Paneer

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Paneer
Panir Paneer Indian cheese fresh.jpg
Paneer
Alternative names Chhana, chhena
Type Cheese
Place of origin India and Middle East
Region or state Indian Subcontinent and Middle East
Main ingredients Strained curdled milk
Other information Rich source of milk protein
Cookbook: Paneer  Media: Paneer

Paneer (pronounced [pəniːr]) is a fresh cheese common in Indian cuisine. It is an unaged, acid-set, non-melting farmer cheese or curd cheese made by curdling heated milk with lemon juice, vinegar, or any other food acids. Its crumbly and moist form is called chhena in eastern India and in Bangladesh.

History[edit]

Variants of cheese have existed in India since the Vedic age.[1][2] The earliest reference to the present day paneer was made during the Kushan and Satavahana periods (AD 75 - 300).[3]

Preparation[edit]

Paneer, homemade
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 182 kJ (43 kcal)
5.5 g
Sugars 5 g
0.9 g
3.6 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A 174 IU
Trace minerals
Calcium
(13%)
127 mg
Iron
(0%)
0 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
11.9 mg
Phosphorus
(14%)
101 mg
Potassium
(3%)
161 mg
Sodium
(3%)
47 mg
Zinc
(5%)
0.5 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Paneer is prepared by adding food acid, such as lemon juice, vinegar, citric acid or yogurt,[4] to hot milk to separate the curds from the whey. The curds are drained in muslin or cheesecloth and the excess water is pressed out. The resulting paneer is dipped in chilled water for 2–3 hours to improve its texture and appearance. From this point, the preparation of paneer diverges based on its use and regional tradition.

In most Nepalese cuisines, the curds are wrapped in cloth, placed under a heavy weight such as a stone slab for two to three hours, and then cut into cubes for use in curries. Pressing for a shorter time (approximately 20 minutes) results in a softer, fluffier cheese.

In Indian and Bengali cuisine, the curds are beaten or kneaded by hand into a dough-like consistency called ছানা sana in Assamese, ছানা chhana in Bengali, or ଛେନା chhena in Oriya and Maithili. In these regions, sana/chhana/chhena is distinguished from ponir, a salty semi-hard cheese with a sharper flavor and high salt content. Hard ponir is typically eaten in slices at teatime with biscuits or various types of bread, or deep-fried in a light batter.

In the area surrounding the Gujarati city of Surat, Surti Paneer is made by draining the curds and ripening them in whey for 12 to 36 hours.

Dishes[edit]

Mattar paneer, a vegetarian dish from India
Saag paneer or palak paneer, a spinach-based curry dish
Panner Butter Masala

Dating back to ancient India,[5][6] paneer remains the most common type of cheese used in traditional Indian cuisines. The use of paneer is more common in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan due to the prominence of milk in their cuisine. It is sometimes wrapped in dough and deep-fried or served with either spinach (palak paneer) or peas (mattar paneer).

The well-known rasgulla features plain chhana beaten by hand and shaped into balls which are boiled in syrup. The sana / chhana / chhena used in such cases is manufactured by a slightly different procedure from paneer; it is drained but not pressed, so that some moisture is retained, which makes for a soft, malleable consistency. It may, however, be pressed slightly into small cubes and curried to form a dalna in Maithili, Oriya and Bengali cuisines.

Some paneer dishes include:

Fast food[edit]

A Pizza with Paneer and vegetable topping from India.

Most international fast food restaurants in India offer paneer. McDonalds India serves the McSpicy Paneer[7] and Paneer Wrap.[8] In the United Kingdom, Subway has started serving a saag paneer patty. The Tamatanga urban Indian cuisine restaurant also serves a paneer wrap.[9] Taco Bell India serves a paneer and potato burrito.[10] Pizza Hut,[11] Domino's,[12] and Papa John's[13] have pizzas with paneer toppings.

Similar cheeses[edit]

Anari, a fresh mild whey cheese produced in Cyprus, is very similar in taste and texture to fresh Indian paneer.

Circassian cheese is produced using a similar method and is close in consistency to paneer, but is usually salted.

Farmer cheese, dry curd cottage cheese, and firm versions of quark are similar except that they are made from cultured milk and may be salted.

Queso blanco or queso fresco are often recommended as substitutes in the Americas as they are more commercially available in many American markets. Both are generally salted, unlike paneer.

The Turkish word peynir, the Persian word panir, the Azerbaijani word panir, and the Armenian word panir (պանիր), all derived from "paneer", refers to any type of cheese.

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Food History- History of Cheese
  2. ^ My Bangalore-History of fromage (cheese)
  3. ^ Kumar, Sunil; Rai, D.C.; Niranjan, K.; Bhat, Zuhaib (2011). "Paneer—An Indian soft cheese variant: a review" (PDF). Journal of Food Science & Technology (Springer) 51 (5): 821–831. doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0567-x. Retrieved 2015-07-16. People during the Kusana and Saka Satavahana periods (AD75–300) used to consume a solid mass, whose description seems to the earliest reference to the present day paneer 
  4. ^ Adiraja Dasa. The Hare Krishna book of Vegetarian Cooking. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1989, ISBN 0-902677-07-1
  5. ^ World Food History- History of Cheese
  6. ^ My Bangalore-History of fromage (cheese)
  7. ^ "McDonald's launches McSpicy products". The Hindu. April 3, 2011. 
  8. ^ http://www.mcdonaldsindia.com/pdf/McSpicy-press-release-final.pdf
  9. ^ Mitra, Kushan (June 12, 2011). "Say (Cottage) Cheese: McDonalds paneer burger for the Indian palate". businesstoday.intoday.in. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  10. ^ Place, Investor (March 30, 2011). "Taco Bell paneer and potato burritos are a hit". MSN. Retrieved July 1, 2011. 
  11. ^ "Pizza Hut India menu". 
  12. ^ "Dominos Peppy Paneer Pizza". 
  13. ^ "Papa Johns Pizza India menu".