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Pañcavidyā (Sanskrit), five classes of knowledge (Vidyā) of ancient India. The five sciences are: science of language (śabda vidyā), science of logic (hetu vidyā), science of medicine (cikitsā vidyā), science of fine arts and crafts (śilpa-karma-sthāna vidyā), and science of spirituality (adhyātma vidyā).[1]

The first four are common for all schools and the latter is the theory of each school of thought, for example it is the Tripitaka for Buddhists, and the four Vedas for Brahmins. In the Buddhist context, a recognized master of all five sciences was afforded the title paṇḍita.


  1. ^ The Dharma's Gatekeepers: Sakya Paṇḍita on Buddhist scholarship in Tibet by Jonathan C. Gold. SUNY Press. pg 15 [1]