s and 147 F3s (retired in 2011). GR4 was retired on 1 April 2019.
Aircraft on display
- D-9591 Tornado Prototype P.01 on display at Militärhistorisches Museum Flugplatz Berlin-Gatow.
- XX948 Tornado Prototype P.06 on display at Hermeskeil.
- 43+55 Tornado IDS on display at Aeronauticum, Nordholz.
- 43+70 Tornado IDS on display at Büchel Air Base, Cochem.
- 43+86 Tornado IDS (MTU corporate design paint scheme) at MTU Aero Engines, Munich.
- 43+96 Tornado IDS on display at Wengerohr, Wittlich.
- 44+31 Tornado IDS (Blue Lightning paint scheme) of the 31st Fighter Bomber Wing "Boelcke" at Nörvenich AB.
- 44+35 Tornado IDS on display at the Cologne Bonn Airport, Cologne.
- 44+56 Tornado IDS on display at Fliegergeschichtliche Museum TG JaboG 34, Memmingen.
- 44+68 Tornado IDS on display at the Militärhistorisches Museum Flugplatz Berlin-Gatow.
- 44+84 Tornado IDS on display at Fürstenfeldbruck Air Base, Fürstenfeldbruck.
- 44+96 Tornado IDS gate guard at Schleswig Air Base in Jagel, near Schleswig.
- 44+97 Tornado IDS of the Einsatzgeschwader (Expeditionary Air Wing) Mazar-i-Sharif at the Deutsches Museum Flugwerft Schleissheim, Oberschleißheim.
- 45+30 Tornado IDS on display at Aeronauticum, Nordholz.
- 45+44 Tornado IDS gate guard at Büchel Air Base, Cochem.
- MM7001 Pre-production Tornado P.14 on display at Cameri Air Base, Cameri.
- MM7046 Tornado A-200 gate guard at Ghedi Air Base, Brescia.
- MM7080 Tornado A-200 gate guard at Aviano Air Base, Pordenone.
- MM7210 (ex-ZE836) Tornado F3 on display at the Italian Air Force Museum, Vigna di Valle.
- XX947 Tornado Prototype P.03 on display at PS Aero, Baarlo, painted as 98+08 of the German Air Force.
- Saudi Arabia
- 765 Tornado IDS on display at King Abdul-Aziz Air Base, Dhahran.
- Tornado IDS on display at the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum in Riyadh.
- 2915 Tornado ADV on display at the Royal Saudi Air Force Museum in Riyadh.
- Tornado ADV on display at King Abdul-Aziz Air Base, Dhahran.
- ZA361 Tornado GR1 on display at RNAS Can Florit, Calvia, Palma Mallorca, Spain - not on public display.
- United Kingdom
- XX946 Tornado Prototype P.02 on display at the RAF Museum Cosford, England.
- XZ630 Pre-production Tornado P.12 on display as a GR4 on the parade ground at RAF Halton, Buckinghamshire, England.
- XZ631 Tornado GR4 Prototype P.15 on display at Yorkshire Air Museum, Elvington, England.
- ZA319 Tornado GR1T Gate Guard, MoD DSDA Arncott, Bicester, Oxfordshire, England.
- ZA326 Tornado GR1P on display at South Wales Aviation Museum, Vale of Glamorgan, Wales.
- ZA354 Tornado GR1 on display at Yorkshire Air Museum, Elvington, England.
- ZA362 Tornado GR1 on display at Highland Aviation Museum, Inverness, Scotland.
- ZA398 Tornado GR4 on display at Cornwall Aviation Heritage Centre, Cornwall, England.
- ZA407 Tornado GR1 on display at RAF Marham, Norfolk, England.
- ZA452 Tornado GR4 on display at Midland Air Museum, Coventry, England.
- ZA457 Tornado GR1B on display at Royal Air Force Museum London, Hendon, England.
- ZA465 Tornado GR1 on display at Imperial War Museum, Duxford, England.
- ZA469 Tornado GR4 on display at Imperial War Museum, Duxford, England.
- ZA475 Tornado GR1 on the gate at RAF Lossiemouth, Scotland.
- ZA556 Tornado GR4 on display at the Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham, England.
- ZA607 Tornado GR4 on the gate at MoD Sealand, Wales.
- ZE760 Tornado F3 on the gate at RAF Coningsby, Lincolnshire, England.
- ZE887 Tornado F3 on display at Royal Air Force Museum London, Hendon, England.
- ZE934 Tornado F3 on display at National Museum of Flight, East Fortune, Scotland.
- ZE966 Tornado F3 on display at Tornado Heritage Centre, Hawarden Airport, Wales.
- ZH552 Tornado F3 on display at RAF Leeming, North Yorkshire, England.
- ZH553 Tornado F3 on display at Cornwall Aviation Heritage Centre, Cornwall, England.
- United States
- ZA374 Tornado GR1 on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio.
- 43+74 Tornado IDS of the German Navy, Marinefliegergeschwader 1 at the Pima Air & Space Museum, Tucson, Arizona.
- 43+75 Tornado IDS on display at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico.
- 45+11 Tornado IDS on display at the New Mexico Museum of Space History, New Mexico.
Specifications (Tornado GR4)
- Crew: 2
- Length: 16.72 m (54 ft 10 in)
- Wingspan: 13.91 m (45 ft 8 in) at 25° sweep
- Lower wingspan: 8.60 m (28 ft 3 in) swept at 67° sweep
- Height: 5.95 m (19 ft 6 in)
- Wing area: 26.6 m2 (286 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 13,890 kg (30,622 lb) 
- Gross weight: 20,240 kg (44,622 lb) 
- Powerplant: 2 × Turbo-Union RB199-34R Mk 103 afterburning 3-spool turbofan, 43.8 kN (9,800 lbf) thrust each dry, 76.8 kN (17,300 lbf) with afterburner
- Maximum speed: 2,400 km/h (1,500 mph, 1,300 kn) at 9,000 m (30,000 ft) (with operable variable intake ramps, which have been inhibited on the majority of Tornado aircraft except ADV variants)
- 1,482 km/h (921 mph; 800 kn) IAS near sea level
- Maximum speed: Mach 2.2
- Range: 1,390 km (860 mi, 750 nmi)
- Ferry range: 3,890 km (2,420 mi, 2,100 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 15,240 m (50,000 ft)
- Wing loading: 767 kg/m2 (157 lb/sq ft)
- Thrust/weight: 0.77
- Guns: 1× 27 mm (1.06 in) Mauser BK-27 revolver cannon internally mounted under starboard side of fuselage with 180 rounds (2x with 180 rounds each in GR.1, GR.1B, and IDS)
- Hardpoints: 3× heavy duty under-fuselage and 4× swivelling under-wing pylon stations with a capacity of 9,000 kg (19,800 lb) of payload, the two inner wing pylons have shoulder launch rails for 2× Short-Range AAM (SRAAM) each,with provisions to carry combinations of:
- Other: Up to 4× drop tanks for ferry flight/extended range/flight time
- RAPTOR aerial reconnaissance pod
- Rafael LITENING targeting pod; or
- TIALD laser designator pod
- GEC Sky Shadow electronic countermeasure pod
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Dassault Mirage 2000
- General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark
- Grumman F-14 Tomcat
- McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle
- Mikoyan MiG-27
- Sukhoi Su-24
- Xian JH-7
- List of active United Kingdom military aircraft
- List of military aircraft of Germany
- List of active Italian military aircraft
- List of aircraft of the Royal Air Force
- Royal Saudi Air Force
- "Panavia Tornado total production source from panavia homepage".
- "Panavia Tornado total production source from panavia homepage".
- Segell 1997, p. 124.
- "British-French Work On New Military Plane Periled by Cost Fight." Wall Street Journal, 22 June 1967.
- Willox 2002, p. 11.
- "Microsoft PowerPoint - IPLC German VSTOL Brief.ppt" (PDF). Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- Flight International 1 June 1967, p. 896.
- Flight international 23 May 1968, p. 798.
- Morris, Joe Alex Jr. "Messerschmitt Back in Business." St. Petersburg Times, 30 April 1969.
- Scutts 2000, p. 53.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 25.
- Haglund 1989, pp. 47–48.
- "European Nations Plan Mammoth Military Aircraft." Sarasota Journal, 14 January 1969.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 28.
- Haglund 1989, p. 48.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 26.
- Haglund 1989, p. 49.
- Jefford et al. 2002, pp. 28–29.
- Black, Ian (July 2014). RAF Tornado 1974 onwards (all marks and models). Yeovil: Haynes Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-85733-247-9.
- Haglund 1989, pp. 52, 56.
- Segell 1997, p. 125.
- Long, Wellington. "Swing-Wing Wonder Weapon Is Going Into Production." Ludington Daily News,24 August 1976.
- Dorrell, David, ed. "Britain's Aircraft Industry enters the 1970s." Air Pictorial, Volume 32, No. 9, September 1970, p. 306.
- Lewis, Paul. "Europe's Fighter Jet Program: Tornado Offers Competition for U.S. Concerns Project Valued at $17 billion." The New York Times, 13 November 1979. Retrieved 13 November 1979.
- Jefford et al. 2002, pp. 89–90.
- Jefford et al. 2002, pp. 91–92, 95–96.
- Quinn, Jim. "2, Tornado Concept Evolution". The White Tornado.
- Talbot, Ted (2013). "17". Concorde: A Designer's Life: The Journey to Mach 2. History Press. ISBN 978-0752489285.
- Burger, Κ.Η. "In-Flight Short Field Landing Investigations on a Combat Aircraft with Thrust Reverser." International Journal of Turbo and Jet Engines. 3, (2–3), pp. 99–104, ISSN 2191-0332.
- Spooked: Espionage in Corporate America by Adam Penenberg, Marc Barry. p. 9
- "A top West German aerospace engineer arrested on spying...". United Press International, 24 October 1984. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Jefford et al. 2002, pp. 98, 127.
- Jefford et al. 2002, pp. 94–95, 98.
- Pratt 2000, pp. 10–11.
- Pratt 2000, pp. 199, 236.
- "Nations – United Kingdom". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Middleton, Drew. "Military Analysis: West Germany Is Modernizing Military Forces." The New York Times, 23 September 1979. Retrieved 23 September 1979.
- Parsons, Gary. "TTTEnd of an era." airsceneuk.org.uk. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Taylor 1987, p. 58.
- Michael. "Saudi Arabia considers Tornado fighter deal." Financial Times, 11 July 1984, p. 6.
- Hoon, Geoff. "Al Yamamah Contracts." Hansard, 25 May 2004. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- Hirst, C. "The Arabian Connection: The UK Arms Trade to Saudi Arabia." Archived 22 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Financial Times, 9 July 1988.
- Allen and Rigsbee 2000, p. 78.
- Ball 1979, p. 19.
- "Tornado on Canadian fighter shortlist." Flight International, 1978. p. 1153.
- Lorell 1996, pp. 108, 121.
- Martin 1996, p. 253.
- Harrison, Michael and Raymond Whitaker. "S Korea lines up pounds 360m Tornado order: BAe and partners would benefit from new arms policy less dependent on US." The Independent, 28 June 1993.
- "Australian International Airshow – Wild Weasel air defence upgrade offered to RAAF." Flight International, 20 February 2001.
- Jackson et al. 1998, p. 241.
- "Royal Air Force Continues Libya Operations in Face of Force Structure Challenges." defenceiq.com, 25 July 2011.
- Bristol, Chris. "Tornado jets that fly from RAF Marham in Norfolk clock up a million flying hours." Watton and Swaffham Times, 27 June 2011.
- Lake 2002, pp. 446, 455.
- Martin, Guy. "All The World's Tornados." AirForces Monthly, October 2008, p. 56.
- Scutts 2000, pp. 53–55.
- Frédriksen 2001, p. 255.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 136.
- Eagles 1991, pp. 88–91.
- Niccoli Air International June 2007, p. 29.
- Spick, Green and Swanborough 2001, p. 33.
- Aeroguide 21 1988, p. 6.
- Scutts 2000, p. 54.
- Richardson 1986, p. 18.
- Lake 2002, p. 446.
- Aeroguide 21 1988, pp. 2, 8.
- Aeroguide 21 1988, p. 2.
- Jukes 2004, p. 48.
- Jarrett 2005, pp. 3–4.
- "BAE SYSTEMS Receives $70 Million Contract For Radar Map Display Subsystem On U.K. Tornado Aircraft." BAE Systems, 9 February 2004.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, pp. 2, 23.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, pp. 2, 22.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, p. 17.
- Pratt 2000, p. 236.
- Ministry of Defence 2006, p. 18.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, pp. 447–448.
- Jackson et al. 1998, p. 237.
- Jackson et al. 1998, pp. 240–241.
- Whitaker, Richard. "Ferranti Mission Managers." Flight International, 15 August 1981, p. 506.
- Richardson 1991, p. 27.
- "Tornado Infra-Red Reconnaissance System (TIRRS) (United Kingdom), Airborne electro-optic (EO) systems." Jane's Avionics, 23 March 2009.
- Evans 1999, pp. 97–99.
- RAPTOR Archived 23 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Royal Air Force, Retrieved: 29 November 2011.
- "UK Upgrades Airborne Reconnaissance." Jane's International Defence Review, 1 June 1997.
- Evans 1999, pp. 66–68.
- Cordesman 2003, p. 298.
- "RAF Tornado Aircraft Deployments in Operation Granby." Archived 27 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine Royal Air Force. Retrieved: 27 October 2006.
- "Tornado GR4/GR4A." Archived 5 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine Royal Air Force. Retrieved: 29 November 2011.
- Laming 1996, p. 97.
- Hoyle, Craig. "German air force starts tests with upgraded Tornado." Flight International, 14 April 2010.
- "German Air Force Tornado aircraft get more punch for air-to-surface missions." Archived 15 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine defpro.com, 3 December 2009.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard. "RAF unveils Brimstone precision strike missile." The Guardian, 26 September 2009.
- "Britain Deploying ASRAAM-Equipped Tornado Fighters To Middle East." Defense Daily, 10 February 2003.
- "World Missile Forces." Flight International, 8 February 1986, p. 46.
- Lake Air International April 2008, p. 25.
- Evans 1999, pp. 98–99.
- "27 x 145 B ammunition (Switzerland), Cannon – 20 to 30 mm cannon." Jane's Information Group, 27 October 2011.
- Middleton, Drew. "Europe worried about nuclear defence arsena." Eugene Register-Guard, 11 October 1979.
- Burnell, Brian. "Weapon detail and No.15 Squadron data for 1984." nuclear-weapons.info. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Strategic Defence Review 1998: Full Report." Archived 26 October 2012 at the UK Government Web Archive Ministry of Defence, 1998, p. 24.
- Chalmers, Malcolm "Not with a bang but a whimper: Europe’s pending denuclearisation." Archived 25 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine rusi.org. 8 March 2010.
- Jefford et al. 2002, pp. 26, 50.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 50.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 51.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, pp. 65–66.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, p. 58.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, p. 162.
- Moir and Seabridge 2011, p. 306.
- "Turbo-Union: Engine Description." Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine turbounion.co.uk. Retrieved: 29 November 2011.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 95.
- "Turbo-Union: Programme Milestones Achieved." Archived 20 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine turbounion.co.uk, Retrieved: 29 November 2011.
- Jefford et al. 2002, pp. 54–55.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 54.
- Jefford et al. 2002, p. 55.
- "Turbo-Union: The Power for Peace and Freedom." Archived 18 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine turbounion.co.uk. Retrieved: 29 November 2011.
- "Diehl Aerosystems - Flight Engine Control". Diehl. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- "RB 199 Performance Data: Mk 103" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2015.
- Tornado GR4: An Overview AirForces Monthly March 2002 pp. 26–27
- "BAE SYSTEMS delivers 100th mid-life upgrade Tornado GR4." Archived 18 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine BAE Systems, 17 October 2001.
- Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 30, pp. 119–120.
- "Tornado forecast." Flight International, 10 December 1999.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Saudi Arabia reveals progress of Tornado upgrade." Flight International, 18 September 2007.
- Hoyle, Craig (9 January 2008). "BAE Systems gets £210 million contract to upgrade UK Tornado GR4s". Flight Global.
- Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark (12 September 2012). "New techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements from manned and unmanned aerospace vehicles". Central European Journal of Engineering. 3 (1): 11–35. doi:10.2478/s13531-012-0033-1.
- Rachow Air International December 2011, pp. 72–74.
- Rachow Air International December 2011, p. 74.
- D'Costa, Ian (19 January 2016). "Software Issues Ground Luftwaffe Tornadoes at Night in the Fight Against Daesh". tacairnet.com. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "Tornados dürfen nachts nicht gegen ISIS fliegen". bild.de. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "Report: German jets useless at night - News - DW - 19.01.2016". DW.COM. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "3D-printed components flown in British fighter jet". Yahoo! News. 5 January 2014.
- Stuart Miles (5 January 2014). "Printing planes: BAE Systems now using 3D printed parts in fighter jets". pocket-lint.com. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Taylor 1975–1976, p. 71.
- Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 32, p. 128.
- Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 32, pp. 128, 130.
- Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 32, p. 129.
- Werkhäuser, Nina. "Ten Years On, Germany Looks Back at Return to War in Kosovo". www.dw.com. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
- "German Warplanes Risk Combat for the First Times since WWII." St. Louis Post, 2 September 1995.
- Geiss and Berndt 2010, p. 32.
- Cohen, Roger. "Conflict in the Balkans: Half a Century After Hitler, German Jets Join the Attack." New York Times, 26 March 1999.
- Lambeth 2001, p. 103.
- Peters 2001, p. 21.
- Geiss and Berndt 2010, p. 33.
- "The History of Fighter Bomber Wing 32". Archived from the original on 15 March 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012.
- "German war jets against anti-G8 protesters." United Press International, 12 June 2007.
- Bode, Emma. "German army and air force deployed against G8 summit demonstrators." World Socialist Web Site, 31 July 2007.
- "Berlin admits security mistakes at G8." United Press International, 21 June 2007.
- "German ‘Tornado’ aircraft deploy to Mazar-e Sharif." NATO ISAF Press Release, #2007-270. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- "Letter from Berlin: Afghanistan Divides Germany's Social Democrats." Spiegel Online, 20 March 2007.
- Matussek, Karin. "German Court Rejects Bid to Halt Tornado Mission." Bloomberg, 3 July 2007.
- Geiss and Berndt 2010, p. 35.
- "Germany to Withdraw Tornado Jets from Afghanistan." defencetalk.com, 28 September 2010.
- Ripley Flight International 25 November – 1 December 2003, p. 42.
- List Air International May 2006, p. 51.
- "Germany Announces Major Armed Forces Cuts." AirForces Monthly, March 2004, p. 8. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
- Geiss and Berndt 2010, p. 34.
- "Historischer Rückblick". 24 September 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012.
- "Tornados aus Holloman fliegen bald an der Nordseeküste". 13 April 2016. Archived from the original on 14 April 2016.
- "Letzter gemeinsamer Flug von Tornado und F-16 in Holloman" (in German). www.bundeswehr-journal.de. 28 August 2017. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- Germany picks Super Hornet and more Eurofighters for Tornado replacement
- Trevithick, Joseph (3 April 2019). "Here's Where Boeing Aims To Take The Super Hornet In The Decades To Come". The War Zone. Archived from the original on 10 July 2019. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
- Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 32, p. 132.
- Evans 1999, p. 94.
- Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 32, pp. 129, 132.
- Wertheim 2007, p. 242.
- "DEFINIZIONI" (PDF) (in Italian). Ministero Della Defesa. 12 November 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "First Tornado IT-ECR for 50° Stormo." AirForces Monthly, June 1998.
- Sacchetti, Renzo. "Italy's British Tornados." AirForces Monthly, Key Publishing, October 2003.
- Donald and Chant 2001, p. 42.
- "Italy Sends Plane to Replace Lost Jet." Los Angeles Times, 20 January 1991.
- Peters 2001, p. 19.
- "Arpino: usati 115 missili Ognuno costa 900 milioni". archiviostorico.corriere.it. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Italy to lease 35 F-16 jets from USA until Eurofighter operational". ANSA News Agency, 1 February 2001.
- "Final AMI Tornados F3s Returned". AirForces Monthly. Key Publishing. February 2005. p. 9.
- "Vigna di Valle, Italy". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "First Italian MLU Tornado." AirForces Monthly, February 2004, p. 7. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
- Niccoli Air International June 2007, p. 27.
- "Italy plans to send more troops to Afghanistan during elections." RIA Novosti, 20 February 2009.
- Nativi, Andy. "Italian Upgrades To Extend Tornado's Life." Aviation Week, 20 September 2010.
- "First Upgraded Italian Tornado on show." AirForces Monthly, September 2004, p. 18. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
- "FIRST UPGRADED TORNADO ECR DELIVERED TO ITALIAN AIR FORCE". Leonardo Company. 15 June 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "NATO Rejects Gadhafi's Call for Cease-Fire." CBC News, 30 April 2011.
- Coughlin, Con. "Libya: On a wing and a prayer." The Telegraph, 29 May 2011.
- "Unknown". defensenews.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Italy Tornado fighter jets collide near Ascoli". BBC News. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Kuwait". Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- Italy To Send 4 Tornados for Recon in Iraq - Defensenews.com, 14 November 2014
- "AARGM missile integrated onto Tornado ECR aircraft". Northrop Grumman Corporation. 4 October 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Hughes, Robert (11 April 2018). "Italian Air Force finalises AARGM OT&E campaign". Jane's 360. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Hoyle, Craig (2 August 2012). "Bonkers Tonkas: UK sets Tornado retirement date". Flight Global.
- Simpson, Andrew. "Individual History: Panavia Tornado PO.2 XX946/8883M (Museum Accession Number 1994/1458/A)." Royal Air Force Museum, 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Hunter, Jamie (May 2019). "Tornado Finale". Combat Aircraft. Key Publishing Ltd. p. 90.
- "Operations – United Kingdom". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Panavia Tornado IDS – History". Aero Flight. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Napier 2017, p. 20.
- Napier 2017, p. 23.
- "Accident To Royal Air Force Tornado GR1 ZA586" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. 31 May 1985. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- "Accident Panavia Tornado GR1 ZA586, 27 Sep 1983". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Napier 2017, p. 34.
- Napier 2017, pp. 33–34.
- Napier 2017, p. 44.
- Napier 2017, p. 47.
- Napier 2017, p. 48.
- Napier 2017, p. 51.
- Napier 2017, p. 57.
- Napier 2017, p. 68.
- Napier 2017, pp. 64–65.
- "Tornado GR4 (equipped)". Royal Air Force. 5 March 2019. Archived from the original on 21 July 2017.
- Dr Sebastian Ritchie (2014). "The Royal Air Force and the First Gulf War, 1990-91: A Case Study in the Identification and Implementation of Air Power Lessons". www.raf.mod.uk. Royal Air Force. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
- Clark 1993, p. 10.
- Lawrence 2002[page needed]
- Lowry 2008, p. 8.
- Cox and Gray 2002, p. 297.
- Clark 1993, p. 30.
- "Statement on the Loss of RAF Tornado Aircraft in Combat During the Conduct of Air Operations against Iraq." Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine Royal Air Force. Retrieved: 27 October 2006.
- Szejnmann 2009, p. 217.
- Szejnmann 2009, p. 223.
- Lowry 2008, p. 37.
- Olsen 2011, p. 54.
- Koch and Long 2003, p. 82.
- " Unrest as Tornados hit Iraq again." BBC News, 18 December 1998.
- Marshall, Andrew. "Iraq fires missiles at RAF Tornado." The Independent, 31 December 1998.
- Davidson, John. "Iraq crisis: MoD declares Tornado bomb raids a success." The Independent, 23 December 1998.
- Olsen 2011, p. 57.
- "BAE Systems Investor Brief – June 2003." Archived 22 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine BAE Systems plc, 30 June 2003.
- Payne, Stewart. "Missile alerts at Tornado base after bombing raids." The Telegraph, 21 March 2003.
- Evans, Michael. "Tornado Crew Shot Down After Friend-or-Foe System Failed." The Times, 15 May 2004.
- "RAF Tornado Downed by US Missile." BBC News, 23 March 2003.
- Smith, Michael. "US 'clears' crew who shot down Tornado." The Telegraph, 16 July 2003.
- Tweedie, Neil. "US fighter shot down by Patriot missile." The Telegraph, 3 April 2003.
- Leung, Rebecca. "The Patriot Flawed." CBS News, 5 December 2007.
- Cordesman 2003, pp. 339–340.
- "RAF Ends 18 Years of Combat Operations in Iraqi Skies." Archived 15 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine defpro.com, 5 June 2009.
- Hoyle, Craig. "RAF Tornados to replace Harriers in Afghanistan." flightglobal.com, 17 June 2008.
- "Paving the way in Afghanistan." aerospacetestinginternational.com, 22 July 2009.
- McVeigh, Karen. "Britain to send two more Tornadoes to Afghanistan." The Guardian, 11 August 2010.
- "Tornado departure ends UK's fast jet role in Afghanistan." Flightglobal.com, 11 November 2014.
- Norton-Taylor, Richard and Nicholas Watt. "MoD pays extra £2.7bn for unwanted Typhoons." The Guardian, 15 October 2010.
- "Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review." Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine HM Government, 19 October 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig. "UK confirms two Tornado GR4 squadrons will go by June." Flight International, 1 March 2011.
- Fish, Tim (16 July 2014). "Farnborough: Tornado will go out in style". Shephard Media.
- "Libya: UK planes to be deployed." BBC News, 18 April 2011.
- "Libya: British missiles fired at military sites." BBC News, 20 March 2011.
- Hoyle, Craig. "US, French militaries interested in Brimstone misSile, says RAF official." Flight International, 20 April 2011.
- "UK to deploy Tornados in support of Iraq operations." Flightglobal.com, 12 August 2014.
- "RAF Tornado jets in Cyprus for Iraq aid mission". BBC News. 12 August 2014.
- "British Tornado aircrafts [sic] conducted first reconnaissance flights in Iraq." Armyrecognition.com, 29 September 2014.
- "Kurds claim advances in Iraq as Britain joins fray." Militarytimes.com, 30 September 2014.
- "UK details extent of combat activity over Iraq." Flightglobal.com, 2 March 2015.
- "Syria air strikes: RAF Tornado jets carry out bombing". BBC News. 3 December 2015.
- "Four RAF fighters bomb Syria 'chemical weapon stockpile'." BBC News, 14 April 2018.
- "RAF centenary: Thousands watch flypast". BBC News. 10 July 2018.
- "ROYAL AIR FORCE COMMEMORATES ICONIC TORNADO FAST JET". Royal Air Force. 25 January 2019.
- "RAF's Tornado 'retro jet' in action". Combat Aircraft. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
- Lake, Jon (4 February 2019). "RAF Typhoons replace Tornados in Operation 'Shader' armed with Brimstone for first time". Jane's 360.
- "Tornado fighter jets return to RAF Marham for retirement". BBC News. 5 February 2019.
- "RAF killed '4,000 fighters in Iraq and Syria'". BBC News. 7 March 2019.
- "BRITAIN TO CELEBRATE ICONIC TORNADO DURING FAREWELL FLYPAST". Royal Air Force. 19 February 2019.
- "EAST ANGLIAN FORMATION FAREWELL TO ROYAL AIR FORCE ICON". Royal Air Force. 1 March 2019.
- "TORNADO SQUADRONS DISBANDMENT PARADE". Royal Air Force. 14 March 2019.
- "The history of the RAF Tornado, in pictures". The Telegraph. London. 14 March 2019.
- "Today is the final day of RAF service for the Tornado". RAF Marham (Facebook). 31 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
- "ROYAL AIR FORCE CHIEF OF THE AIR STAFF TAKES FINAL TORNADO FLIGHT OVER SCOTLAND". Royal Air Force. 22 February 2019.
- Bishop, Chris (5 July 2019). "RAF Tornados return to their original home". Eastern Daily Press.
- Taylor 2001, pp. 189–190.
- Fairhill, David. "Britain signs 6 billion pounds Saudi arms contract." The Guardian, 9 July 1988.
- Koch and Long 2003, pp. 81–82.
- Cordesman 2007, p. 210.
- Cordesman 2007, p. 214.
- Chuter, Andrew. "Saudi Arabia Buys MBDA Missiles." DefenseNews, 19 February 2010.
- "First Upgraded Tornado Re-delivered to Royal Saudi Air Force." AirForces Monthly, February 2008, p. 19.
- "Saudis bomb Yemen rebels across border." Associated Press, 5 November 2009.
- "Saudis' UK-made war jets outnumber RAF's". The Daily Telegraph. 5 May 2015.
- "Breaking: Houthi rebels shoot down Saudi Tornado warplane in north Yemen - Muraselon". 7 January 2018.
- "Saudi warplane crashes in Yemen; pilots escape". Al Jazeera. 7 January 2018.
- Lake World Air Power Journal Volume 30, p. 117.
- Donald World Air Power Journal Volume 33, p. 105.
- Flight International World Aircraft and Systems Directory. Reed Business Information Ltd. 2001. p. 187. ISBN 0-617-01289-X.
- Evans 1999, p. 97.
- Lake Air International April 2008, p. 24.
- Lake Air International April 2008, p. 28.
- "II (AC) Squadron History – Current." Royal Air Force, Retrieved: 4 December 2011.
- Davies, Steve. "German SEAD: The Tornado ECRs of JaBoG 32." AirForces Monthly, March 2003, p. 32.
- "Tornado F3". Royal Air Force. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 26 March 2008.
- Haglund 1989, p. 70.
- Eagles 1991, p. 88.
- "Nations – Germany". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "World Air Forces 2018". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Operations – Germany". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Nations – Italy". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Operations – Italy". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Nations – Saudi Arabia". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Operations – Saudi Arabia". Panavia Aircraft GmbH. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Panavia Tornado IDS". Aeroflight. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "RAF Takes Delivery of Last Tornado GR4". Defense Aerospace (archived from Royal Air Force). 10 June 2003. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- Chesneau, Roger (1988). Tornado ADV Aeroguide 21. Essex: Linewrights. p. 9. ISBN 0946958262.
- "Gasslfest - Firma Test-Fuchs". Stadtgemeinde Groß-Siegharts (in German). 9 January 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Gross Siegharts, Austria". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "NMMH - Outside". www.militarymuseum.bg. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Militärhistorisches Museum Flugplatz Berlin-Gatow.  Tornado - Der erste Protoyp jetzt in Gatow, October 2012 (German). Retrieved 5 October 2014.
- "Flugzeuge". Flugausstellung Museum (in German). Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Nordholz - Museum, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Buchel, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Munich - Karlsfeld, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Wengerohr, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Letzter Einsatz für den Tornado". Trierischer Volksfreund (in German). 23 November 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Norvenich, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Koln - Bonn, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Memmingen, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Flugzuge / Technik". TradGemJaboG 34 "Allgäu" (in German). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Berlin - Gatow Museum, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Placing Aircraft in Hangar 7". Militärhistorisches Museum Flugplatz Berlin-Gatow (Facebook). 16 June 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
- "Furstenfeldbruck, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Schleswig - Jagel, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Panavia Tornado IDS/Recce". Deutsches Museum. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Cochem, Germany". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Cameri - airfield, Italy". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Ghedi, Italy". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Aviano, Italy". eurodemobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "PANAVIA TORNADO ADV" (in Italian). Ministero della Difesa. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Tornado". PS Aero. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Displaying Serials in range XX". ukserials.com. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Chronological Listing of Royal Saudi Air Force Ejections and Losses". Ejection History (archived). Archived from the original on 2 March 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Withers, Tony. "RSAF Gate Guardian Panavia Tornado IDS 765 - Dhahran, Saudi Arabia". Flickr. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Saqr Aljazeera Aviation Museum". aviationmuseum.eu. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Displaying Serials in range ZA". ukserials.com. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Tornado ZA361 Passes Through the Port of Barcelona, Spain". Urban Ghost. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "Panavia Tornado". demobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "TORNADO GETS A SPRUCE UP". RAF Halton (Facebook). 16 May 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Post World War II Aircraft." Yorkshire Air Museum. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Ellis 2014, p. 186
- "'Raspberry Ripple' Tornado completes move to St Athan". Flypast. 9 January 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "Highland Aviation Museum - Inverness - Scotland - United Kingdom". aviationmuseum.eu. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "Two RAF JARTS Tornados coming to Cornwall Aviation Heritage Centre". Cornwall Aviation Heritage Centre. 26 April 2018. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
- "RAF Marham, Norfolk". demobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "RAF Marham team gearing up for Welsh challenge". Lynn News. Kings Lynn. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Ellis 2014, p.274
- "Panavia Tornado GR1B Aircraft History." Royal Air Force Museum, 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
- Ellis 2014, p. 23
- "Tornado jet added to Imperial War Museum Duxford". BBC News. 14 April 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Elliott, Chris (11 April 2018). "Tornado fighter jet which flew in Afghanistan and Libya has gone on display in Cambridgeshire". Cambridge News. Cambridge. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- Ellis 2014, p. 314
- "Shrivenham - Defence College, Oxfordshire". demobbed.org.uk. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
- @DefAcUK (5 April 2019). "The final assembly of '047' is now complete!" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "New Tornado Gate Guardian takes pride of place in Sealand". Deeside. 25 February 2019. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
- Ellis 2014, p. 138
- Ellis 2014, p. 153
- Ellis 2014, p. 309
- "Tornado Heritage Centre Hawarden Airfield, Chester United Kingdom". Aviationmuseum. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
- "Fighter jet on permanent sentry duty". The Northern Echo. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- Panavia Tornado GR1. National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 22 October 2016.
- "Museum Aircraft". Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved 12 January 2019.
- "A new addition to Heritage Park". Holloman Air Force Base. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- "Tornado Alert!". New Mexico Museum of Space History. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- Fischer, Bob (14 January 2019). "Tornado-Alarm beim New Mexico Museum of Space History". AeroBuzz (in German). Retrieved 6 March 2019.
- Richardson 1986, p. 31.
- "New Page 0". btconnect.com. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- "Aerospaceweb.org - Aircraft Museum - Tornado IDS". aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- Aeroguide 21: Panavia Tornado F Mk 2/Mk 3. Ongar, UK: Linewrights Ltd. 1988. ISBN 0-946958-26-2.
- Allen, Calvin H. and W. Lynn Rigsbee. Oman Under Qaboos: From Coup to Constitution, 1970–1996. London: Routledge, 2000. ISBN 0-7146-5001-3.
- Ball, Desmond J. The Australian Tactical Fighter Force: Prologue and Prospects. Canberra: Australian National University, 1979. ISBN 0-85823-439-4.
- Clark, Richard B. Air Power and Desert Storm. Darby, Pennsylvania: DIANE Publishing, 1993. ISBN 1-56806-446-2.
- Cordesman, Anthony H. Gulf Military Forces in an Era of Asymmetric Wars, Volume 1. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing, 2007. ISBN 0-275-99250-0.
- Cordesman, Anthony H. The Iraq War: Strategy, Tactics, and Military Lessons (CSIS Significant Issues Series). Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2003. ISBN 0-89206-432-3.
- Cox, Sebastian and Peter Gray. Air Power History: Turning Points from Kitty Hawk to Kosovo. London: Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-7146-8257-8.
- Donald, David. "Lossimouth Strike Wing". World Air Power Journal, Volume 33, Summer 1998, pp. 104–113. London: Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-86184-015-2. ISSN 0959-7050.
- Donald, David and Christopher Chant. Air War in The Gulf 1991. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84176-295-4.
- Eagles, J.D. "Preparing a Bomber Destroyer: The Panavia Tornado ADV." Putnam Aeronautical Review (Naval Institute Press), Volume 2, 1991, pp. 88–93.
- Ellis, Ken (2014). Wreck & Relics, 24th Edition. Manchester: Crecy Publishing Ltd. ISBN 9-780859-791779.
- Evans, Andy (1999). Panavia Tornado. Ramsbury, Marlborough, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press, 1999. ISBN 1-86126-201-9.
- Frédriksen, John C. International Warbirds: An Illustrated Guide to World Military Aircraft, 1914–2000. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2001. ISBN 1-57607-364-5.
- Geiss, Juergen and Peter Berndt. Tornados and Further Planning. European Security and Defence, March 2010.
- Haglund, David G (1989). The Defence Industrial Base and The West. London: Routledge, 1989. ISBN 0-415-00923-5.
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, 13–19 December 2011. pp. 26–52.
- Jackson, Paul, Kenneth Munson, Lindsay Peacock and John W. R. Taylor, eds. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1997–98. London: Jane's Information Group, 1998. ISBN 0-7106-1788-7.
- Jarret, D. N. Cockpit Engineering. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2005. ISBN 0-7546-1751-3.
- Jefford, C.G (ed.). The Birth of Tornado (PDF). London: Royal Air Force Historical Society, 2002. ISBN 0-9530345-0-X. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2011.
- Jukes, Malcolm. Aircraft Display Systems. Reston, Virginia: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004. ISBN 1-56347-657-6.
- Koch, Christian and David E. Long. Gulf Security in the Twenty-First Century. London: I.B. Tauris, 2003. ISBN 1-85043-386-0.
- Lake, Jon. "Aircraft of the RAF: Part 1 – Panavia Tornado". Air International, Vol. 74, No. 4, April 2008, pp. 24–29. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Lake, Jon. Great Book of Bombers. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1347-4.
- Lake, Jon. "Tornado Variant Briefing: Part I: IDS and Recce". World Air Power Journal, Volume 30, Autumn/Fall 1997, pp. 98–121. London: Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-86184-004-7. ISSN 0959-7050.
- Lake, Jon. "Tornado Variant Briefing: Part III: Tornado Operators". World Air Power Journal, Volume 32, Spring 1998, pp. 118–137. London: Aerospace Publishing. ISBN 1-86184-006-3. ISSN 0959-7050.
- Lambeth, Benjamin S. NATO's Air War for Kosovo: A Strategic and Operational Assessment. Santa Monica, California: Rand Corporation, 2001. ISBN 0-8330-3050-7.
- Laming, Tim. Fight's On: Airborne with the Aggressors. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Zenith Imprint, 1996. ISBN 0-7603-0260-X.
- Lawrence, Richard R. Mammoth Eyewitness Book of How It Happened Battles: Eyewitness Accounts of History's Greatest Battles, from Thermopyle to the Gulf War. London: Constable & Robinson Ltd, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7867-1119-2.
- List, Friedrich. "German Air Arms Review". Air International, Vol. 70, No. 5, May 2006, pp. 50–57. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Lorell, Mark A. Troubled Partnership: A History of US-Japan Collaboration on the FS-X Fighter. Piscataway, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers (Rutgers University), 1996. ISBN 1-56000-891-1.
- Lowry, Richard S. The Gulf War Chronicles: A Military History of the First War with Iraq. Bloomington, Indiana: iUniverse, 2008. ISBN 1-60528-006-2.
- Martin, Stephen. The Economics of Offsets: Defence Procurement and Countertrade. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 3-7186-5782-1.
- Moir, Ian and Allan Seabridge. Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystems Integration. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. ISBN 1-119-96520-9.
- Napier, Michael. Tornado GR1: An Operational History. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Aviation, 2017 ISBN 978 1 47387 302 5
- Niccoli, Riccardo. "New Capabilities for Italy's Tornados". Air International, Vol. 72, No. 6, pp. 26–29. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Niccoli, Riccardo. "SAM Busters". Air International, Vol. 76, No. 4, pp. 46–51. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Olsen, John Andreas. Global Air Power. Sterling, Virginia: Potomac Books, 2011. ISBN 1-59797-680-6.
- "Paris: Biggest Ever". Flight International, Volume 91, Number 3038, 1 June 1967. pp. 893–908.
- Pratt, Roger. Flight Control Systems: Practical Issues in Design and Implementation. London:Institution of Electrical Engineers, 2000. ISBN 0-85296-766-7.
- Peters, John E. European Contributions to Operation Allied Air Force: Implications for Transatlantic Cooperation. Washington/Arlington Virginia: Rand Corporation, 2001. ISBN 0-8330-3038-8.
- Rachow, Volker. "Luftwaffe Tornado MLU". Air International, Vol. 81, No. 6, December 2011, pp. 70–75. ISSN 0306-5634.
- Richardson, Doug. Tornado (Modern Fighting Aircraft, Vol. 10). New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1986. ISBN 0-13-925504-4.
- Richardson, Doug. High Tech Warfare. New York: Crescent Books, 1991. ISBN 0-517-06673-4.
- Ripley, Tim. Conflict in The Balkans, 1991–2000. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2001. ISBN 1-84176-290-3.
- Ripley, Tim. "World Air Forces 2003". Flight International, 25 November – 1 December 2003, pp. 27–71.
- The Royal Air Force Handbook: The Definitive MoD Guide. London: Ministry of Defence, via reprint, Conway, 2006. ISBN 1-85753-384-4.
- Scutts, Jerry (27 October 2000). Postwar Aircraft (Osprey Modelling Manuals). Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2000. ISBN 978-1-84176-159-6.
- Segell, Glen (1 January 1997). Wither or Dither: British Aerospace Collaborative Procurement with Europe. Staffordshire, UK: Glen Segell Publishers, 1997. ISBN 1-901414-03-5.
- Spick, Mike and William Green, Gordon Swanborough. Illustrated Anatomy of the World's Fighters. Zenith Imprint, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1124-2.
- Szejnmann, Claus-Christian W. Rethinking History, Dictatorship and War: New Approaches and Interpretations. New York: Continuum International Publishing, 2009. ISBN 0-8264-4323-0.
- Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft. London: Jane's, 1975–1976. ISBN 0-354-00521-9.
- Taylor, Michael J.H. Flight International World Aircraft & Systems Directory. London: Reed Business Information, 3rd Edition, 2001. ISBN 0-617-01289-X.
- Taylor, Michael J.H. Jane's Aviation Review. London: Jane's Information Group, 1987. ISBN 0-7106-0446-7.
- "V/STOL 1968". Flight International, Volume 93, Number 3089, 23 May 1968. pp. 793–804a.
- Wertheim, Eric. Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World: Their Ships, Aircraft, and Systems. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2007. ISBN 1-59114-955-X.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Panavia Tornado.|
- Panavia Managing Tornado
- Tornado (BAe) on Fas.org
- Panavia Tornado IDS Attack Bomber on Aerospaceweb.org
- Panavia Tornado on Tornado-data.com
- List of all active German Tornados
- German IDS Tornado 44+97 at the Deutsches Museum subsidiary Flugwerft Oberschleißheim, Germany (DE)
- "MRCA: Six Years After TSR.2" a 1971 Flight article
- "Supremacy – Panavia MRCA" a 1975 advertisement in Flight