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Pañcavidyā (Sanskrit) are five classes of knowledge (vidyā) of ancient India. The five sciences are: science of language (śabda vidyā), science of logic (hetu vidyā), science of medicine (cikitsā vidyā), science of fine arts and crafts (śilpa-karma-sthāna vidyā), and science of spirituality (adhyātma vidyā).[1]

The first four are common for all schools and the latter is the theory of each school of thought; for example, it is the Tripitaka for Buddhists, and the four Vedas for Brahmins. In the Buddhist context, a recognized master of all five sciences was afforded the title paṇḍita.


  1. ^ Gold, Jonathan C. "Dharma's Gatekeepers, The". SUNY Press. p. 15. Retrieved 28 April 2019 – via Google Books.