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Panchagavya or panchakavyam is a concoction prepared by mixing five products of cow and used in traditional hindu rituals. The three direct constituents are cow dung, urine, and milk; the two derived products are curd and ghee. These are mixed in proper ratio and then allowed to ferment. Panchamrita is a similar mixture that replaces dung and urine with honey and sugar. The mixture which is made using yeast as a fermenter, bananas, groundnut cake, and the water of tender coconut, is believed to be a potent organic pesticide and growth promoter - this is considered to be pseudoscience.

The Sanskrit word Panchagavya means "mixture of five cow products". It is also called cowpathy treatment based on products obtained from cows used in Ayurvedic medicine and of religious significance for Hindus. Panchgavya is also used as fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural operations, [1][2]

The quality standards of Panchagavya are mentioned in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. CSIR has obtained some patents regarding Panchagavya.[3]

Preparation of panchagavya[edit]

Panchagavya consists of nine products. cow dung, cow urine, milk, curd, jaggery, ghee, banana, tender coconut, and water.[4] The cow dung and urine are thoroughly mixed in the morning and evening, and kept for 3 days. After setting, it is mixed regularly for another 15 days, and then added to the other ingredients, and left to sit for another 30 days. Panchagavya is stored in a wide-mouthed earthen pot or concrete tank in open. Sufficient shade is usually provided. It is sometimes diluted before use.Process should be conducted in step wise

Scientific evidence[edit]

Scientific studies have been performed to test the efficacy of Panchagavya and cow dung as a medical intervention. [5] [6]

  • A common usage is as a fertilizer and pesticide.[1][2] Seeds can be treated with panchagavya. This was found useful in rhizome of turmeric, ginger and sugarcane and they yielded more.[7] Helps in plant growth and immunity.[8]
  • The medicinal usage of panchagavya, particularly cow urine, is practiced in Ayurveda. Proponents claim that cow urine therapy is capable of curing several diseases, including certain types of cancer, although these claims have no scientific backing.[9][10] In fact, studies concerning ingesting individual components of Panchagavya, such as cow urine, have shown no positive benefit, and significant side effects, including convulsion, depressed respiration, and death.[11] Cow's urine can also be a source of harmful bacteria and infectious diseases, including leptospirosis[12]
  • Proponents claim it is an antibiotic growth promoter in the broiler diet, capable of increasing the growth of plankton for fish feed,[13][14] the production of milk in cows, the weight of pigs, and the egg laying capacity of poultry chicken.[15][16]
  • It is sometimes used as a base in cosmetic products.[17]
  • Purification after Sūtak[18]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Dhama K. et al., Panchgavya (Cowpathy): An Overview, International Journal of Cow Science, 2005:vol 1:issue 1
  2. ^ a b Arvind Kumar (1 January 2005). Environment & agriculture. APH Publishing. pp. 65–. ISBN 978-81-7648-921-8. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  3. ^ "Medicinal Usage of Pancha". Press Information Bureau, Government of India. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "Panchakavya". Tamil Nadu agricultural university,India. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  5. ^ "Chemotherapeutic Potential of Cow Urine: A Review". Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology (4.2): 180–186. 2015. 
  6. ^  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ "On a Panchakavya mission". The Hindu. Guntur, India. 27 July 2004. 
  8. ^ Garg, Uttara. "Panchagavya - the magic combination". Retrieved 24 March 2014. 
  9. ^ Nelson, Dean (11 February 2009). "India makes cola from cow urine To millions of devout Hindus, it's the real thing: a cola made from the urine of India's sacred cows". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 30 April 2010. 
  10. ^ Andrew Buncombe (21 July 2010). "A cure for cancer – or just a very political animal?". The Independent. Retrieved 21 March 2011. 
  11. ^ Oyebola, DD; Elegbe, RA (1975). "Cow's urine poisoning in Nigeria. Experimental observations in mice". Trop Geogr Med. 27: 194–202. PMID 1179485. Results of the experiments show that both "cow's urine" and nicotine cause excitement in low doses and cause convulsion and/or death in higher doses. Both also depress respiration. 
  12. ^ "Leptospiral carrier state and seroprevalence among animal population – a cross-sectional sample survey in Andaman and Nicobar Islands". 
  13. ^ "Panchagavya and Andrographis paniculata as Alternatives to Antibiotic Growth Promoter on Broiler Production and Carcass Characteristics" (PDF). International Journal of Poultry Science 5 (12): 1144-1150, 2006. Asian Network for Scientific Information. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "Modified Panchakavya to boost plant and animal productivity". The Hindu. India. 5 June 2003. 
  15. ^ "Panchagavya: low cost organic input for both crops and animals". The Hindu. India. 4 June 2009. 
  17. ^ "Kishore Biyani to launch Panchagavya cosmetics and health remedy products in Big Bazaar". Economic times. Mumbai, India. 16 September 2011. 
  18. ^